HNF150 final study guide
HNF150 final study guide HNF 150
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by haylin on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HNF 150 at Michigan State University taught by k. Alaimo in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Michigan State University.
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HNF 150 FALL 2015 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE LEARNING OBJECTIVES Nutrition Basics 1. Understand the concept of nutrient density and state how it can be used to determine the healthfulness of foods Nutrient Density: a measure of nutrient provided per calorie of food. A nutrient-dense food provides vitamins, minerals, and other beneficial substances with relatively few calories. 2. Identify the six classes of nutrients. Recall the energy yield (kcal/gram) for carbohydrate, protein, fat, and alcohol. Six classes of nutrients: Water, Carbohydrate(4Cal/g), Fat(lipid, 9Cal/g), Protein(4Cal/g), Vitamins, Minerals Alcohol(7Cal/g) 3. Compare and contrast whole, processed, enriched/fortified, and functional foods and recognize examples of each. Whole foods: milk and milk products; meats and similar foods such as fish and poultry; vegetables, including dried beans and peas; fruits and grains. These foods are generally considered to form the basis of a nutritious diet. Also called basic foods. Processed foods: foods subjected to any process, such as milling, alteration of texture, addition of additives, cooking, or others. Depending on the starting material and the process, a processed food may or may not be nutritious. Enriched/fortified foods: foods to which nutrients have been added. If the starting material is a whole, basic food such as milk or whole grain, the result may be highly nutritious. If the starting material is a concentrated form of sugar or fat, the result may be less nutritious Enriched: when you add back a nutrient that was already there Fortified: when you add a nutrient that was not there in the first place Functional foods: whole or modified foods that contain bioactive food components believed to provide health benefits, such as reduced disease risks, beyond the benefits that their nutrients confer. a general term for a food with beneficial physiological or psychological effects beyond providing essential nutrients Terms/concepts: Given the terms/concepts, be able to provide the definition of the term according to the readings and lecture notes. Given a definition of the term/concept and/or an example, be able to state the term. 1. Whole foods (not the supermarket!) 2. Enriched/fortified foods 3. Processed foods 4. Six classes of nutrients 5. Essential nutrients: The nutrients the body cannot make for itself (or cannot make fast enough) from other raw materials; nutrients that must be obtained from food to prevent deficiencies 6. Nutrient density 1 HNF 150 FALL 2015 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE LEARNING OBJECTIVES 7. Energy-yielding nutrients: The body can use the energy they contain. Carbohydrate, Fat (lipid), Protein 8. Organic/inorganic nutrients: The nutrients that contain carbon are organic. Carbohydrate, Fat, Protein, Vitamins 9. Calorie: Units of energy. Nutrition Recommendations/How Do We Know What We Know? 1. State how the DRI’s (RDA and EER) for energy and other nutrients are established. Dietary Reference Intakes: a set of four lists of values for measuring the nutrient intakes of healthy people in the US and Canada. The four lists are Estimated Average Requirements(EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowance(RDA), Adequate Intakes(AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels(UL) RDA: nutrient intake goals for individuals; the average daily nutrient intake level that meets the needs of nearly all (97-98%) healthy people in a particular life stage and gender group. Derived from the Estimated Average Requirements Estimated Energy Requirement (EER): the average dietary energy intake predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult of a certain age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity consistent with good health. 