NUT 510 Exam 1 Study Guide
NUT 510 Exam 1 Study Guide NUT 510
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kyri Allison on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NUT 510 at American College of Healthcare Sciences taught by Helen (Eleni) Delfakis, MS, RDN in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Dietary Supplements in Holistic Medicine at American College of Healthcare Sciences.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
Barilone Module 1 Study Guide – Chapters 1 and 2 BOLD = important sub-categories HIGHLIGHT = key terms Chapter 1: Nutrients and Nourishment I. Defining Nutrition a. The science of foods and their components (nutrients and other substances), including: i. Relationships to health and disease (actions, interactions, and balances) ii. Processes within the body (ingestion, digestion, absorption, transport, functions, and disposal of end products) iii. Social, economic, cultural, and psychological implications of eating II. Eating Habits a. Personal Preferences; taste, smell, texture, habits, trends social factors, health beliefs, comfort/discomfort foods, etc. i. Neophobia – a stage often experienced by preschoolers categorized by a dislike for anything new or unfamiliar b. Environmental Factors; socioeconomic status, lifestyle, availability, culture/religion i. Food deserts – low-income areas where residents lack access to supermarkets or large stores to buy affordable, nutritious foods III. The American Diet a. Know about healthy eating options, but don’t always act accordingly b. Melting pot of cultural contributions to foods and tastes c. Typical American Diet contains too much sodium, solid fat, saturated fat, and sugar, and not enough fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy products, and whole grains IV. Nutrients a. Food vs Nutrients i. Food – mixture of chemicals ii. Nutrients – essential chemicals for normal body function 1. Essential Nutrients – nutrients that the body cannot make on its own or cannot make enough of 2. Phytochemicals – substances in plants that possess non-essential health-protective benefits 3. Macronutrients – carbs, fat, and protein (needed in large amounts) 4. Micronutrients – needed in relatively small amounts in the diet (ex. vitamins and minerals) 5. Organic substances – contain carbon (ex. carbs, fats, proteins, and vitamins) 6. Inorganic substances – do not contain carbon (ex. water and minerals) b. Six Major Nutrients i. Carbohydrates 1. Sugars and starches 2. Functions Barilone a. Energy source 3. Food Sources a. Grains, vegetables, fruits, dairy products ii. Lipids 1. Triglycerides (fats and oils), cholesterol, and phospholipids 2. Functions a. Energy source, structure, regulation 3. Food Sources a. Fats and oils, meats, dairy products iii. Proteins 1. Made of amino acids 2. Functions a. Energy source, structure, regulation 3. Food Sources a. Meats, dairy products, legumes, vegetables, and grains iv. Vitamins 1. Fat-soluble: A, D, E, K 2. Water-soluble: B and C a. B Vitamins are essential in energy metabolism 3. Functions a. Regulation 4. Food Sources a. All food groups v. Minerals 1. Macrominerals and trace minerals a. Functions i. Structure, regulation b. Food Sources i. All food groups vi. Water 1. Most important nutrient a. Makes up ~60% of body 2. Functions a. Structure, regulation 3. Food Sources a. Beverages, foods V. Energy in Foods a. Measured in kilocalories (kcal) – one kcal is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree Celsius i. Carbs: 4 kcal/g ii. Protein: 4 kcal/g iii. Lipids: 9 kcal/g iv. Alcohol: 7 kcal/g b. Excess energy intake is a contributing factor to obesity; all individuals should aim to be physically active for 30 minutes/day to reduce risk of chronic disease and manage body weight Barilone VI. Nutrition Research a. Commonly used study designs include epidemiological, animal, cell culture, and human (case control and clinical trial) b. Publishing experimental results i. Should be peer-reviewed for accuracy VII. Identifying Reliable Information a. As information is made more widely accessible, it becomes less detailed and more opinion and sensationalism are introduced b. Red Flags i. Quick-fix recommendations ii. Dire warnings of danger from a single product/regimen iii. Claims that sound too good to be true iv. Simplistic conclusions drawn from a single study v. Dramatic statements that are refuted by reputable scientific organizations Chapter 2: Nutrition Guidelines and Assessment I. Linking Food, Nutrients,and Health a. Adequacy – chosen foods provide all the essential nutrients, fiber, and energy in amounts sufficient to support growth and maintain health b. Balance – balance of food groups, energy sources, and other nutrients c. Calorie Control – balancing the calories you consume with the calories required to sustain metabolic and physical activities d. Nutrient Density – nutrient content of individual foods relative to the energy they provide e. Moderation – not eating too much or too little of one particular nutrient, energy source, etc. f. Variety – number of different foods eaten on a daily basis II. