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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sophie Stehben on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MLIT 1003 at University of Arkansas taught by N. Radan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 309 views.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
CLASS NOTES MLIT Structural Elements of Music 1. Sound To communicate, silent communication, any sound can be music, John Cage (composer) Sound begins with the vibration of an object and it is usually transmitted by air. Music is an art based on the organization of sounds in time. a. Pitch Relative highness and lowness we hear in a sound Definite v. indefinite pitch Sound with definite pitch = tone, has specific frequency, such as 440 cycles per second (When you double the cycles per sound, you go up an octave) The vibrations of tone are regular and reach the ear at equal time intervals. Distance between any two tones = interval, “octave” interval.. sound very much alike. Distance between the lowest and highest tones that voice or instrument can produce is its “range”. b. Dynamics Degrees of loudness or softness in music. Emphasizing a tone by playing it more loudly that the tones around it = accent Crescendo vs. decrescendo c. Tone Color Quality of musical note or sound or tone that distinguishes different types of sound production, such as voices and musical instruments, string instruments, wind instruments, and percussion instruments is called tone color or “timbre”. To manipulate emotions of listeners. Each of our voices has a different timbre. A different voice. We have the ability to recognize the different voices. Tone color descriptive words: -Bright -Dark -Brilliant -Mellow -Rich d. Duration 2. Harmony More mystical, elusive, and magical than other elements Refers to the way chords are constructed and how they follow each other. A chord is a combination of three or more tones played simultaneously. Symphony: medieval music instrument Drone: a continuing note which was used in medieval time to accompany the singer Chord progression: transition of one chord to another (life blood of western harmony) Harmony doesn’t stay static, it moves. 3 note chords are foundation of western harmony Harmonics: hidden notes in sound Nature of harmonics is a base for creating hierarchies in notes and chords. Triad: the simplest, most basic chord, consists of three tones. -Bottom tone: root -Other two tones: a third and a fifth above the root 12 major triads (b/c 12 tones in Western music) Minor triad: A minor triad’s middle note is a half step lower in pitch The mood of the chord is somber. Primary triads: Tonic chord: triad built on the first, or tonic, note of the scale Dominant chord: triad built on the fifth note of the scale Cadence: progression from dominant chord to tonic chord Subdominant: triad built on the fourth note of the scale Consonance: tone combination that is stable Dissonance: tone combination that is unstable A dissonant chord in all cases goes into consonant. This move is called a resolution. Suspension: one or more musical tones of a chord are held over into the next chord. Produces a temporary dissonance and causes delayed resolution. Broken chord or arpeggio: individual tones of a chord are sounded one after another. Musical texture: the way how layers of melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic materials are woven together in a composition. Monophony: single-line texture, or melody without accompaniment Unison: single melodic line at the same pitch by more than one instrument or voice Polyphony(many-voiced):two or more melodic lines combined into multi voiced texture Based on technique called counterpoint; one melodic line set against another Often contains imitation: repeating same melodic idea Homophony: texture with principal melody and accompanying harmony 3. Melody Most recognizable element. Most original. Pentatonic – Five Tone Scale How does melody work?? 3 main ingredients of the melody: -the notes you choose -how high or low these notes are -the pattern they make one after another Choosing a note in a melody: -Western music scale has 12 notes 12 notes/tone music scale is called chromatic Choosing how high or low the notes in a melody are -The measuring how high or low a music note is called “pitch” Melody Intervals: -Smallest interval in western music is called half a step or “semitone”. -Two half step notes make a whole step or whole note. -Small intervals in melody are called “steps” and larger leaps. -Contour: overall shape: (ascending, descending, arch, wave, static) Many melodies are made up of short parts called “phrases”. Melody’s range: distance between highest and lowest tones. Climax: high point in melodic line, peak in intensity “legato”: smooth and connected style “staccato”: short, detached manner Cadence: resting place at the end of a phrase Incomplete cadence (sets up expectations) Complete cadence (gives an answer, a sense of finality) Scales and Modes Modes: medieval scales Blues Scale “Blue note”: notes in a blue scale which is flattened Diatonic Scales Major & Minor: developed in 17 century; completely dominated classical music between 1700 and 1900. A melody that starts in a composition, and is stretching out through the music, and will go through all kinds of changes is called a theme. 