Processes in Classical Conditioning: Extinction
Extinction: gradual decrease and elimination of the CR when the CS is presented repeatedly without the UCS
With Pavlov’s dogs, you ring the bell several times without giving them food and they will no longer respond by salivating
Processes in Respondent (/Classical) Conditioning
Processes in Classical Conditioning:
Spontaneous Recovery sudden reemergence of an extinguished CR after a delay
you can go to the empire state building and have a reoccurring fear of heights; if it is rewarded in that moment and leads to unconditioned stimulus in that moment you will be right back where you started
Same thing at 2 different levels:
Habituation: the tendency of the brain to stop attending to constant, unchanging unconditioned stimuli brain and processing
Sensory Adaptation: the tendency of sensory receptor cells to become less responsive to a stimulus that is unchanging sensory organs: eyes, ears, nose
if there is an unchanging smell, your nose/brain will stop responding to it light colored eyes let in more light so it’s harder to adjust to bright lights
Higher Order Conditioning
Higher Order Conditioning: a neutral stimulus (NS) is paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS) and then the neutral stimulus becomes as a CS that will elicit the same C Don't forget about the age old question of What sources can microbes use in nitrogen?
Ex: another option for extinguishing a certain behavior
Factors Influencing Respondent Conditioning
*Best way to understand this material is by understanding your own particular behaviors or even people you know We also discuss several other topics like What is the balance between two or more characters in the same frame?
The nature of the NS and US has to do with previous exposure to the stimulus; some sounds are distinctive and are a more reliable indicator of the stimulus
Timing of the NS and the US
o Trace conditioning “only one that works well; animals especially” ring the bell, give the food+ ring the bell, give the food
o Delay conditioning
o Simultaneous conditioning ring bell and give food at same time, but you aren’t really giving time to respond to bell
o Backward conditioning doesn’t work at all with animals good then bell, food then bell
Consistent pairing of the NS and US if every time you hear a bell you get food, you will respond to bells not if it’s only sometimes.
Exposure to the NS You need to do this like 20 times unless it’s related to survivor value (threat to wellbeing like taste aversion or a phobia that threatens you)
Biology and Classical Conditioning
Preparedness: idea that an organism is innately predisposed to learn associations between certain stimuli and responses
tasteaversion: development of a dislike or aversion to a flavor or food that has been paired with illness Don't forget about the age old question of What is the purpose of family?
phobia: an extreme, irrational fear of an object
Note: you would not become afraid of dogs as an adult if you have had many other positive experiences with dogs; however, if you were 2 years old and attacked by one you would always be afraid of dogs. Being attacked by anything when encountering it for the first time will create a phobia rapidly.
EX: you can treat phobias that have been conditioned into someone by pairing those things with things that the person likes; or presenting the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus following
A lot of people don’t remember where their phobias come from because they originated before the age of 3
A fear of heights can originate from being dropped as a baby
Conditioned Emotional Responses
Conditioned Emotional Response (CER): a type of conditioned response in which an emotional response, such as fear, anger, or happiness, is elicited by a conditioned stimulus
Discrimination and Generalization of Respondent Behavior
Discrimination Training: the conditioned response is elicited by a single conditioned stimulus or a narrow range of conditioned stimuli
Generalization: the tendency for the conditioned response to occur in the presence of stimuli
Contrasting Respondent and Operant Conditioning
Response is elicited
Response is emitted
Controlled by antecedents We also discuss several other topics like What is the process by which molecules spread from high concentration to low concentration?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the definition of octet rule?
controlled by consequences
conditioning involves pairing two stimuli
conditioning involves pairing a response & a Don't forget about the age old question of Why are obligations under civil code juridical necessity?