2. Identify the purposes and differences in the nutrient standards: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)-Estimated Average Requirements (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), Adequate Intakes (AI), Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL), Daily Value (DV) and Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR). EAR: the average daily nutrient intake estimated to meet the requirement of half of the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group; used in nutrition research and policy making and is the basis upon which RDA values are set RDA: nutrient intake goals for individuals; the average daily nutrient intake level that meets the needs of nearly all (97-98%) healthy people in a particular life stage and gender group. Derived from the Estimated Average Requirements AI: nutrient intake goals for individuals; the recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on intakes of healthy people (observed or experimentally derived) in a particular life stage and gender group and assumed to be adequate. Set whenever scientific data are insufficient to allow establishment of an RDA value. UL: the highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of toxicity to almost all healthy individuals of a particular life stage and gender group. Usual intake above this level may place an individual at risk of illness from nutrient toxicity. DV: nutrient standards that are printed on food labels and on grocery store and restaurant signs. Based on nutrient and energy recommendations for a general 2000-calorie diet, they allow consumers to compare foods with regard to nutrients and calorie contents. 2 HNF 150 FALL 2015 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE LEARNING OBJECTIVES AMDR: values for carbohydrate, fat and protein expressed as percentages of total daily calorie intake; ranges of intakes set for the energy-yielding nutrients that are sufficient to provide adequate total energy and nutrients while minimizing the risk of chronic diseases. 3. For the following nutrition labeling terms, state the definition, who sets, how, why and/or for whom: the DRI’s, Nutrition Facts Labels, DV, RDA, AI, EAR, UL, nutrient and health claims. DRI: set by the Food and Nutrition Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington DC DV: set by FDA 4. When given the nutrient content of a food or diet in grams, calculate the percent of calories in the food or diet from carbohydrate, protein and fat. Terms/concepts: Given the terms/concepts, be able to provide the definition of the term according to the readings and lecture notes. Given a definition of the term/concept and/or an example, be able to state the term. 1. Balance Study: a laboratory study in which a person is fed a controlled diet and then intake and excretion of a nutrient are measured. Balance studies are valid only for nutrients like calcium (chemical elements) that do not change while they are in the body 2. Phytochemical: phytochemicals structurally similar to the female sex hormone estrogen. Phytoestrogens weakly mimic estrogen or modulate hormone activity in the human body 3. Antioxidant: compounds that protects other compounds from damaging reactions involving oxygen by themselves reacting with oxygen. Body Basics 1. List the order of the components of the digestive tract and the main digestive actions taking place in each. Flexible, muscular tube that digests food and absorbs its nutrients and some non- nutrients. Total length 26 feet long. 1. Mouth (oral) 2. Esophagus 3. Stomach 4. Small intestine 5. Large intestine 6. Rectum 7. anus 3 HNF 150 FALL 2015 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE LEARNING OBJECTIVES 2. Compare the differences between mechanical digestion and chemical digestion and point out where these processes occur along the digestive tract. 3. Recall the basics of digestion and absorption for carbohydrates, protein, fat and water. CARB digestion begins: salivary enzyme converts starch to sugar Parietal cells secrete ACID (HCl). Acidic environment stops CARB digestion. SUGARS (type of CARB) from banana absorbed into small intestinal cells Fiber and resistant starch (PREBIOTICS) in seeds, bread, PB, and banana is parly digested/fermented by bacteria Protein: Activates protein enzymes to uncoil PROTEINS in bread, PB and seeds Lipid: Secretion of enzymes to clip protein and lipids (primarily protein) Bile from liver (stored in gall bladder) arrives through the bile duct to blend with FAT from PB and seeds. Small FATS and some VITAMINS absorbed by lymph, then to blood and liver FIBER fragments, water, and some minerals (especially sodium and potassium) are abosrbed Carbs, Protein, Fats broken into smaller units by enzymes and absorbed by small intestinal