Exam 1 ARCH 211
Popular in History of Arch
Popular in Architecture
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katie Mayes on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARCH 211 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Gregor Kalas in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 158 views. For similar materials see History of Arch in Architecture at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Super helpful exam outline, thank you :) (color coded too!!!)
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Date Created: 09/21/16
ARCHITECTURE HISTORY EXAM I STUDY GUIDE Monuments – Green Terms – Blue Important Words to help you Remember – Red ***I Recommend you print this out and fold it for easy studying! Good Luck!!! Location: Saqqara Architect: Imhotep - Idea of preserving body Title: Stepped and memories - Physically goes Pyramid and upwards Mortuary Precinct of - Intentionally built for deceased Djoser - Gives illusion of architecture and importance of papyrus plant Location: Gizeh - Made for deceased Title: Pyramid of kings to honor them Khufu and their importance - Shape emphasizes Title: Pyramid of idea of becoming Khafre closer to being a sun god Title: Pyramid of - Low light Menkaure significance to launch an afterlife belief Location: Deir el-Bahri, Egypt - Hatshepsut – One of the first women pharaohs Title: Funerary - Temple meant for Temple of wasn’t buried there) - Built to create and Hatshepsut preserve herself - Columns represent bodies and strength Location: Paestum (Italy)—the ancient name of the city is Poseidonia Title: Temple of Hera I - Earliest temple at or the so-called Basilica Paestum - Town Hall - Hera was the patron goddess of the city – dedicated to her - Greek style - Illusion made the columns appear vertical Location: Athens Architects: Iktinos and Kallikrates - Swelling of columns Title: Parthenon – thicker in middle, thinner at top - Building was burned by Persians - Dedicated to Athena - Doric order temple Location: Athens Architect: Mnesikles - Gives a Title: Propylaia, regularization to a non-regular space Gateway to the - Monumental Acropolis entrance to the Acropolis Rock - Stopped construction possibly to save materials for war Location: Acropolis - Caryatids - Porch of the Maidens/Erechthion Title: - Irregular shape and layout Erectheion - Built to replace “Old Temple” - Built to house all shrines and rituals that once took place there Location: Didyma (Turkey) - Dedicated to god Title: T emple of Apollo - The town’s most Apollo important religious building - Statues and other offerings to the god were kept here Location: Palestrina (ancient city name is Praeneste) Title: Sanctuary - Dedicated to the goddess Fortuna of Fortuna - Most likely built by townspeople who Primigenia wanted to establish themselves Location: Rome - Official of public banquets - According to his Title: Pyramid of will, it was Gaius Cestius completed in 330 days - Executed by his heirs - All facts based on findings Location: Pompeii, Italy Economic, religious, political Title: Forum Pompeii center Law courts Columns used for support system Most important civic building Location: Herculaneum, Italy Title: Samnite At time of eruption, about 300 years old House Atrium has a gallery on the walls Very decorated building One of the oldest Herculaneum buildings Three-sided Peristyle Location: Rome Dedicated to Title: Temple of Portunus, a youthful god associate with Portunus (or of water crossings and seaports Fortuna Virilis) Temple has iconic Greek columns Originally made to imitate Greek Marble Frieze decorated Location: Nîmes, France - Aqueduct Title: Pont-du-Gard - “Bridge of the Gard” or the Roman - Ancient Roman Aqueduct engineering constructed about 19 BC - 155ft High - Built without mortar Location: Nimes, France Only ancient temple Title: Maison to be completely Carrée preserved Introduced by Augustus Limestone “Square House” Carved and decorated Corinthian columns Location: Rome Second of imperial forums Title: Forum of Built to rival that Augustus of Julius Provide additional space for law courts Location: Rome - Built to celebrate the Title: Altar of return of Augustus in Augustan Peace 13 BCE - Marble Roman (Ara Pacis structure - Senators, officials, Augustae) and Imperial family are depicted on the wall Location: Rome - Built by Vespasian Title: - Inaugurated under Colosseum or Titus - Doric Order – Tuscan the Flavian Column - Ionic Order – Amphitheater Corinthian Capital - Pilaster Location: Rome Architect: Apollodorus of Damascus - Made of 20 blocks Title: Column of - Purpose was to Trajan perfectly/symmetrically create a stair helix leading to the top - Trajan got the right to be buried within the city - Citizens were buried outside of the city Location: Rome Architect: Apollodorus of Damascus Title: Basilica Ulpia - Timber roof - Usually flanked by in the Forum of Trajan isles - Creates an important public space for public announcements - Very traditional layout in Roman world Location: Rome Architect: Severus and Celer Nero forced to commit Title: Domus Aurea or suicide He found ways to use Nero’s Golden House, materials that were fire- specifically the Augustus wanted to build Octagonal Room a marble city, but it turns to powder when burned They used bricks and concrete in innovative ways Location: Tivoli, Italy Title: Maritime - Private space due to arch/door Theater or Island - Water circulates around middle Retreat at part Hadrian’s Villa - In “Accademia” idea of replicating the heavens Location: Tivoli, Italy - Caryatids lining the Title: Canopus Canopus - Serapeum was and Serapeum at dedicated to the king - Public space for Hadrian’s Villa, dining area - Small waterfalls in each room off of circulation room Location: Rome - Oculus in center - Steps counteract forces, allowing weight to be Title: supported - Conventional