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Soc 112 Test 1 Study Guide

by: MRob

Soc 112 Test 1 Study Guide SOC 112

Marketplace > Illinois State University > SOC 112 > Soc 112 Test 1 Study Guide
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First 5 weeks of the sememster study guide, test on September 26th!
American Family: Change and Diversity
William Dowell
Study Guide
american, family, change, diversity
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by MRob on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 112 at Illinois State University taught by William Dowell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 716 views.


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Date Created: 09/21/16
9/21/2016 TEST #1 STUDYGUIDE —SOC 112 PROF. DOUG DOWELL 1. CHAPTER 1 A. The Study of Families i. Monolithic: describes something as being totally uniform. Are we guilty of speaking of the family as if all families were the same? “American Family”? 1. Sociological Imagination: The ability to bridge the gap between society and the individual’s social experience. 2. Micro level: focus on the life of individual families and dynamic a. How do family members treat each other? b. How do they use their time? c. How do t hey argue or show love? 3. Macro-level: social structure as a whole a. What are the most important issues within a family? b. How is the family imbe dded within other institutions? B. Sociologists have three theoretical perspectives i. Structural Functional Theory: Sees the family as a social institution with beliefs, values, attitudes, norms, and aspects of group life. 1. Manifest function: A consequence which is obvious, intended, expected 2. Dysfunction: a negative consequence which disrupts the social system such as abus e, incest, or adultery 3. Latent Function: a consequence which is unrecognized and unintended. ii. Social Conflict Theory: focus on the process of tension, competition and change 1. Patriarchal descent: everything follows through dad, he runs everything. 2. Society is in a constant state of change of: authority, power, social control, social inequality, social institutions, organizations, and society. iii. Symbolic Interaction Theory: If you don’t understand what a family is, get inside of one to find out. 1. Focuses on th e way people act towards, respond to, and influence one another 2. Emphasis is on people rather than institutions, continually redefined as families grow and change. 3. Society is created and maintained by the action of its members. Concepts include: interactio n, identity, socialization, role model, significant others, self -concept and definition of situation. 2. CHAPTER 2: EUROPEAN FAMILIES A. Godly family (1600-1776) 1. Puritans, patriarchal authority a. Wives and kids had to submit to father , marriages are for survival b. Believed children were born with original sin, and the devil had to be “beat” out of them c. “rule of thumb” -> able to beat wife if they “acted up” or weren’t submissive enough. d. Daughters were property of dad until married off e. Ideal of true womanhood: preaches education, independenc e, strength 2. Highly integrated int o community a. Tithingmen watched 10 -12 households to make sure children were controlled and a proper home was maintained 3. Self-sufficient economic units a. Children were an economic investment! Work began at age 7 i. Produce everything you consume ii. 9 member househol d in a 1 -2 room cabin iii. Multiple generations under one roof iv. Average: 8 children per household 4. Fathers led the household in prayer, taught trades, and taught principles of religion and law B. Democratic Family (1780 -1899) a. Work split between paid work and domestic b. Marriages based on love c. Separation of family and community d. More time was spent mothering and fertility went down 2. Cult of True Womanhood (1820 -1860): Pro per behavior for a wife & Mom a. Piety- more religious, more womanly b. Sexual Purity (double standard) c. Be submissive! d. Domesticity - housework and healthcare 2 C. Companionate Family (1890 -1970) 1. Families held together by mutual affection, sexual attraction and equality a. Emphasizes sex and passion (women can enjoy without shame) b. Encouragement on controlling fertility and contraception i. Combstock Law - it was illegal to distribute contraception or anything about contraception. 1. “cannot send obscene literature, erotica, contraceptive, sex toys” 2. 1936-Courts have ruled that doctors can pre scribe birth control 2. More emotional relationships within the family a. Kids went from an economic asset to sentimental value b. In the 19 Century, 10 year -old boys were most likely to be adopted. By the 1920s, it has switched to babies c. Rights for women and men began to level out d. Notion of adolescence and teenagers was invented. i. Child labor laws went into effect 3. CHAPTER 3: AFRICAN AMERICAN FAMILIES A. Key things to note i. Dejure Segregaton: by law (from 1877-1964) ii. Defacto: social segregation B. Slavery (1600-1865) i. Nuclear family most common, no legal marriage ii. Slave owners decided living arrangements, 1. Women did not own their own body and could be raped iii. “One Drop Policy” -if there is one drop of African blood in you, you can be a slave iv. Sexes often seen as equal and women took the leadership role. 1. Kin and fictive kin (actual children and necessary children) C. Reproduction in Slavery i. 1807- law passed to eliminate importation of slaves so reproduction went up 1. done through the one drop policy and raping of s lave women. 2. “Upper South ” became suppliers of labor through fertility a. women pushed to the limit …was unhealthy b. Lower South (1830 -1860) had a cotton boom, and everyone was worked nearly to death . Slave owners couldn ’t afford to have the women not work, so miscarriage rates were way up. 3 D. Sharecropping (1865-1940) i. Sharecroppers receive use of the house, tools, farm, animals, and plot of land in exchange for giving the land owners a portion of the crops produced and money. 1. Plantation productivity way down ii. Shift from collective and fictive kin to nuclear family 1. Wife and kids worked in fields under direction of husband 2. Father was di rect connection to economic system iii. Evil of female Loaferism (1870s) 1. Women worked in the house 2. In the 1870 census, 60% of black women were doing house wor k for owners and were working l ess in the fields E. Industrialization i. Agriculture is replaced with machines 1. Men into manufacturing, women into domestic work ii. Great Migration 1. 1910-1930: 1 million Africans moved north 2. Migration changed in the 1990s when 368,000 African Americans mov ed back to the south as it tran sitioned from agriculture to man ufacturing. 4


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