cells. CARBS, PROTEINS, VIT, MINERALS, and large FATS absorbed by blood and go to liver Terms/concepts: Given the terms/concepts, be able to provide the definition of the term according to the readings and lecture notes. Given a definition of the term/concept and/or an example, be able to state the term. 1. digestive system 2. excretory system n lungs (CO )2 n Liver (pull waste out of blood, send to small intestine to be excreted or to kidney) n Kidneys (filter blood and collect waste hold in blood) 3. storage systems n liver n muscles n fat cell (adipose tissue)- fat storage 4. enzyme: proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed in the process; protein catalysts 5. blood: the fluid of the cardiovascular system; composed of water, red and white blood cells, other formed particles, nutrients, oxygen, and other constituents 6. lymph: the fluid that moves from the bloodstream into tissue spaces and then travels in its own vessels, which eventually drain back into the bloodstream 7. hormone: chemical messengers secreted by a number of body organs in response to conditions that require regulation. Each hormone affects a specific organ to tissue and elicits a specific response 8. insulin: a hormone secreted by the pancreas in response to a high blood glucose concentration. It assists cells in drawing glucose from the blood. 4 HNF150 SPRING 2012 Week 3 9. Glucagon: a hormone secreted by the pancreas that stimulates the liver to release glucose into the blood when blood glucose concentration dips 10. Adipose: the body’s fat tissue, consisting of masses of fat-storing cells and blood vessels to nourish them. 11. glycogen: a highly branched polysaccharide that is made and stored by liver and muscle tissues of human beings and animals as a storage form of glucose. Glycogen is not a significant flood source of carbohydrate and is not counted as one of the complex carbohydrates in foods 12. pancreas: an organ with two main functions. One is an endocrine function- the making of hormones such as insulin, which it releases directly into the blood. The other is an exocrine function- the making of digestive enzymes, which it releases through a duct into the small intestine to assist in digestion 13. gallbladder: stores bile until needed 14. bile duct: conducts bile to small intestine 15. digestive tract 16. kidneys: filter wastes from the blood, make urine, and release it to the bladder for excretion from the body 17. bile: a cholesterol-containing digestive fluid made by liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine when needed. It emulsifies fats and oils to ready them for enzymatic digestion. 18. gastric juices: digestive secretion of stomach 19. mucus: a slippery coating of the digestive tract lining (and other body linings) that protects the cells from exposure to digestive juices (and other destructive agents). 20. saliva 21. chyme 22. bolus 23. villi: fingerlike projections of the sheets of cells lining the intestinal tract. The villi make the surface area much greater than it would otherwise be Carbohydrates and Diabetes 1. Describe the 4 types of carbohydrates and identify their food sources. Sugars- monosaccharides: glucose, fructose(fruit sugar, most consumed from sweet beverages, desserts, and other foods sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup or other added sugars), galactose(sugar of milk, rarely occurs free in nature) Sugars- disaccharides: lactose (milk sugar), maltose (appears wherever starch is being broken down, occurs in germinating seeds and arises during the digestion of starch in the human body), sucrose (familiar table sugar, naturally in vegetables and fruits) 5 HNF150 SPRING 2012 Week 3 Starch: polysaccharides; plant’s storage form of glucose Glycogen: storage form of glucose in animals and human beings Fibers: ONLY FOUND IN PLANTS; human digestive enzymes cannot break the chemical bonds of fiber; fiber is broken down and fermented by some bacteria in the large intestine. 2. Describe the process of digestion and absorption of simple sugars, starch, and fiber. Simple sugars: travel in the bloodstream to the liver, then convert fructose and galactose to glucose. Starch: begins in mouth, enzyme in saliva split starch into shorter units, still working in stomach’s upper storage area, go down, than stop; resumes in small intestine, another enzyme from pancreas breaks starch down into disaccharides and small polysaccharides. Other enzymes liberate monosaccharides for absorption Fiber: fermented by the bacterial inhabitants of the human colon 3. Identify and define the two types of fiber, explain how fiber differs from other carbohydrates, and describe how fiber contributes to health. 