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Human Biology Study Guide

by: snufkin

Human Biology Study Guide Biol 100

Marketplace > San Francisco State University > Biology > Biol 100 > Human Biology Study Guide
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study guide for test 1
Human Biology
Lynne Dowdy
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by snufkin on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 100 at San Francisco State University taught by Lynne Dowdy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Human Biology in Biology at San Francisco State University.


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Date Created: 09/21/16
Biology 100 (04) ­ Human Biology                          Fall 2016 REVIEW SHEET FOR WEEKS #1­3  (material for in­class Exam #1)  Disclaimer: You will be tested for your understanding of all material covered in lecture and on the following  specific textbook pages: Chapter 1 (entire chapter, but OMIT Section 1.2); p. 32 (fiber in the diet); pp. 86­88  (regulation of body temp; negative/positive feedback); and pp. 332 and 354 (case study), 348­350 (diabetes), and pp. 476 and 500 (case study). 1. What are the seven characteristics common to all living things?  ­highly organized layers of structure ­homeostasis ­growth ­metabolism ­responsiveness to stimuli ­reproduction ­evolution 2. Know the order of the levels of organization in living things. (atoms, molecules, etc.) What is the “smallest  unit of life”? atom > molecule > cell > tissue > organ > organ system > organism 3. Define homeostasis. Know the temperature regulation example (from lecture and text): what is the body’s  thermostat and where is it? what body processes can raise body temperature? what body processes can lower  body temperature? In the context of temperature regulation, explain what pyrogens are, and explain how a  “fever” occurs. Then explain how a fever goes away. Also, know (to the extent discussed in class): cryogenics  and cryonics. What is the primary problem when freezing a tissue?  ­hypothalamus 4. (From text): Compare and contrast negative and positive feedback. Be able to provide examples of each. What type of feedback is used to regulate homeostasis? 5. What is an organism’s metabolism? ­the chemical processes that occur in a living organism 6. Define evolution.  ­genetic change in a population over time 7. (From lecture and text): What is the scientific method? What is a hypothesis, and what are the properties of a  good hypothesis? Understand what a controlled study is – in it, be able to identify the experimental variable,  control group, test (or experimental) group. What are the reasons to have a large sample size? Define and  explain the purpose of: placebo, blind experiment, double­blind study. What is the distinction between a  hypothesis and a theory? Why might information in scientific journals be more reliable than information in  magazines or on the Internet? (Also, distinguish between primary and secondary sources.) What types of  questions should one ask to evaluate science in the news? ­observation > hypothesis> experiment/observations > conclusion > scientific theory   8. (From text): For which discovery did Drs. Marshall and Warren receive a Nobel Prize in Medicine? Based on  this discovery, what treatment is currently used for those with ulcers? ­discovery of "the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease ­antibiotics used to treat ulcers 9. Understand the structure of the atom. Know the charge, location, and relative mass of protons vs. electrons vs. neutrons. 10. What is the Periodic Table of Elements? What do the numbers in the squares represent?  11. Know how to figure out how many protons, neutrons, and electrons an atom has. What does the atomic  number tell you? What does the mass number tell you? Why are the mass number and the atomic mass for an  element not necessarily the same? 12. What is an ion? What determines whether it is positive or negative? (If given data, be able to figure out the  charge on an ion.) 13. What is an isotope? Of what use are radioisotopes in research and medicine? For example, for what is the  iodine isotope used in medicine? How are radioisotopes used in cancer treatment? How are radioisotopes used as molecular tracers? What are the pros and cons of irradiating some fruits and vegetables? Does irradiated food  become radioactive? Why or why not? 14. What is the job of the thyroid gland? Which ion does it selectively use? Define hormone. What is a thyroid  scan? Know the sources of iodine in our diet. ­thyroid controls metabolism rate (releases hormones) ­hormone= chemical messenger ­thyroid scan uses different isotope of iodine to see if it is working properly ­seafood has best natural source of iodine, iodized salt 15. What is a chemical bond? In terms of atomic structure and electron shells, why do chemical bonds form?  What determines whether an atom is “stable” or not? What is a molecule? 