4. Rhythm The flow of music in time. At the heart of all rhythm lies the concept of the beat or pulse. Pulse or beat is a regular, recurrent pulsation that divides music into equal units of time. Speed of the beat: tempo Forward movement – popular beats in music Shuffling, jogging, hopping, pouncing… Meter: organization of beats into regular groups Group containing a fixed number of beats: measure 2 beats measure: duple meter, most basic, fundamental First, stressed beat of the measure is the downbeat. Unstressed beat is the upbeat. 3 beats: triple meter 4 beats: quadruple meter 6 beats: sextuple meter contains 5 beats: quintuple meter 7 beats: septuplet meter Triple time patterns were always the offspring of double time. Subdivision of beat: whole note, half note, quarter note, etc. ^Mixing these makes music complex. Accent: note is emphasized most obviously by playing louder than the notes around it. Syncopation: when an accented note comes where we normally would not expect one Poly-rhythm or cross-rhythm: When 2 different rhythmical patterns are superimposed one upon another. (rap music - voice is like percussion instrument) 5. Form Refers to the larger shape of the composition. The result of the interaction of the four structural elements: sound, harmony, melody, and rhythm. Four techniques that create musical form: Repetition: creates sense of unity Contrast: provides variety Variation: gives a work unity and variety at the same time Improvisation: piece created spontaneously in performance Typical of jazz, rock, and certain non-Western styles. Types of Musical Form: Three-Part (Ternary) Form: A B A or A B A’ Two-Part (Binary) Form: compositions usually in two parts form repeat both parts: A A B B Strophic Form: Repeating the same music for each stanza of the poem: AAAAAA The Building Blocks of Form Theme: main melodic idea Thematic development: expansion of a theme Call-and-response: soloist and group response Movement: complete, independent division of a large-scale work Performing Media Voices and Instruments Voices The range of a singer’s voice depends both on training and on physical make up. Women: Soprano Mezzo-soprano Alto Men: Countertenor/falsetto Tenor Baritone Bass Musical Instruments String Bow: slightly curved stick strung tightly with horse strings Ways of playing: Pizzicato Double stop, triple stop, quadruple stop Vibrato Mute Tremolo Harmonics Plucked strings: Harp, guitar; played with fingers or plectrum Woodwind Flute family: Piccolo Flute Clarinet family (single-reed): Clarinet Bass clarinet Saxophone Oboe family (double-reed): Oboe English horn Bassoon family (double-reed): Bassoon Contrabassoon Brass Trumpet French horn Trombone Tuba Brass band: Cornet Baritone horn Euphonium Percussion Definite pitch Timpani Glockenspiel Xylophone Celesta Chimes Indefinite pitch Snare drum Bass drum Tambourine Triangle Cymbals Gong Keyboard Piano Harpsichord Pipe organ Accordion Electronic Tape studio Synthesizers (analog synthesis, effect devices, digital frequency modulation, sampling) Computers Performers and Performances In music, ornaments or embellishments are musical flourishes that decorate or “ornament” the overall line of the melody. A musician of extraordinary technical mastery is called virtuoso. Does the performer draw you in? Is the tone rich and vibrant? Does he/she play in tune? Variety and flexibility of dynamics and tempo? Conductor Stick = baton In modern symphony orchestra, the concertmaster is the principal first violinist. Middle Ages (600-1400) The Dark Ages (c. 600 - 1000 CE) The High Middle Ages (c. 1000 - 1400 CE) Three main social classes: Nobility Peasantry Clergy Early church - instruments not used, bright music prohibited. Christian chanting Notation - Neumes Gregorian or Plainchant: Music of the Church Official Music of the Roman Catholic Church Flexible Rhythm Monophonic Nonmetric Latin text Melodies tend to move by step within the narrow range of pitches The office and the mass service The office (official set of prayer of the Roman Catholic) consist of 8 services. first before sunrise and the last at sunset. The mass service.. Gregorian chant scales are called church modes or just modes. (Modal v. Tonal) Classes of Chant Syllabic Neumatic Melismatic (many notes per syllable) Music of Hildegard of Bingen Founded convent; known for miracles/prophecies; collections of visions and prophecies, music, and scientific writings Middle Ages - Secular Music Troubadours and Trouverse - French nobles, musicians, travellers Organum: two-part polyphonic composition, medieval music, consists of Gregorian chant and melodic lines Paris, France - center of polyphonic music, school of Notre Dame Ars Nova - new art Renaissance (1450-1600) (Controversial new ideas that clashed with the old set of beliefs) Medieval time: credo ut intelligam; understanding can only come through belief Renaissance time: intelligo de credam; belief can only come through understanding Humanism: dominant intellectual movement; human life and its accomplishments Renaissance Music Clear articulation of the words Word painting, reflects and intensifies actual meaning of the words Texture; mainly polyphonic, homophonic music also used: light music, dances Choral music without accompaniment = a cappella Most influential music for all was for dance. Protestant music