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 a. Intended to help people make informed food and activity decisions b. Main Guidelines i. Maintain a calorie balance over time to achieve and sustain a healthy weight ii. Focus on consuming nutrient-dense foods and beverages iii. Also includes recommendations about which foods and nutrients to increase and decrease as well as recommendations for specific population groups c. MyPlate i. Intended to empower people with the information they need to make healthy food choices III. Dietary Reference IntakeValues (DRIs) a. Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) b. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) i. Amount that meets the nutrient requirements of half the people in a population group ii. Based on a functional indicator of optimal health c. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) Barilone i. Amount that meets the needs of most people in a population group d. Adequate Intake (AI) i. Amount thought to be adequate for most people 1. AI for infants is based on is based on nutrient levels in breast milk 2. AI for older infants and children based on both nutrient levels in breast milk and data on adults ii. Adequate Intake is used when EAR and RDA can’t be determined e. Tolerable Upper Intake Level(UL) i. Intake above the Upper Level can be harmful f. Daily Values (DV) i. Compare amount in one serving to the amount recommended for daily consumption ii. Estimated Energy Requirement 1. Energy intake estimated to maintain energy balance in healthy, normal-weight individuals iii. Using DRIs 1. Populations a. Assess adequacy of intake b. Plan diets c. Set policy and guidelines 2. Individuals a. Use Recommended Dietary Allowance and Adequate Intake as target levels for intake b. Avoid intake above the Upper Limit IV. Food Labels a. Ingredients and Other Info i. Statement of identify ii. Net contents of the package iii. Name and address of manufacturer, packer, and distributor iv. List of ingredients 1. Listed in descending order by weight v. Nutrition information b. Daily Values c. Claims i. Nutrient content claims 1. Descriptive terms (low fat, high fiber, etc.) ii. Health Claims 1. Link one or more dietary components to reduced risk of disease 2. Must be supported by scientific evidence iii. Qualified Health Claims iv. Structure/Function Claims 1. Describe the potential effects on body structure or functions d. Must compare serving sizes in order to compare nutrition info from food labels V. Nutrition Assessment a. Determining Nutritional Health i. The Continuum of Nutritional Status Barilone 1. Undernutrition 2. Overnutrition ii. Assessment of Populations 1. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey a. Results released periodically as the What We Eat in America report iii. Assessment of Individuals 1. Anthropometric Measurements a. Physical measurements of the body such as height and weight, body mass index, waist circumference, skinfold measurements, and head circumference 2. Biochemical Tests a. Measure nutrients or metabolites in bodily fluids such as blood, urine, and feces 3. Clinical Observations a. Characteristics of health that can be seen during a physical exam b. Hair, nails, skin, eyes, lips, mouth, bones, muscles, and joints 4. Dietary Intake a. Data Collection i. Diet History – the most comprehensive form of data collection that includes information on both long and short-term habits ii. Food Record – provide detailed information about day-to-day habits; may be skewed by self-report iii. Food Frequency Questionnaire – asks how often the subject consumes specific foods or groups of foods iv. 24-Hour Dietary Recall – simplest form of dietary intake data b. Methods of Evaluation i. Comparison to dietary standards, comparison to MyPlate and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, outcomes of nutritional assessment References Insel, P.M., Ross, D., McMahon, K.and Bernstein, M. (2013) Nutrition.5th edn. Sudbury, MA, United States: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
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