16. Define and distinguish between the following chemical bonds: nonpolar covalent bond, polar covalent bond,  ionic bond, and hydrogen bond. Which bonds are strong? Which is weakest? Which store the most energy? the  least? Which bonds would require the most energy to break? the least? Thinking question … given where energy  is stored in a molecule, what does our body have to do, for us to get energy from food we eat? ­nonpolar covalent= equal sharing of a pair of electrons between two atoms ­ionic bond= electrical attraction between ions ­polar covalent bond= a pair of electrons shared unequally between two atoms ­hydrogen bond= partially positive hydrogen is attracted to a partially negative atom ­nonpolar covalent, ionic, and polar covalent bonds are strong bonds ­stronger bonds store more energy and requires more energy to break 17. Understand the chemistry of water molecules (polar molecule, hydrogen bonding, etc.) Understand the  concepts of polar vs. nonpolar molecules, hydrophilic vs. hydrophobic molecules. What is a hydrophobic  interaction, and why does it occur? 18. In science, what does the word organic mean? Conversely, in the grocery store, what does the word organic  mean?  ­organic= made of carbon (and hydrogen) ­organic in stores= no use of chemicals 19. Know the functions of carbohydrates. Into which class of carbohydrates do the following molecules fit, and  where in the body and/or in the diet are each of these found: starch, glucose, fiber, lactose, glycogen, sucrose,  fructose? ­quick energy, stores energy, building block ­monosaccharides: glucose, galactose, ribose, fructose ­disaccharides: maltose, sucrose, lactose ­polysaccharides: starch (in pants), glycogen (in animals to store glucose in liver and muscles), dietary  fiber 20. Know the basic structure of a sugar. What’s the difference between monosaccharides, disaccharides, and  polysaccharides? Which are simple sugars, and which are complex carbohydrates? According to most  nutritionists, should most carbohydrates in the diet be simple sugars or complex carbohydrates? Why?  ­complex carbs, more energy 21. What does it mean to be lactose intolerant? What is the biological basis for lactose intolerance? (For  example, what is lactase?) What are the symptoms, and what specifically causes them? What can be done to  avoid or minimize the symptoms? What accounts for differing degrees of lactose intolerance? Is lactose  intolerance common in adults?  22. What is the scientific explanation for why we get no nutrients or energy from fiber? (From lecture and text):  If we don’t get any energy or nutrients from fiber, why is it important to eat a diet high in fibers? What are  soluble and insoluble fibers? ­humans can’t digest fiber ­fiber lows risk of intestinal cancer ­lowers cholesterol levels 23. Distinguish between whole­wheat flour and refined white flour. (Know the structure of the wheat kernel, and know which parts are used in the two types of flour.) Why is whole­wheat flour “better for you”? What is meant  by the term enriched flour? 24. Know the sugar metabolism example discussed in class: Which molecule is “blood sugar”? In humans,  which complex carbohydrate is the storage form for this blood sugar? How does the body maintain blood sugar  levels within a normal range, and what type of feedback control (positive or negative) is involved? Big picture  … What is the role of insulin? Details … From which cells, and from which organ, does insulin come, and what  stimulates its release? Which body cells respond to insulin (and how do these cells “know” that insulin is there)?  What do the target cells do when insulin arrives? On the other hand, what is the role of glucagon? From which  cells, and from which organ, does glucagon come, and what stimulates its release? What do the target cells do  when glucagon arrives? ­high blood sugar detected by cells in pancreas ­beta cells in islets and langerhans produce insulin ­released into bloodstream, insulin receptors in liver, muscle, fat ­low blood sugar detected by pancreas ­alpha cells produce glucagon 25. (From lecture and text): Know diabetes mellitus – know the different types (Type 1, Type 2, and gestational); know who’s at risk for each, what the defect is in each case, how each is treated. Know the tests used to diagnose diabetes, and know the major symptoms and long­term complications of having the disease. What type of  diabetes is most common? Know the story of how insulin was discovered. ­type 1: starts in childhood ­doesn’t make insulin ­thought to be autoimmune disease ­kndey problems, retina damage, nerve damage, cardiovascular problems ­treatment= inject insulin ­type 2: (most common) ­usually starts in adults ­risk factors= family history sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, obesity ­insulin still made, receptors don’t respond ­treatment= change lifestyle, reduce risk factors ­gestational diabetes: during pregnancy ­ends w/ pregnancy but prone to getting it in later pregnancies ­risk of type 2 in mother and baby 26. In the low­carb diet craze, which carbohydrates are the ones to specifically avoid? Understand the concept of high­glycemic index foods vs. low­glycemic index foods. Which are better for you? What are some examples of  foods with high glycemic index? In the context of fat stores in the body, how do low­carb diets (such as the  Atkins diet) work for weight loss?  ­glycemis effect= how much blood sugar and insulin rise ­high glycemic effect: high rise in blood sugar and insulin ­chronically high insulin is bad ­high blood cholesterol ­high body fat ­hunger, overeating ­high glycemic index (bad carbs): candy, “white carbs”­ white bread, white rice, potato ­low glycemic index (good carbs): whole wheat bread, brown rice ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ EXAM #1 is Wednesday, September 21.  You will need to bring a Zeus form and a No. 2 pencil to the exam.


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