6 HNF150 SPRING 2012 Week 3 4. Compare and contrast the nutrient differences between whole grains and refined grains and the components of the grain included in each type of food Whole Grains: milled grain including bran, germ, and endosperm; MORE FIBER Refined Grains: only endosperm is milled, parts of the food is removed. Terms/concepts: Given the terms/concepts, be able to provide the definition of the term according to the readings and lecture notes. Given a definition of the term/concept and/or an example, be able to state the term. 1. simple sugar (simple carbohydrate) 2. monosaccharide 3. disaccharide 4. polysaccharide 5. glucose 6. fructose 7. sucrose 8. maltose 9. lactose 10. starch 11. fiber 12. refined 13. enriched: addition of nutrients to refined foods 14. whole grain 15. 3 parts of grains 16. glycogen: a highly branched polysaccharide that is made and stored by liver and muscle tissues of human beings and animals as a storage form of glucose. Glycogen is not a significant food source of carbohydrate and is not counted as one of the complex carbohydrates in foods. 17. high fructose corn syrup 18. glucagon: a hormone secreted by the pancreas that stimulates the liver to release glucose into the blood when blood glucose concentration dips 19. insulin: a hormone secreted by the pancreas in response to a high blood glucose concentration. It assists cells in drawing glucose from the blood. Lipids and Cardiovascular Disease 1. Describe the process of digestion and absorption of triglycerides, and small and large chain fatty acids. In the stomach, fats separate from other food components In the small intestine, bile emulsifies the fats, enzymes digest them, and the intestinal cells absorb them. Being shuttling by the bile across the watery mucus layer to the absorptive surfaces on cells of the intestinal villi. Lipids are extracted Up to 98% of fats consumed are absorbed. 7 HNF 150 FALL 2015 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE LEARNING OBJECTIVES 2. Describe the lipid transportation and differences in the lipoproteins in the blood. Glycerol and short-chain fatty acids travel in the bloodstream unassisted Other lipids need lipoproteins to carry them in watery body fluids Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL): carry triglycerides and other lipids made in the liver to the body cells for their use Low-density lipoproteins (LDL): transport cholesterol and other lipids to the tissues. LDL are made from VLDL after they have donated many of their triglycerides to body cells. Larger, lighter, richer in cholesterol than HDL High-density lipoproteins (HDL): which carry cholesterol away from body cells to the liver for disposal LDL deliver cholesterol to the tissues; HDL scavenge excess cholesterol and other lipids from the tissues and transport them via the bloodstream to the liver for disposal When LDL cholesterol is too high, it contributes to lipids buildup in tissues, particularly in the lining of the arteries, that can trigger inflammation and lead to heart disease; HDL cholesterol opposes these effects and when HDL in the blood drops below the recommended level, heart disease risks rise in response. 3. Compare and contrast the physical properties of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and trans fatty acids fats. Saturated fatty acid: a fatty acid carrying the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms (having no points of unsaturation). A saturated fat is a triglyceride that contains three saturated fatty acids Unsaturated fatty acid: a fatty acid that lacks some hydrogen atoms and has one or more points of unsaturation. An unsaturated fat is a triglyceride that contains one or more unsaturated fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acid: a fatty acid containing one point of unsaturation Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA): a fatty acid with two or more points of unsaturation Trans-fatty acids: fatty acids with unusual shapes that can arise when hydrogens are added to the unsaturated fatty acids of polyunsaturated oils (hydrogenation) 4. Identify common food sources of cholesterol, saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, trans, and omega-3 fatty acids. Cholesterol: only animal foods such as