Psych 1004 Exam 1 Study Guide
Psych 1004 Exam 1 Study Guide Psych 1004
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Popular in Psychology
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessie Notetaker on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 1004 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Prof. BB DeVore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
Exam 1 Study Guide Psych 1004: Intro to Psych Definition of sychology: he scientific study ehavior nd rain processes Goal o tudy b ehavior o be ble o redict an odify behavior ossible thical issues in modifying* Scientific Method 1. Observation 2. Define the P roblem 3. Propose t he Hypothesis 4. Experimentation 5. Theory Formulation (use hypothesis to test theory) Big Names *more important*) Roger S perry (19131994) w orked w ith he two hemispheres of the brain David Hubel ( 19262013) w orked w ith he visual system Georg Von Bekesy ( 18991972) worked with t he auditory system Linda Buck a nd Richard A xel orked with he lfactory system *Delgado used stimulation of the amygdala to modify the fight or flight system in a charging bull* *Lametrie ( renaissance) said “ Man i machine ”* *Descartes (renaissance) Father of Psychology* Galen (200 C.E.) “The Great Physician” worked with gladiators and occipital lobes Robert Bartholow worked with localization, used electricity on a woman’s exposed brain to timulate physical movement *Paul Broca worked with language (with 2 case studies: LeBorgne and Lelong ). Recognized that damage to left frontal lobe impaired speech. Broca’s Area in Left Frontal Lobe controls speech output * *Carl Wernicke w orked with language a s ell. ernicke’s Area, further ack han Broca’s Area, works with language comprehension* History f Psychology Lab Dark A ges Renaissance Philosophy Physiology th Wundt’s Lab ( mid 19 century) Philosophical Doctrines Monism is the idea that nothing exists (supernaturally) other than the brain. The concept of “mind” or “soul” is ot real in monism. Dualism is the idea that soul/mind exists, and are separate from the physical brain Interactionism (Descartes) in which the m ind and brain interact. Descartes believed his ccurred at the ineal Gland Areas of he Brain *a reas of the ody oriented upside own and backwards on brain* *motor functions in front, sensory in back* Research Methods (in order of validity) 1. Case Study s tudying ne person’s situation 2. Single Subject E xperiment 3. Test M ethod 4. Survey Method 5. Observational M ethod ( used commonly in arentchild relationship studies) Correlational Method (does not prove causation, but measures relationship of 2 variables and allows for prediction of one variable from another, r = coefficient of determination. (1 and 1 = perfect correlation, 0 = no correlation) 6. Experimental (allows for causality, control groups needed. Involves manipulation of the independent variable and measurement of the dependent variable) Research Terms The YerkesDodson Law states that there is an optimal level of arousal to achieve maximum performance potential, but any arousal above or below that will cause lower erformance *like his* Neurons Action Potential (all or none) 1. Stimulus enters dendrites and travels through the cell body to the axon hillock, the top of the xon 2. Sodium (Na ) enters cell through sodium channels, cell’s electric potential becomes more positive (70 V to 55mV) 3. If threshold (55 mV) is met, ction Potential is trigger llowing even more sodium to enter the cell and depolarize it, making the inside charge positive and the outside charge negative 4. Peak voltage causes sodium channels to close and potassium channels to open. Now the sodium is still in the cell but the potassium has left, repolarizing the cell 5. The neuron becomes hyperpolarized when more potassium is on the outside than sodium is on the inside. This causes cell potential to drop below resting potential 6. Refractory p eriod returns potassium to the inside and sodium he outside using pumps( mitochondria/energy used). Polarity i s restored. * Potassium is responsible to restore resting potential for multiple potentials * SodiumPotassium Pumps m aintain resting potential Graded Potentials ( have varying l evels) 1. Excitatory (EPSP) +.......... Depolarize cell (decreases voltage) 2. Inhibitory (IPSP) ............. Hyperpolarize cell (increases voltage) Neurotransmitters Chemicals that are ejected from the ends of axon terminals in vesicles into the synapse between the two cells that then bind to