Pantheon Exterior Façade - Dome isn’t visible from front Location: Rome - Triumph over Maxentius in 312 Title: Arch of - Religious relationships Constantine – Walking into a symbolic figure - Round sections were made around time of Hadrian - Column carvings made around Trajan time Location: Mahamallapuram, India - Method of carving from solid natural Title: Rock-cut rock T emple - Purpose is for religious reasons - Creating religious and sacred spaces Location: Udayagiri, India - The caves have long been regarded as places Title: Cave of sanctity T emple - Area of sacredness - Allowing no natural light - Very small and dark Location: Khajuraho, India - Hindu temple - One of the largest and Title: Kandariya tallest of surviving temples in its area T emple - Dedicated to Shiva, who is the main shrine known as the womb chamber - Association between water and temple site – part of Hindu worship Location: Angkor, Cambodia - About 30 years to build - Built by King Suryavarman II - Dedicated to Vishno (Hindu) - Largest monument of Angkor Title: Angkor group Wat - Became a Buddhist monument later on - Represents the world and center Meruniverse – Mythical mountain Terms - Aqueduct o an aqueduct is an above-ground conduit for water, constructed in the Roman world using masonry arches resembling a bridge - Basilica o a Roman court building that has a rectangular ground plan, usually characterized by a tall, longitudinal hall on the interior and typically flanked by aisles - Capital o the topmost part of a column - Clerestory o a clerestory is the uppermost portion of a wall or building that is pierced by window openings so as to let in light - Corinthian capitals o located on columns belonging to a Classical order of architecture, can be recognized due to including acanthus leaves sculpted amid small scrolls as their decorative features - Cornice o the uppermost, projecting section of an entablature that also serves as the crowning element of a wall - Doric Order o The order of architecture with a system coordinated columns with an entablature where the fluted columns are not supported by bases, the capital consists of a simple cushion-like molding with an abacus on top, and the entablature features a plain architrave supporting a frieze composed of triglyphs alternating with metopes and capped by a cornice - Entablature o The upper, horizontal part of a Classical order supported by columns comprising architrave, frieze, and cornice - Frieze o A horizontal band, sometimes decorated with sculptural reliefs, running along the upper portion of a wall or just beneath a cornice or it may be that part of a Classical entablature that lies between the architrave and the cornice Our professor has given an outline of what we’re going to have to do for the exam! I’ve included the format of the exam below for your convenience Format of the exam Please be prepared for the following items to appear on the exam: Identification and significance—Identify by title, and location (possibly, the architect) and discuss the architectural significance or meaningful contribution to history of the building; write in complete sentences. Compare or contrast—Compare two buildings (or establish a point of contrast) by writing an integrated paragraph that establishes a clear theme emerging from the comparison. In this context, the “comparison” analysis emphasizes a theme might emerge from similarities or differences between the two buildings. Please be sure to integrate your discussion of the two buildings into a single paragraph. Do not discuss each work separately; please do write in complete sentences. Long essay (at least four paragraphs)—The long essay asks you to consider a theme drawn from the assigned readings and class discussions with a focus on the theoretical concepts. An exemplary essay must include both an introduction and a conclusion that number among the four paragraphs (at least). In other words, you will be evaluated on the ability to formulate fully developed paragraphs that contribute to a unified essay in which you communicate your points persuasively. Terminology—There will be short answer items or fill-in-the-blank questions on the terms. You do not need to know the dates – though sometimes they are listed below. Essay Question One essay question will appear on the exam selected from the two options I am providing below. The essay question will ask you to analyze the assigned texts discussed during class meetings. It will be extremely helpful in each essay to mention the authors of the specific texts we have studied by referring to the authors and the specific points they raise in their texts and, when possible, to refer to specific buildings by their titles. 1. Develop an argument or a plausible scenario that explains why Pliny and Vitruvius were so concerned that architectural projects should integrate comfort, harmonic principles, proportional relationships, site selection, and solar orientation? Develop an essay arguing for a central point or theme that explains why both Pliny and Vitruvius united discussions of feeling at ease inside carefully designed structures and their concerns for climate or environmental conditions. Draw upon the issues raised by both authors in your essay. 2. Develop an argument about why the experiences of moving through a site influenced the planning of significant Greek and Roman spaces. Make the case that there were purposeful itineraries requesting that visitors walk or progress along designed sequences by drawing upon at least two of the following authors: Petrarch’s description of the Acropolis; Pliny’s letters about his two villas; and Elizabeth Marlowe’s essay on the Colosseum valley. How did the two authors you have chosen argue that newly designed interventions forged significant responses to preexisting features of the sites?
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