eggs, meat, fish, poultry, butter and dairy fat Saturated: all animal sources unless “low” or “no” fat Palm, coconut, cotton seed Monounsaturated: olive oil, canola oil, avocado Polyunsaturated: corn oil, soybean oil, safflower oil, sunflower oil Trans: in a lot of processed food Omega-3: canola oils, flaxseed oils, soybean oils, walnut oils, wheatgerm oils 5. State the definition and causes of atherosclerosis. Why is LDL “bad” and HDL “good”? What can cause vascular injuries? The most common form of cardiovascular disease; characterized by plaques along the inner walls of the arteries Starts with an “LDL”, the fatty acids in our LDL are susceptible to becoming oxidized (a.k.a damaged) 8 HNF 150 FALL 2015 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE LEARNING OBJECTIVES LDL then becomes very sticky and can become stuck to an “injury” on the inside of your blood vessels • Bacterial or viral infection • Increased turbulence of blood flow at branch points -hypertension- high blood pressure • Irritants (smoking, drugs)-causes injury insides arteries • Hyperinsulinemia (Type 2 Diabetes or borderline diabetes) • Penetration of wall by oxidized LDL -process itself can be injury 6. Describe the relationships between the following and risk of CVD: saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, dietary cholesterol, sugar, fish oil (omega-3 fatty acids), fruits and vegetables (soluble fiber) Dietary measures to lower LDL cholesterol include reducing intakes of saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol, along with consuming enough nutrient-dense fruits, vegetables, legumes, fish, and whole grains Terms/concepts: Given the terms/concepts, be able to provide the definition of the term according to the readings and lecture notes. Given a definition of the term/concept and/or an example, be able to state the term. 1. Satiety: the perception of fullness that lingers in the hours after a meal and inhibits eating until the next mealtime. Satiety determines the length of time between meals 2. essential fatty acid: fatty acids that the body needs but cannot make and so must be obtained form the diet. 3. Triglycerides: chief form of fat in foods. Made up of three units of fatty acids and one unit of glycerol. 4. fatty acid chain length 5. fatty acid saturation 6. hydrogenation 7. partial hydrogenation 8. trans fatty acid 9. cholesterol 10. pancreas 11. bile 12. gallbladder 13. emulsification: the process of mixing lipid with water by adding an emulsifier 14. lipoprotein 15. LDL 16. HDL 17. linoleic acid: an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid of omega-6 family 18. linolenic acid: an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid of the omega-3 family. 19. CVD 20. Atherosclerosis 9 HNF 150 FALL 2015 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE LEARNING OBJECTIVES 21. Aneurysm: the ballooning out of an artery wall at a point that is weakened by deterioration 22. Thrombosis: a thrombus that has grown enough to close off a blood vessel. A coronary thrombosis closes off a vessel that feeds the heart muscle. A cerebral thrombosis closes off a vessel that feeds the brain 23. Embolism: an embolus that causes sudden closure of a blood vessel 24. heart attack: the event in which the vessels that feed the heart muscle become closed off by an embolism, thrombus, or other cause with resulting sudden tissue death. 25. Stroke: the sudden shutting off of the blood flow to the brain by a thrombus, embolism, or the bursting of a vessel 26. hypertension Vitamins Learning Objectives 1. List the fat soluble and water soluble vitamins, and identify examples of how solubility affects the absorption, transport, storage and excretion of each type. Fat-soluble= A, D, E, K Water-soluble= B, C § Found in fats and oils of foods § Dissolve in water § Require fat for absorption § Easily absorbed and excreted- § Absorbed by the liver absorbed directly into the § Travel through the body associated bloodstream from the small with protein carriers intestine § Stored in liver and fatty tissues § Seldom reach toxic levels until needed § Cooking and washing with water § The body can survive weeks can leach them out of food without consuming fat soluble § Best to eat average requirements vitamins over 3 days § Can be toxic if take in too much 2. Recall how vitamin recommendations are determined. At the bell-shaped distribution, the EAR is median, the RI is about 95% 3. For each of the following vitamins, be able to identify the main functions of the vitamin in the body, deficiency disease, symptoms of deficiency and toxicity: D, K, A, E, C, Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Folate, B12 and B6. 