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Study Guide chapters 1 and 2

by: Chance Jennings

Study Guide chapters 1 and 2 17425

Marketplace > Kent State University > Psychology (PSYC) > 17425 > Study Guide chapters 1 and 2
Chance Jennings

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Science of the brain of chapter 1 and the functions of the brain for chapter 2
General Psychology
Robin L. Joynes
Study Guide
Brain and Behavior, Intro to Psychology
50 ?




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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chance Jennings on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 17425 at Kent State University taught by Robin L. Joynes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 09/21/16
EXAM 1 Study Guide YOU KNOW YOU ARE READY FOR THE TEST IF YOU ARE ABLE TO... ▯ Define psychology and describe the goals that psychologists hope to achieve. ▯ Describe the history of psychology. ▯ Discuss the current state of psychology, including the most common perspectives. ▯ Describe the scientific method and its purpose. ▯ Discuss descriptive research, correlational research and experimental research – and identify the differences between these three types of research methods. ▯ Introduce the peripheral nervous system and describe its role in the body. ▯ Identify some basic structures of the brain and explain their functions. ▯ Explain what neurons are and how they work to transfer and process information. ▯ Identify the major groups of neurotransmitters in the brain and describe the behaviors attributed to each. ▯ Explain some of the basic principles of psychopharmacology, such as dosage, tolerance, withdrawal, and dependence. Review Outline: This is an OUTLINE!! You need to fill in the details from your notes in class. Chapter 1 – The Science of Psychology Definition of Psychology- the scientific study of behavior and mental processes What does it mean to be scientific? - Using he scientific method to describe people and why they do. Predicting and analyzing Empirical approach- gaining knowledge through the observation of events, the collection of data, and logical reasoning Unbiased- we use objective methods, we don’t just use our observations, we also use other peoples’ observations as well Critical thinking- The process of thinking deeply and actively, asking questions, and evaluating evidence Definition of Behavior- everything that we do that can be directly observed Definition of Mental processes- The thoughts, motives and feelings that people experience privately but cannot be observed directly Goals of Psychology- describe behavior, explain behavior, predict behavior, control/change behavior A brief History Wilhelm Wundt- father of psychology, studying the functions of the mind Structuralism- describing the mind by breaking them doe into their most basic ideas/elements Reaction time- how long it takes for the mind to react to something Introspection- looking into ones own mind Gestalt Psychology- looking at the mind as a whole William James- came up the term functionalism, instead of explaining the what the mind is, it asks what is the mind for? Functionalism- understanding of thoughts and behavior in an individuals’ adaption to the environment John Watson- came up with the term of behaviorism and influenced by pavlov Behaviorism- emphasizes the study of observable behavioral responses and the environment to determine responses Little Albert Experiment- studying what happened when a loud noise was involved when little albert was introduced to a white mouse. The loud noise made him cry, but every time albert would try and touch the mouse, would play the loud noise, after a while albert related the two responses to each other and every time he saw the mouse it would make him cry Psychology Today- there are many ways to define psychology in terms, 7 contemporary approaches to psychology. 1. Biological- An approach to psychology focusing on the body, especially the brain and nervous system 2. Behaviorism- an approach psychology emphasizing the scientific study of observation behavioral responses and their environmental determinants 3. Psychodynamic- An approach to psychology emphasizing unconscious thought, the conflict between biological drives (such as drive for sex) and society’s demands, and early childhood family experiences 4. Humanistic- An approach to psychology emphasizing a persons’ positive qualities, the capacity for positive growth and freedom to choose destiny 5. Cognitive- An approach to psychology emphasizing the mental processes involved in knowing : how we direct our attention, perceive , remember, think, and solve problems 6. Evolutionary- An approach to psychology centered on evolutionary ideas such as adaption, reproduction, and natural selection, as the basis for explaining specific human behaviors. 7. Sociocultural- An approach to psychology that examines the ways in which social and cultural environments influence behavior Scientific Method Steps of the scientific method 1. Make an observation and perceive a question 2. Form a hypotheses 3. Test the hypotheses 4. Draw conclusion 5. Report results 6. evaluation Purpose of the scientific method- the scientific method is how pschologists gain knowledge about mind and behavior. Knowledge that empirical research is a key theme Research Methods 1. Descriptive research- observe, collect, and record data a. Naturalistic Observation i. watching someone in their natural environment b. Case Study i. An in depth look at a single individual c. Surveys 2. Correlational Research- research that examines the relationships between variables whose purpose is to examine whether and how two variables change together a. Cannot determine cause-effect b. Characteristics c. Strength d. Strong vs. Weak e. Direction f. Positive Correlations g. Negative correlations h. Correlation Coefficients (r) 3. Experimental Research- a carefully regulated procedure in which the researcher manipulates one or more variables that are believed to influence some other variable a. Can determine cause-effect b. Operational Definitions c. Independent variable vs. Dependent variable i. Independent variable- a manipulated experimental factor; the variable that the experimenter changes to see what its effects are ii. Dependent variable- the outcome: the factor that can change in an experiment in response to changes in the independent variable d. Experimental group vs. Control group i. Experimental group- the participants in an experiment who receive the drug or other treatment under study- that is, those who are exposed to the change that the independent variable represents ii. Control group- the participants in an experiment who are as much like the experimental group as possible and who are treated in every way like the experimental group except for a manipulated factor, the independent variable Chapter 2 – The Brain and Behavior Definition of Nervous system What is electrochemical communication system? - a