OUR FIRST EXAM IS ON MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 26, 2016.
There are two parts to this exam: a short answer and a long answer portion.
This study guide will recap everything that we have covered from Day 1. For more indepth coverage, feel free to reference the notes I have uploaded.
Overarching theme: The social/political consequences of capitalism – humans were slaves to the machine – expansion of the railroads
A year for celebrating national unity and rising economic power
∙ Philadelphia Centennial Exposition – showed off technological developments o Typewriter
o Barbed wire
o Sewing machine
o Lady Liberty’s hand holding the torch
o Automatic telegraph
o Corliss Steam Engine (“The Giant”)
∙ General George Armstrong Custer – killed at Little Big Horn
o Discovers gold in Black Hills (on Sioux land)
∙ Northern Pacific Railroad
o Intended to settle the West – completed in 1883
∙ All White Rifle Club – started by Martin Gary
o Wanted to seize power from newly enfranchised African Americans by intimidation and/or murder
Achievements of Reconstruction
Reconstruction aimed at freeing slavery and wanted freedmen to have the same opportunities as everyone else – they wanted to give them what slavery denied them. Don't forget about the age old question of the meat we eat uf
∙ 13th Amendment (1865)
o Formally abolished slavery
∙ 14th Amendment (1868) Don't forget about the age old question of occ film 100 test 3
o Granted citizenship to all those who were born in the U.S. Don't forget about the age old question of engl 3451 study guide
o This included former slaves
∙ 15th Amendment (1870)
o Granted voting rights for all men
o Still excluded women
∙ Civil Rights Act of 1875
o Called for equal treatment of African Americans in public settings
o Wanted to create a “level playing field”
Ideology of the Republican Party / Emphasis on Railroads
∙ Free market capitalism – money is power
∙ Free labor – in other words, not slave labor
∙ Pacific Railroad Act (1862)
∙ Northern Pacific Railroad Act (1864)
o Both acts were passed to build a transcontinental railroad.
∙ Public land grants
∙ Government bonds
o Grants and bonds were given to sell land to private railroad corporations.
Effect of Railroads
∙ Railroads attract investment (sought to rebuild society)
∙ Connected communities in ways that were not previously possible
∙ Railroads established where people go – due to the fact that the railroads owned the land the tracks were on, as well as the surrounding land.
∙ In 1862, the government created the Federal Time and Distance Indicator in an attempt to regulate time.
∙ In 1883, the four time zones were created.
∙ Railroads were so integrated into society that they became music themselves. o Think about John Henry and Casey Jones.
∙ Due to the fact that Jay Cooke (banker and railroad financer) sold too many bonds for railroad companies, the largest bank in the U.S. went bankrupt in 1873 – this was the beginning of a 7 year economic depression. We also discuss several other topics like advantages of coelom over pseudocoelom
Labor and Industry
∙ Machines now allowed workers to be paid for their time – hourly wage o Before Civil War, workers were governed by the sun
∙ Humans are servants to the machine
∙ Industry excited a dream of joining the forces of progress of modern life – inspired the migration from farms to cities.
∙ Working conditions were unpleasant
o 10 hour days, 6 days a week
o Child labor
A child’s life was cheap – easily replaceable and dispensable
o Slums, sewage, violence
∙ Many workers were immigrants from Germany, Great Britain, Scandinavia, China, Italy, AustrioHungarian Empire, Poland, and the Eastern Russian Empire.
Depression of 1870s
Caused by the bankruptcy of the banks
∙ Showed how unstable capitalism can be
∙ Caused factories to lower work wages
∙ Carnegie, Vanderbilt, and Rockefeller all made their money in the depths of the depression.
o Richest 10% of people help 70% of the nation’s wealth.
Great Uprising of 1877
∙ Began when railroads cut wages by 10% but increased dividends to shareholders by 10% ∙ Battle erupts and militia open fire on the strikers
∙ Strike spreads to Pittsburg – workers burn down the central railroad hub ∙ Spreads all the way to St. Louis, Kansas City, and Omaha
o Spread due to the recognition of a common experience and a common enemy between the workers.
