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Psych 1004 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Jessie Notetaker

Psych 1004 Exam 1 Study Guide Psych 1004

Jessie Notetaker
Virginia Tech

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About this Document

This is an overview of the most important notes from the 9 lectures, including everything mentioned in the last review class that went over everything needed for Exam 1
Introductory Psychology
Prof. BB DeVore
Study Guide
Intro to Psychology
50 ?




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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessie Notetaker on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 1004 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Prof. BB DeVore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

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Date Created: 09/21/16
Exam  1      Study   Guide    Psych   1004:   Intro   to   Psych      Definition   of    sychology:      he   scientific   study     ehavior   nd     rain   processes      Goal     o  tudy  b  ehavior   o   be ble   o    redict    an   odify    behavior     ossible   thical   issues   in                                                                                      modifying*  Scientific   Method  1. Observation   2. Define   the  P  roblem  3. Propose  t  he   Hypothesis  4. Experimentation  5. Theory   Formulation   (use   hypothesis   to   test   theory)    Big   Names      *more   important*)  ­ Roger  S  perry    (1913­1994)  w  orked  w  ith    he   two   hemispheres   of   the   brain  ­ David   Hubel   ( 1926­2013)  w   orked  w  ith   he   visual   system  ­ Georg   Von   Bekesy  (   1899­1972)   worked   with  t   he   auditory   system  ­ Linda   Buck  a nd   Richard  A  xel     orked   with   he  lfactory   system  ­ *Delgado    used   stimulation   of   the    amygdala   to   modify   the   fight   or   flight   system   in   a  charging   bull*  ­ *Lametrie  (   renaissance)   said   “ Man   i    machine ”*  ­ *Descartes    (renaissance)     Father   of   Psychology*  ­ Galen    (200   C.E.)   “The   Great   Physician”   worked   with    gladiators   and   occipital   lobes  ­ Robert   Bartholow    worked   with   localization,   used   electricity   on   a   woman’s   exposed   brain  to  timulate   physical   movement  ­ *Paul   Broca    worked   with   language   (with   2   case   studies:    LeBorgne   and   Lelong ).  Recognized   that   damage   to   left   frontal   lobe   impaired   speech.    Broca’s   Area   in   Left   Frontal  Lobe   controls   speech   output *  ­ *Carl   Wernicke   w  orked   with   language  a s   ell.    ernicke’s   Area,   further   ack   han  Broca’s   Area,   works   with   language   comprehension*  ­                     History     f      Psychology   Lab  Dark  A   ges    Renaissance                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Philosophy                                                                     Physiology    th                                                                                                  Wundt’s   Lab   ( mid   19     century)    Philosophical   Doctrines  Monism     is   the   idea   that   nothing   exists   (supernaturally)   other   than   the   brain.   The   concept   of  “mind”   or   “soul”   is   ot   real   in   monism.   Dualism    is   the   idea   that   soul/mind   exists,   and   are   separate   from   the   physical   brain  Interactionism     (Descartes)   in   which   the  m  ind   and   brain   interact.   Descartes   believed   his   ccurred  at   the  ineal   Gland    Areas   of   he   Brain                     *a  reas  of  the    ody  oriented   upside     own  and   backwards   on  brain*    *motor   functions  in  front,  sensory   in  back*          Research   Methods   (in  order   of validity)  1. Case   Study  s   tudying    ne   person’s   situation  2. Single   Subject  E  xperiment  3. Test  M  ethod  4. Survey   Method  5. Observational  M   ethod  (  used   commonly   in   arent­child   relationship   studies)  Correlational   Method    (does   not   prove   causation,   but   measures   relationship   of   2   variables                                                                                                                                                      and   allows   for   prediction   of   one   variable   from   another,                                                                                                                                                         r   =   coefficient   of   determination.   (­1   and   1   =   perfect   correlation,                                                                                                                                                      0      =   no   correlation)                    6.    Experimental    (allows   for   causality,   control   groups   needed.   Involves   manipulation   of   the                                                                                                      independent   variable   and   measurement   of   the   dependent   variable)    Research   Terms  The   Yerkes­Dodson   Law    states   that   there   is   an   optimal   level   of   arousal   to   achieve   maximum  performance   potential,   but   any   arousal   above   or   below   that  will   cause   lower  erformance    *like  his*                Neurons        Action   Potential   (all   or   none)  1. Stimulus   enters   dendrites   and   travels   through   the   cell   body   to   the   axon   hillock,   the   top   of  the   xon  2. Sodium   (Na )   enters   cell   through   sodium   channels,   cell’s   electric   potential   becomes   more  positive   (­70    V   to  55mV)  3. If   threshold   (­55   mV)   is   met,   ction   Potential     is   trigger llowing   even   more   sodium   to  enter   the   cell   and    depolarize    it,   making   the   inside   charge   positive   and   the   outside   charge  negative  4. Peak   voltage   causes   sodium   channels   to   close   and   potassium   channels   to   open.   Now   the  sodium   is   still   in   the   cell   but   the   potassium   has   left,   repolarizing   the   cell  5. The   neuron   becomes    hyperpolarized    when   more   potassium   is   on   the   outside   than   sodium  is   on   the   inside.   This   causes   cell   potential   to   drop   below   resting   potential  6. Refractory  p   eriod    returns   potassium   to   the   inside   and   sodium   he   outside   using   pumps(  mitochondria/energy   used).   Polarity  i  s   restored.     * Potassium    is   responsible   to   restore   resting   potential   for   multiple   potentials  * Sodium­Potassium   Pumps  m    aintain   resting   potential    Graded   Potentials  (  have   varying  l  evels)  1. Excitatory   (EPSP)   +..........   Depolarize   cell   (decreases   voltage)  2. Inhibitory   (IPSP)   ­.............   Hyperpolarize   cell   (increases   voltage)    Neurotransmitters  Chemicals   that   are   ejected   from   the   ends   of   axon   terminals   in    vesicles    into   the    synapse    between  the   two   cells   that   then   bind   to   receptors   on   the   next   cell   and   send   the   stimulus   down   that   cell.  ­ Acetylcholine   (ACh)     contracts   muscles  ­ Acetylcholinesterase   (AChE)    is   the   enzyme  t  hat   breaks   ACh   away   from   receptor  ­ Dopamine  (  DA)    involved   with  r eward   and  d  rive  ­ Norepinephrine   (NE)    involved   with   mood,   used   with   antidepressants  ­ Serotonin    also   used   with   antidepressants,   especially   with   women   ­ Endorphins   and   Neuropeptides   h   ave   piate   tructures   like   heroin   and   morphine    Drugs  ­ Curare    block   ACh   receptors   on   muscles   (muscle   relaxor)  ­ Scopolamine  b    locks   ACh   receptors   on   brain   (memory)  ­ Atropine    blocks   ACh   receptors   on   glands   (dries   glands   for   surgery)  ­ Botulism    blocks   ACh  r elease   (botox)  ­ Nerve  G  as    locks   AChE   (muscles   can’t   relax)    Different   Ways   Drugs   Work  ­ Storage  ­ Release  ­ Reuptake  ­ Block   receptor  s ite  ­ Stimulate   receptor   site    Two   Hemispheres     Left    rain   (Me)  Right   Brain   The   World)  ­ Language  ­ Spatial  ( faces,   laces   can   “spot”  ­ Serial   Processing   (one   item   at   a   time)  things,   can   sense   lying)  ­ Social   approach   (moves   towards  ­ Parallel   Processing   people)  ­ Socially   avoidant  ­ Dominant.   