way that your cells and brain and nervous system communicates to body. Uses electricity and chemical message to relay informationr around the body. Cells in the nervous system look different from what they looked like in the rest of your body Definition of Behavioral Neuroscience- the study of how the nervous system affects and controls the body Electrochemical transmission- electric messages from one cell to another Electrical impulse and chemical message Organization of the nervous system Hindbrai n Brain Midbrai Centra n Spinal Forebrai l n Cord Sympathetic Autonomi c Parasyicathet Peripher al Sensory Somati c Motor Central Nervous system- the brain and spinal cord - Brain o Forebrain o Midbrain o Hindbrain - Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System- the network of nerves that connects the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body - Autonomic- the body system that takes messages to ad from the body’s internal organs, monitoring such processes as breathing, heart rate, and digestion o Sympathetic- the part of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body to mobilize it for action and thus is involved in the experience of stress o Parasympathetic- the part of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body - Somatic- the body system consisting of the sensory nerves, whose function is to convey information from the skin and muscles to the central nervous system about conditions such as pain and temperature, and motor nerves, whose function is to tell muscles what to do o Sensory o Motor Neurophysiology of the Peripheral Nervous system Autonomic nervous system – involuntary motor system Sympathetic – fight or flight Parasympathetic – calm Somatic Sensory info Voluntary movement Neurophysiology of the Brain Hindbrain structures - Medulla – vital functions - Pons – sleep and arousal - Cerebellum – balance and coordination Midbrain structures - Tectum and Tegmentum – visual reflexes - Reticular formation – arousal - Brainstem – Medulla, pons, and reticular formation Forebrain structures - The limbic system – emotions and memory - Amygdala – fear and anxiety - Hippocampus – learning and memory - Hypothalamus – body regulation - The Thalamus – sensory relay station - Basal Ganglia – movement - The Cerebral Cortex Right vs. left hemispheres - Right (Spatial location, faces, art/music, creativity, whole units) - Left (Logic, mathematics, verbal skills, consciousness awareness) Contralateral organization- left brain controls the right part of the body and right controls the left The corpus callosum- the joining of the two parts of the brain 4 lobes 1. Frontal lobe- the portion of the cerebral cortex behind the forehead, involved in personality, intelligence and control of voluntary muscles o Prefrontal cortex – higher cognitive thinking o Motor cortex- a region in the cerebral cortex, located just behind the frontal lobes, that process information about voluntary movement 2. Temporal lobe- structures in the cerebral cortex that are located just above the ears and are involved in hearing, language processing, and memory o Auditory cortex 3. Parietal lobe- Structures at the top and toward the rear of the head that are involved in registering spatial location, attention, and motor control o Somatosensory cortex- a region in the cerebral cortex that processes information about body sensations, located at the front of parietal loes 4. Occipital lobe- structures located at the back of the head that respond to visual stimuli o Visual cortex Effects of Split-brain operation Parts of a Neuron Cell body- the part of the neuron hat contains the nucleus, which directs the manufacture of substances that the neuron needs for growth and maintenance Dendrites – receive messages Axon – conducts message Myelin sheath – speeds up message Terminal buttons – releases chemical messages The Neural Impulse- the electrical message within a neuron Resting Membrane potential – difference in charge across a cell membrane More negative inside axon than the outside (-70 mV) Na+ ions attracted to negative charge inside Na+ channels in axon membrane are closed. Action Potential- the brief wave of positive electrical charge that sweeps down the axon Wave of positive charge that sweeps down the axon Threshold – minimum stimulation needed to open Na+ channels. Step 1: Na+ rushes in Step 2: K+ repelled by positively charged Na+ ions Step 3: K+ rushes out This process travels down the axon Refractory period – after a neuron fires, there is a period of time where it cannot fire again All-or-none-law – if threshold is reached, a full potential action occurs. If threshold is not attained, then no action potential occurs Synaptic Transmission Synaptic gap or synapse –space between chemical messages of neurons Step 1: Action potential reaches terminal buttons Step 2: Terminal buttons release neurotransmitters into the synapse Synaptic vesicles – hold chemical messages in the axon Step 3: Neurotransmitters bind to dendrites (receptors) on neighboring cells. Receptors – define Excitatory Synapse vs Inhibitory synapse - Excitatory synapse- neuron is more likely to produce action potential - Inhibitory synapse- less likely to produce action potential Elimination of Neurotransmitter from synapse Enzymatic degradation – enzymes break down neurotransmitter Reuptake – suck up the neurotransmitter Chemicals in the Brain Endogenous – chemicals that originate within the body Exogenous – chemicals that originate outside the body Agonist Drugs vs. Antagonist Drugs - Agonist drugs: a drug that mimics or enhances a neurotransmitter - Antagonist drugs: a drug that blocks or inhibits a neurotransmitter Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine (ACh) - What does it do? o Involved in movement learning and memory - Diseases/problems associated with Ach o Myasthenia gravis- to much ach o Alzheimers disease- to little ach - Drugs that affect Ach o Black widow spider, botox, poison dart frog Dopamine (DA) - What does it do? o Involved in movement, attention, short term memory, planning and reward - Diseases/problems associated with DA o Parkinsons disease - Drugs that affect DA o Cocaine and meth Serotonin (5-HT) - What does it do? - - nvolved in mood, sleep, and eating - Drugs that affect 5-HT o Anti-depressants and ecstacy Norepinephrine (NE) - What does it do? o Attention and arousal Glutamate - What does it do? o Causes nuerotransmitters to fire GABA - What does it do? o Inhibits neurotransmitter to fire - Drugs that affect GABA o alcohol Endorphins - What do they do? o Pain inhibition and pleasure - Drugs that affect endorphin release o Opiates, heroin vicodin Principles of Psychopharmacology - Target affect - Side affect Dose-effect curve - Measuring the effectiveness of a drug Tolerance – drugs don’t effect you the more you take them Withdrawal – set of symptoms that occur when you stop taking drugs Physiological dependence vs. Psychological dependence


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