∙ Strike is eventually shut down due to the overwhelming armed power of the militia. o Led to the creation of the National Guard
Organized Political Parties We also discuss several other topics like barrer present progressive
Workers realized they needed to organize politically
∙ Created the Workingmen’s Party in 18771878, then the Socialist Labor Party of America in 18781901.
o Forerunner of the communist party We also discuss several other topics like How many units must the company sell to earn a target profit of $50,000?
∙ Henry George – Progress and Poverty (1879) – why does poverty have to come with progress?
∙ Knights of Labor was formed to organize society on more equal terms o Organize labor to counter big business
o Secure labor its share of wealth
o Cooperative stores/business
o Public land for settlers
o Health and safety laws in the workplace
o Arbitration of disputes
o No child labor
o Equal pay for equal work between men and women
o 8 hour days
o National money instead of private bank notes
Knights of Labor led to the foundation of Labor Day
Answers to Henry George’s Question
∙ Andrew Carnegie – “The Gospel of Wealth”
o Felt that that distribution of wealth was how it should be
o Those who fail are incompetent and deserve their failures, and the rich win due to their intelligence and skill
o The rich should be stewards of the nation and help the weak
∙ Charles Graham Sumner – “survival of the fittest”
o Felt that the strong should succeed and deserve to be rich, and would lead to the ultimate extinction of the weak
o This viewpoint led to racism with the distribution of wealth and power
Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad
Remember: The 14th Amendment granted citizenship to all people born in the U.S. ∙ In 1885, the Supreme Court granted corporations protection under the 14th Amendment.
Knights of Labor
∙ Argued for 8 hour work day
∙ Felt that government should help ordinary people against the power of the corporations ∙ Against industrial capitalism
∙ In 1885, led a strike against the Jay Gould railroad
o They won and got what they wanted
∙ In 1886, led a strike against Gould again
o Strike spread from Texas to Illinois (Great Southwest Strike)
o They lost due to protection of the 14th Amendment
∙ In 1886, sense of urgency peaked at the Haymarket riot
o A bomb was thrown at police by anarchists, so police fired into the crowd of strikers
Women’s Christian Temperance Union
∙ Founded in 1874
o Against alcohol
o Wanted 8 hour work day, labor organization, and women’s right to vote
∙ Interstate Commerce Commission (1887)
o Prohibited rates discrimination on railroads
∙ Sherman AntiTrust Act (1890)
o Prohibited conspiracies that restrained trade across state lines
American Federation of Labor (1886)
∙ Accepted capitalism, but wanted higher wages, shorter hours, and improved working conditions
∙ Limited membership to skilled white workers
Homestead, Pennsylvania (1892)
∙ AFL steelworkers vs. Carnegie Steel
∙ Became known as the Battle of Homestead
Growth of Cities
∙ Cities attract people from rural areas with the promise of industrial capitalism o Between 1870 and 1900, 11 million people moved to American cities ∙ Living conditions were poor – couldn’t support rapid growth
∙ Before 1880, immigrants were coming from Africa, Scandinavia, and Germany. ∙ After 1880, immigrants were coming from Italy, AustrioHungarian Empire, Russian Empire, Greece, Turkey, Poland, and Japan.
o Immigration made possible by the steam ship.
