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ETSU / Psychology / PSY 2500 / What are the processes in classical conditioning?

What are the processes in classical conditioning?

What are the processes in classical conditioning?


School: East Tennessee State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Behavior Analysis
Professor: Robin leonard
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: phobia, conditioning, higher-order-conditioning, trace-conditioning, simultaneous, pavlovian conditioning, backward-conditioning, and habituation
Cost: 25
Name: Week 5; Wednesday; Finishing up chapter 8
Description: Today we continued chapter 8 slides and talked a lot about phobias and how they start.
Uploaded: 09/21/2016
3 Pages 26 Views 1 Unlocks

9/21/2016 Wednesday  

What are the processes in classical conditioning?

Processes in Classical Conditioning: Extinction

Extinction: gradual decrease and elimination of the CR when the CS is presented  repeatedly without the UCS

­ With Pavlov’s dogs, you ring the bell several times without giving them food and  they will no longer respond by salivating

Processes in Respondent (/Classical) Conditioning

 Processes in Classical Conditioning: 

Spontaneous Recovery­ sudden reemergence of an extinguished CR after a delay

­you can go to the empire state building and have a reoccurring fear of heights; if  it is rewarded in that moment and leads to unconditioned stimulus in that moment you will be  right back where you started

Same thing at 2 different levels: 

What is spontaneous recovery­?

Habituation: the tendency of the brain to stop attending to constant, unchanging  unconditioned stimuli­ brain and processing

Sensory Adaptation: the tendency of sensory receptor cells to become less responsive to a stimulus that is unchanging­ sensory organs: eyes, ears, nose­ 

if there is an unchanging smell, your nose/brain will stop responding to it ­light colored eyes let in more light so it’s harder to adjust to bright lights

Higher Order Conditioning

Higher­ Order Conditioning: a neutral stimulus (NS) is paired with a conditioned  stimulus (CS) and then the neutral stimulus becomes as a CS that will elicit the same C Don't forget about the age old question of What sources can microbes use in nitrogen?

Ex: another option for extinguishing a certain behavior

Factors Influencing Respondent Conditioning

What is an idea that an organism is innately predisposed to learn associations between certain stimuli and responses?

*Best way to understand this material is by understanding your own particular behaviors  or even people you know We also discuss several other topics like What is the balance between two or more characters in the same frame?

­ The nature of the NS and US­ has to do with previous exposure to the stimulus; some  sounds are distinctive and are a more reliable indicator of the stimulus

­ Timing of the NS and the US

  o   Trace conditioning “only one that works well; animals especially”­ ring the bell,  give the food+ ring the bell, give the food

o Delay conditioning

o Simultaneous conditioning­ ring bell and give food at same time, but you aren’t  really giving time to respond to bell

o Backward conditioning­ doesn’t work at all with animals­ good then bell, food  then bell

9/21/2016 Wednesday  

­ Consistent pairing of the NS and US­ if every time you hear a bell you get food, you will  respond to bells­ not if it’s only sometimes. 

­ Exposure to the NS­ You need to do this like 20 times unless it’s related to survivor value (threat to well­being like taste aversion or a phobia that threatens you)

Biology and Classical Conditioning

­Preparedness: idea that an organism is innately predisposed to learn associations between  certain stimuli and responses

­taste­aversion: development of a dislike or aversion to a flavor or food that has been  paired with illness Don't forget about the age old question of What is the purpose of family?

­phobia: an extreme, irrational fear of an object

Note: you would not become afraid of dogs as an adult if you have had many other  positive experiences with dogs; however, if you were 2 years old and attacked by one you would  always be afraid of dogs. Being attacked by anything when encountering it for the first time will  create a phobia rapidly. 

EX: you can treat phobias that have been conditioned into someone by pairing those  things with things that the person likes; or presenting the conditioned stimulus without the  unconditioned stimulus following

­  A lot of people don’t remember where their phobias come from because they  originated before the age of 3

­ A fear of heights can originate from being dropped as a baby

Conditioned Emotional Responses

­ Conditioned Emotional Response (CER): a type of conditioned response in which an  emotional response, such as fear, anger, or happiness, is elicited by a conditioned  stimulus

Discrimination and Generalization of Respondent Behavior

­Discrimination Training: the conditioned response is elicited by a single conditioned stimulus or a narrow range of conditioned stimuli

­Generalization: the tendency for the conditioned response to occur in the presence of  stimuli 

Contrasting Respondent and Operant Conditioning 

­Response is elicited

­Response is emitted

9/21/2016 Wednesday  

­Controlled by antecedents  We also discuss several other topics like What is the process by which molecules spread from high concentration to low concentration?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the definition of octet rule?

­controlled by consequences

­conditioning involves pairing two stimuli 

­conditioning involves pairing a response & a  Don't forget about the age old question of Why are obligations under civil code juridical necessity?


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