reforms Text: no longer in Latin - local languages used in service Community songbook Sang by whole congregation, not just the priest or by a choir Martin Luther wrote many of the hymns Catholic Church Council of Trent - defined Catholic doctrine Masses executed clearly and in correct speed Words clearly understood No instruments Motet - polyphonic choral work set to a sacred Latin text Palestrina - composer; saved music in Catholic church - more clear; each new syllable heard by itself in one voice; no competition against new syllables New Policy on Music: Masses executed clearly, and in correct speed Words clearly understood Banning music containing impure things (pop/folk melodies) No instruments Secular music - Catherine de Medici - greatest art patron Social Singing - The Madrigal Set to a short poem, usually about love Several solo voices Instruments double or substitute for the voices Polyphonic and homophonic texture Word painting: musical gesture that illustrates the meaning of a word or group of words John Farmer Organist and master of choirboys at Christ Church Published one collection of 4-voice madrigals John Dowland - leading composer of lute songs; Flow My Tears [Clicker Quiz: review] Organizing chants of the church - Pope Gregory the Great Polyphonic part singing developed - Western music Baroque Music (1600-1750) Johann Sebastian Bach Georg Friedrich Handel Antonio Vivaldi - violinist Claudio Monteverdi - opera Henry Purcell - opera Art and Culture in Baroque Era: Turbulent changes in politics, science, and arts Religious wars - Protestant and Catholic churches Exploration of the New World Rise of middle-class culture Music-making centered in the home, churches, and universities Unity of Mood One basic mood (joy, grief, agitation represented at the time) Rhythm Unity of mood in baroque music conveyed by continuity of rhythm Melody Feeling of continuity Dynamics Sudden shifts Alteration between loud and soft - terraced dynamics Texture Predominantly polyphonic Chords and Bass Chords created through improvisation Accompaniment to the strings - called basso continuo With left hand harpsichord player plays bass part Bass part with numbers (figures) - called a figured bass Bass - first recognized in Baroque music Baroque Orchestra Violin family instruments basso Continuo and upper strings Woodwind, brass, and percussion - inconstant Trumpets and timpani - when music was festive Forms Movement - piece that is part of a larger composition Each movement has its own themes Solo Concerto Piece for a single soloist and orchestra Antonio Vivaldi - “The Four Seasons” The Fugue Polyphonic composition based on one subject Fom is extremely flexible Second voice presents the subject - is then called the answer Transitional sections - called episodes - between the subjects Johann Sebastian Bach German composer, organist, educator Culminating figure of Baroque style Devout Lutheran Lutheran Chorale and Cantata Cantata - “to sing” (Italian) Vocal genre for solo singers and instrumental accompaniment Based on lyric, dramatic, or narrative poetry Handel and the English Oratorio Oratorio: performed by solo voices, chorus, orchestra; no staging or costumes “Messiah”: performed in Dublin in 1742; written in 24 days; Libretto: compilation of Old and New Testament [Clicker Quiz: Review] First era of Western music history in which instrumental music was a major focus for composers: BAROQUE Baroque composition: Handel and Bach Greatest and most prolific Italian composer of concertos: Vivaldi Handel’s Messiah is: an oratorio Harpsichord: strings plucked, not wide dynamic range, sometimes two keyboards Sacred cantata integral part of the: Lutheran church Stories for oratorios generally drawn from: the Bible Most important keyboard instrument during Baroque period: harpsichord Test [9/22/2016] Review KNOW THESE: ★ 5 Musical Elements Melody: most memorable, must be original Major: happier; Minor: sadder Blue notes: slightly flattened Rhythm: downbeat-strong, upbeat-soft, stress one note-accent, syncopation, duration Sound: pitch [high/low], dynamics [loud/soft], timbre/tone color Harmony: how chords progress; texture: monophony (different octaves- unison), polyphony (different times, competition), homophony (harmonies, chords supporting melody) **Be able to recognize these textures Form: Be able to tell the difference in the following time periods: ★ Medieval Period Catholic church: Gregorian chant: monophonic, Latin, no meter/beat, no instruments Secular music: instruments ★ Renaissance Period Polyphonic Split of church: Reformation-Martin Luther Protestant: instruments, local languages, congregation sings w/ songbooks Catholic: Council of Trent, new voices in music-words clear, no instruments, Latin, simple, moderate tempo Secular music: madrigal-love song ★ Baroque Period Predominantly instruments over voices Harpsichord (vs. piano): strings plucked, not wide dynamic range, sometimes two keyboards **Be able to recognize Two major composers: Handel & Bach Cantata: Lutheran Protestant church service Oratorio: big orchestra, big choir, comes from the Bible Vivaldi - The Four Seasons - Solo Concerto Handel - Hallelujah - Messiah ★ Be able to recognize different instruments/voices Ex: brass/percussion, etc. Ex: tenor/alto/bass/baritone/soprano
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