∙ Weren’t Protestant and didn’t speak English
∙ Saloons became key institutions in American life
o Immigrants come looking for social connections: can get loans, cash their paychecks, get information about jobs, all in the language of their home country
Cities are dangerous but exciting places
∙ Bad sanitation
∙ Bad streets
∙ Bad housing
∙ Inadequate fire and police protection
∙ Unclean water
Fear of foreigners
∙ 1882: Chinese Exclusion Act
∙ 1886: American League was created
o Dedicated to rooting out Catholics
∙ 1887: American Protection Association was created
o Aimed to “preserve America for Americans”
∙ 1894: Immigration Restriction League was created
o Called on the government to stop the social and cultural change being brought on by immigration
∙ 19061907: Japanese Exclusion Act
The New South
Embraced modern industry and technology – resource extraction is how the New South develops
∙ The New South was a term popularized by Henry Grady to describe the development of an industrial capitalist economy and society
∙ After 1876, the Democratic Party pushed the Republican Party out of power across the region using violence and fraud
∙ Railroads are key to economic rise
o Grant large amounts of land and tax incentives to railroad companies
∙ Northern textile industries relocate to Piedmont region
∙ Coal and iron ore found in Birmingham, AL
o Gives Alabama an economic advantage over southern states without these resources
∙ Logging trains move to MS
∙ Search for coal in Kentucky
∙ Emergence of cash crops, such as cotton
o Farms worked by tenant farmers and sharecroppers
Rise of Lynchings
Young African Americans who were born free were less respectful of whites than their parents
∙ Lynchings peak in the 1890s
∙ Whites fear disorder, loss of racial privileges, and economic and social competition with African Americans
∙ Incredibly violent
∙ Grover Cleveland (D): President in 1884
o First Democratic President since Civil War
∙ Benjamin Harrison (R): President in 1888
∙ Federal Elections Bill (Lodge Force Bill): Proposed in 1890
o Meant to stop white Democrats from using violence to defeat Republicans – never became law
Mississippi State Constitution (1890)
∙ Wanted to make legal moves to disenfranchise African Americans from voting o Poll tax
o Understanding Clause
o Convicts barred
∙ Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
o Separate but equal
∙ Williams v. Mississippi (1898)
o Declared MS’s 1890 Plan constitutional
Promotes white supremacy
Mississippi State Flag
∙ Adopted flag in 1894
∙ Symbol of “state pride” and “patriotic ardor”
People hungered for profit – sought money and power
∙ Buffalo Bill’s shows create image of the old West – mythic images ∙ Expansion of railroads has same effect in West as it did in the South ∙ Extermination of buffalo
∙ Homestead Act (1862)
o Allowed West to be settled with nonslave labor
o Gave 160 acres of land for settlers to cultivate
∙ Farmers had to invest in technology to be successful investment lead to debt ∙ Settlers who didn’t get their land from the Homestead Act bought land from railroad companies
∙ Mines were opened up by railroads – gold, silver, lead, zinc, coal
∙ Indian Allotment Act (1887)
o Native Americans were in the way of profits
o Gave federal government authority to give away Native American land
∙ Economy run on debt
o Needed mortgages to buy land
o Credit to buy food, clothes, and medicine
∙ Deflation – tight money supply
∙ Overproduction of basic commodities
∙ “Southern” – 1877
∙ “Northern” – 1880
∙ “Colored” – 1886
∙ Wanted to balance the power of the banks by joining together in a cooperative effort
People’s Party (Populists)
Third party alternative to Republicans and Democrats
∙ Government regulation of railroads and banks
∙ Direct election of Senators
∙ Expansion of money (monetizing silver)
∙ Get land taken back by railroads
∙ Graduated income tax for the wealthy
∙ Free Silver Argument – argument to monetize silver
o For every 1 bar of gold, 16 bars of silver
Election of 1896
William McKinley (R) v. William Jennings Bryan (D & Populist)
o Backed by railroads
o Led first modern presidential campaign
o Gave campaign speeches from train cars
o Had no money for campaigns
∙ McKinley won election
These are things to think about for possible essay questions.
Points of focus for these questions are highlighted above.
1. What does it mean to be modern? What did “modern” mean in 1876? 2. What was the significance of the railroad?
3. What were the arguments for and against unregulated capitalism?
4. What were the most significant similarities and differences between life in America’s industrial cities and the southern states in this period?
5. Why did rural Americans mount the greatest challenge to unregulated capitalism in this period?