receptors on the next cell and send the stimulus down that cell. Acetylcholine (ACh) contracts muscles Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the enzyme t hat breaks ACh away from receptor Dopamine ( DA) involved with r eward and d rive Norepinephrine (NE) involved with mood, used with antidepressants Serotonin also used with antidepressants, especially with women Endorphins and Neuropeptides h ave piate tructures like heroin and morphine Drugs Curare block ACh receptors on muscles (muscle relaxor) Scopolamine b locks ACh receptors on brain (memory) Atropine blocks ACh receptors on glands (dries glands for surgery) Botulism blocks ACh r elease (botox) Nerve G as locks AChE (muscles can’t relax) Different Ways Drugs Work Storage Release Reuptake Block receptor s ite Stimulate receptor site Two Hemispheres Left rain (Me) Right Brain The World) Language Spatial ( faces, laces can “spot” Serial Processing (one item at a time) things, can sense lying) Social approach (moves towards Parallel Processing people) Socially avoidant Dominant. Selfrighteous Negative Emotions (intense emotion) Positive Emotion Sympathetic system (raises BP and Parasympathetic system(lowers BP heart rate) and eart ate) Stroke Symptoms Stroke Symptoms Interesting sights and sounds Forced to do things you don’t want to “Something is wrong with me” Sinister scary sounds and sights Speech Inertia “Nothing is rong w ith me, it’s everyone else” Spatial Inertia Frontal obe (front of brain) Organizing Planning Sequencing Regulatory Functions Left peech Output Right Emotional utput Back of Brain (Parietal, Occipital, and Temporal Lobes) Reception and Comprehension Vision Audit Gustation Body Sensation Left Language Comprehension Right Emotional omprehension * corpus callosum connection between two hemispheres* Senses * ransduction is the process by whi hysical nergy is transformed into neural energy* * Absolute Threshold is the amount of stimulation that must be present to sense a stimulus 50% of the time* *Difference Threshold is the amount of difference in stimulation needed to be able to sense a difference* Vision Cornea dmits light Iris , 2 bands of muscles that control light entering Retina at the back of the eye, contains cones and rods Accommodation changes shape of lens to adjust for distance Bipolar cells receive info in retina Ganglion c ells receiv nfo from bipolar cel nd end to ptic nerve Rods (function n dim ight) Cones perceive olor * Inverted Retina signal travels to back of brain then comes back* *Optic disk blind spot* Binocular Cues Retinal disparity, each eye sees the world from a different angle Monocular Cues Superposition Relative Size Texture radient Height in Plane Laws of Perceptual rganization 1. Law of Grounding (eyes want to see a figure on a background) 2. Law of C ontinuity 3. Law of Proximity 4. Law of S imilarity 5. Law of C losure back of ight brain) Gustation Changes as we mature Sweet Sour Bitter Salty Umami Olfaction Very connected to memories Gustation and olfaction are “chemosenses” as they perceive chemicals from the environment * Distal Stimulus is stimulus in the environ hile roximal stimulus is the stim n the body as eural energy* Development (Not child psyc, which nly evaluates childhood) Research Designs Cross Sectional Different age roups (not developmental study) Cohort effect is when a group was raised the same with the same influences making them unique f rom the ntire population Longitudinal Same subjects across different ages (developmental) Problems: cost, reactivity effects, attrition, choice of measures Cross Sequential Follows different age groups for multipl ears Two M eta Theories Empiricists (Nurture) Rationalists (Nature) John Locke (1690) Descartes, Kant Mind at birth is a “tabula rasa” Mind at birth has innate ideas Development = Learning Development = Maturation Smooth C ontinuum Abrupt Stages Sigmond F reud (1856) Stage Theory (oral, anal, phallic, latent, genital) *fixation if needs of one stage not met* Id instincts at birth, need for immediate gratification Superego s ocietal rules make us eel guilty Ego alances demands o f i superego Piaget Stages: 1. Sensorimotor ( 02) bject ermanence 2. Preoperational (27) language 3. Concrete O perational ( 712) Conservation 4. Formal O perational ( 12+) Abstract Concepts *Vertical De’Collage is the use of the same cognitive function over different stages * Accommodation and a ssimilation sed to rganize and develop n ew chemas
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