4. Given a list of foods, be able to state primary food sources of the above vitamins. 5. Justify the statement: “It is better to get vitamins from food than from supplements.” 6. Describe the definition, function, and food sources of anti-oxidant vitamins. A, D, E, K, C Vitamins that donate electron to free radicals-stabilize free radicals Terms/Concepts: Given the terms/concepts, be able to provide the definition of the term according to the readings and lecture notes. Given a definition of the term/concept and/or an example, be able to state the term. 10 HNF 150 FALL 2015 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Vitamins 2. Beta-carotene: an orange pigment with anti-oxidant activity; a vitamin A precursor made by plants and stored in human fat tissues 3. Night blindness 4. Keratinization: accumulation of keratin in a tissue; a sign of vitamin A deficiency 5. Xeropthalmia 6. Rickets 7. Osteomalacia 8. Osteoporosis 9. Free radicals: atoms or molecules with one or more unpaired electrons that make the atom or molecule unstable and highly reactive 10. Pro-oxidant 11. Scurvy 12. Coenzyme: a small molecule that works with an enzyme to promote the enzyme’s activity. Many coenzymes have B vitamins as part of their structure 13. Beriberi 14. Pellagra 15. Neural tube defects 16. Intrinsic factor: a factor found inside a system. The intrinsic factor necessary to prevent pernicious anemia is now known to be a compound that helps in the absorption of vitamin B 12 17. Pernicious anemia Minerals: 1. Recognize the roles of minerals in maintaining fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance. Cells regulate water movement by pumping minerals across their membranes; water follows the minerals Mineral salts form electrolytes that help keep fluids in their proper compartments Minerals act as buffers to help maintain body fluids at the correct pH to permit life’s processes 2. Identify the main functions of each mineral in the body, deficiency diseases and/or symptoms of each mineral, best ways to obtain each mineral from food/main food sources: a. Iodine e. Magnesium b. Zinc f. Iron c. Fluoride g. Potassium d. Calcium h. Sodium 3. Identify how one can prevent osteoporosis. § adequate calcium intake § adequate vitamin D and vitamin K § adequate protein but not too high § maintain a healthy weight but not too low § limit alcohol women:1/d, men: 2/d § eat less salt/sodium ⬇processed 11 HNF 150 FALL 2015 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE LEARNING OBJECTIVES § don’t smoke § caffeine, cola, other soft drinks? § increase physica+ activity!!! More Na eat=more Ca you excrete 4. Describe the calcium paradox. § US highest Ca consumption, highest osteoporosis rate § Africa lowest Ca consumption, lowest osteoporosis rate 5. Recognize factors/foods that enhance or impair iron absorption. Enhance iron absorption: Impair iron absorption: § Heme form of iron § Nonheme form of iron § Vitamin C § Tea and coffee § Meat, fish, poultry (MFP) factor § Calcium and phosphorus § Phytates, tannins, and fiber 6. Identify major food sources of sodium in U.S. diet and the Dietary Guideline for sodium. § AI Sodium: 500 mg/day Salt: 1.3 g/day (1/5 tsp) § UL Sodium: 2.3 g/day Salt: 5.8 g/day (1 tsp) prevents hypertension § DG Consume less than 2300 mg (approximately 1 tsp of salt) of sodium per day Choose and prepare foods with little salt. At the same time, consume potassium-rich foods, such as fruits and vegetables Terms/Concepts: Given the terms/concepts, be able to provide the definition of the term according to the readings and lecture notes. Given a definition of the term/concept and/or an example, be able to state the term. 1. Major mineral: calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, sulfur 2. trace mineral: Iodine, iron, zinc, selenium, fluoride, chromium, copper, manganese, molybdenum 3. electrolyte: compounds that partly dissociate in water to form ions, such as the potassium ion (K ) and the chloride ion (Cl ) 4. Fluid and electrolyte balance 5. Acid-base balance 6. osteoporosis 7. Bone density 8. Peak bone mass: the highest attainable bone density for an individual; developed during the first three decades of life 9. Hemoglobin: the oxygen-carrying proteins of the blood; found in the red blood cells 12 HNF 