Self­righteous  ­ Negative   Emotions   (intense   emotion)  ­ Positive   Emotion  ­ Sympathetic   system   (raises   BP   and  ­ Parasympathetic   system(lowers   BP  heart   rate)  and    eart  ate)    Stroke   Symptoms  Stroke   Symptoms  ­ Interesting   sights   and   sounds  ­ Forced   to   do   things   you   don’t   want   to   ­ “Something   is   wrong   with   me”  ­ Sinister   scary   sounds   and   sights  ­ Speech   Inertia  ­ “Nothing   is    rong  w  ith   me,   it’s  everyone   else”  ­ Spatial   Inertia          Frontal     obe   (front   of brain)   Organizing       Planning        Sequencing     Regulatory   Functions  Left     peech   Output  Right      Emotional    utput  Back   of  Brain   (Parietal,   Occipital,   and   Temporal   Lobes)  Reception   and   Comprehension Vision                Audit      Gustation Body   Sensation  Left    ­   Language   Comprehension  Right    ­   Emotional  omprehension    * corpus­   callosum    connection   between   two   hemispheres*    Senses  *  ransduction   is   the   process   by   whi  hysical  nergy   is   transformed   into   neural   energy*  * Absolute   Threshold   is   the   amount   of   stimulation   that   must   be   present   to   sense   a   stimulus    50%    of  the   time*  *Difference   Threshold   is   the   amount   of   difference   in   stimulation   needed   to   be   able   to   sense   a  difference*    Vision  ­ Cornea    dmits   light  ­ Iris ,    2   bands   of   muscles   that   control   light   entering  ­ Retina    at   the   back   of   the   eye,   contains   cones   and   rods  ­ Accommodation    changes   shape   of   lens   to   adjust   for   distance  ­ Bipolar   cells    receive   info   in   retina  ­ Ganglion  c  ells    receiv nfo   from   bipolar   cel nd   end   to  ptic   nerve  ­ Rods    (function  n   dim ight)   ­ Cones    perceive   olor  * Inverted   Retina   ­   signal   travels   to   back   of   brain   then   comes   back*  *Optic   disk   ­   blind   spot*    Binocular   Cues  Retinal   disparity,   each   eye   sees   the   world   from   a   different   angle    Monocular   Cues  ­ Superposition  ­ Relative   Size  ­ Texture    radient  ­ Height   in   Plane  Laws   of   Perceptual    rganization  1. Law   of   Grounding   (eyes   want   to   see   a   figure   on   a   background)  2. Law   of  C  ontinuity  3. Law   of   Proximity  4. Law   of  S  imilarity  5. Law   of  C  losure   back   of  ight   brain)    Gustation  Changes   as   we   mature  Sweet  Sour Bitter Salty Umami    Olfaction  Very   connected   to   memories  Gustation   and   olfaction   are   “chemosenses”   as   they   perceive   chemicals   from   the   environment    * Distal   Stimulus    is   stimulus   in   the   environ  hile    roximal   stimulus    is   the   stim n   the  body   as   eural   energy*    Development   (Not   child   psyc,   which  nly   evaluates   childhood)  Research   Designs  Cross   Sectional  ­ Different   age   roups   (not   developmental   study)  ­ Cohort   effect    is   when   a   group   was   raised   the   same   with   the   same   influences   making   them  unique  f rom   the  ntire   population  Longitudinal  ­ Same   subjects   across   different   ages   (developmental)  ­ Problems:   cost,   reactivity   effects,   attrition,   choice   of   measures  Cross   Sequential  ­ Follows   different   age   groups   for   multipl  ears    Two  M  eta   Theories    Empiricists   (Nurture)  Rationalists   (Nature)  ­ John   Locke   (1690)  ­ Descartes,   Kant  ­ Mind   at   birth   is   a   “tabula   rasa”   ­ Mind   at   birth   has   innate   ideas  ­ Development  =      Learning  ­ Development   =   Maturation  ­ Smooth  C   ontinuum  ­ Abrupt   Stages  Sigmond  F   reud   (1856)  Stage   Theory    (oral,   anal,   phallic,   latent,   genital)   *fixation   if   needs   of   one   stage   not   met*  ­ Id   ­   instincts   at   birth,   need   for   immediate   gratification  ­ Superego   ­  s ocietal   rules   make   us  eel   guilty  ­ Ego  ­    alances   demands  o   f   i     superego    Piaget  Stages:  1. Sensorimotor   (  0­2)      bject    ermanence  2. Preoperational    (2­7)         language  3. Concrete  O   perational  (   7­12)   Conservation  4. Formal  O   perational  (   12+)   Abstract   Concepts    *Vertical   De’Collage    is   the   use   of   the   same   cognitive   function   over   different   stages    * Accommodation    and  a    ssimilation     sed   to  rganize   and   develop  n  ew   chemas                 


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