150 FALL 2015 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE LEARNING OBJECTIVES 10. anemia 11. hypertension Pregnancy 1. Explain why a nutritionally adequate diet is important long before a pregnancy is established and identify important nutritional considerations. Adequate nutrition before pregnancy establishes physical readiness and nutrient stores to support placental and fetal growth 2. Identify the special nutritional needs of a pregnant teenager as compared to a pregnant adult. Pregnant teenage girls have extraordinarily high nutrient needs and an increased likelihood of problem pregnancies Deficient in Vitamin B12, Vit D, folate and iron More likely to smoke- cause low birthweight or infant death Encouraged to gain 35 pounds during pregnancy 3. Be able to identify the requirements during pregnancy in terms of energy, protein, carbohydrates, fat, folate, calcium, iron, and zinc, i.e., are they higher or the same? Energy increased 0 Cal during 1 trimester, 300 Cal during 2 and 3 trimesters Protein increased from non-pregnant to at least 60g Carbohydrates: 50% of Cal Fat: Omega03, Omega-6 fatty acids Folate=600 micrograms § Neural tube defects, which can happen if folate reserves are not sufficient piror and very early in pregnancy § 50% of all pregnancies unplanned Adequate B12 Calcium: RDA-1000mg (＞18y) § intestinal absorption doubles early in pregnancy; stores in mother’s bone § later pregnancy- transfer to calcium to fetus’ bones (300mg/day!) Magnesium: slightly higher than RDA Iron: RDA-27mg (＞18y) § absorption of iron increase 3 times § Fetus stores enough iron to last first 3-6 months of life Zinc § Deficiency associated with low birth weight § Zinc and Iron compete for absorption Everything increases during pregnancy except calcium, Vit D, Vit K, phosphorous Fluoride stay the same 13 HNF 150 FALL 2015 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE LEARNING OBJECTIVES 4. What are “critical periods” during pregnancy and why is nutrition particularly important during those times? When organ development is happening (“window”) Lack of energy or specific nutrient during “window” may cause improper development which can’t “catch up” 5. List common food intake difficulties during pregnancy and recommendations for alleviating symptoms Women have cravings and aversions during pregnancy due to changes in taste and sensitivities (could be result of nutritional deficiency) Pica: when women eat non food items Morning sickness: arise slowly eat dry toast/crackers, gum or hard candies, small frequent meals, avoid offensive odors 6. Describe the recommendations for physical activity during pregnancy Pregnant women should exercise regularly, but should adjust their intensity and duration and consult a health care provider first 7. Describe Low birth weight: definition, causes, and prevention Low birth weight: when a baby is born at weight of less than 5.5 lbs Caused by poor nutrition, genetics, disease conditions, smoking, alcohol or drug use Mother should strive for a healthy weight for birth as well 8. Evaluate the statement that “no level of alcoholic beverage intake is safe or advisable during pregnancy.” Alcohol can halt the oxygen delivery to the baby, slow cell division, cause brain damage, interfere with transfer of nutrients through placenta, and can damage sperm and ovum Fetal alcohol syndrome can lead to irreversible brain damage, growth and mental retardation, facial abnormalities, vision abnormalities, low apgar score Terms/Concepts: Given the terms/concepts, be able to provide the definition of the term according to the readings and lecture notes. Given a definition of the term/concept and/or an example, be able to state the term. a. Placenta: the organ or pregnancy in which maternal and fetal blood circulate in close proximity and exchange nutrients and oxygen (flowing into the fetus) and wastes (picked up by the mother’s blood) b. Critical periods c. Low birth weight d. Neural tube defect: Neural tube is the embryonic tissue that later forms the brain and spinal cord; occurs when the tube fails to close properly a. Spina bifida: a more common NTD where the spinal cord and backbone do not develop normally b. Fetal alcohol syndrome: the result of too much alcohol consumption while pregnant; symptoms include- irreversible brain damage, growth retardation, mental retardation, facial abnormalities, vision impairment c. High risk pregnancy 14
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