PSYC 101 Exam #1 Study Guide
PSYC 101 Exam #1 Study Guide PSYC 101
Popular in Introduction to Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Science
This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elyse Jenkins on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 101 at Towson University taught by Heather Raley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 107 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Science at Towson University.
Reviews for PSYC 101 Exam #1 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/21/16
PSYC 101 Professor Heather A. Raley Chapters 1, 2, and 7 Test Review Sheet Lecture 1 (8/29/16) – Chapter 1 – Mind, Behavior, and Psychological Science -ology = “study of” Psyche = Greek for mind Psychology – A science combining mental processes and behavior based on objective and verifiable evidence o Objective – Non-biased/fair/concrete o Verifiable – Can be proven true or false Categories of Psychology o Experimental o Teaching/Academic o Applied (Approx. 64%) Psychologist vs. Psychiatrist o Psychiatrists prescribe medicine, psychologists cannot o Psychology is the study of the individual as opposed to sociology, psychiatry is the study of medicine ad other treatments used by those suffering from a mental illness Pseudopsychology – Theories that have not stood the test of the scientific method Psychopathology – The study of individuals with mental illnesses and the course of illnesses Scientific Method – 4-step process for new ideas can be put to a test that controls for factors that may influence the results; psychology gained respect through this method 1. Hypothesis – An educated guess; a testable prediction; needs to be verifiable Operational Definition – Specifies exactly how an experiment should be measured; puts a concrete number on an abstract idea 2. Gather Data – Objective data only can be used to determine if the hypothesis is accepted or rejected; examination of the hypothesis Placebo – “Fake pill” Blinded Study – Subjects don’t know which one they’re getting (placebo vs. actual medication) Double-Blinded Study – Neither side knows what the placebo is; almost all studies are double-blinded Independent Variable – Experimenter manipulates this; may include a placebo Dependent Variable (Data) – Measured outcome 3. Analyzing Results – Includes accepting or rejecting hypothesis; determine level of significance 4. Publication and Replication – How to publicize and gain respect for your research; most research never gets submitted Types of Psychological Research 1. Experimental – The researcher manipulates the independent variable and the remaining conditions 2. Correlational – Study relationships, not cause and effect; researcher does NOT manipulate variables r = Correlation Coefficient -1 –+1 Positive Correlation – As one variable increases, the other also increases (0 to +1) Link for a Strong Positive Correlation can be found here Link for a Weak Positive Correlation can be found here Negative Correlation – As one variable increases, the other decreases (-1 to 0) Link for a Strong Negative Correlation can be found here Link for a Weak Negative Correlation can be found here Negative correlations are NOT bad – ex. Swimming Times No Correlation – No connection Link for No Correlation can be found here Correlation does NOT imply cause and effect!! 3. Surveys – Not basing on observation or experiment, but rather honesty, so not most reliable source of information 4. Natural Observation – Watching and taking notes; often used in studies with children or animals and their interactions with others 5. Case Studies – The study of one particular individual or small group Historical Roots o Greeks originally believed mental illness to be an imbalance of bile in one’s system o Plato – Nativism (we are born knowing) o Aristotle – Empiricism (we learn by experiencing) Six Perspectives 1. Biological Perspective – Body studied separately from mind Descartes – Father of modern philosophy Darwin – “Origin of Species;” survival of the fittest/natural selection 2. Cognitive Perspective – Emphasis on mental processes such as learning, memory, and thinking; structuralism Wundt – First “psychologist;” introspection; first psychology lab Gestalt – Opposite of structuralism; look at the whole Werthheimer – Studied visual illusions and ambiguous figures 3. Behavioral Perspective – Study observable behavior, not mental processes 4. Whole-Person Perspective Psychodynamic – Emphasized unconscious mind Humanistic – Emphasizing the HEALTHY mind, human ability, growth, and potential, as opposed to the mentally ill 5. Developmental Perspective – Nature vs. Nurture; what has more influence: genetics or the environment? 6. Socio-Cultural Perspective – Social and multi-cultural psychology Lecture 2 (9/12/16) – Chapter 2 – Biopsychology Biopsychology – Studies the interaction of mental processes, behavior, and the biological makeup of the brain o Field in which this is studied is called Neuroscience, which is a combination of psychology, chemistry, biology, genetics, pharmacology, etc. Nature vs. Nurture o Evolution – Gradual process of biological change that a species undergoes to adapt to their environment over time o Darwin – “Natural Selection” or “Survival of the Fittest” o Genetics vs. Evolution/Environment – Innate abilities are inborn for specific behaviors; others are learned Genetics o Genotype – Biological/genetic makeup (non-observable) o Phenotype – Observable/physical characteristics o Chromosomes – Made up of DNA; 23 pairs (46 total), and two of which are sex chromosomes, one from each parent; threadlike structure o DNA = Deoxyribonucleic Acid o Stem Cells – Primal cells found in all multi-cellular organisms Must retain two properties 1. Self-renewal – Undergoes numerous cycles of cell division and maintains same state 2. Unlimited Potency – Can differentiate in any mature cell type Adult Stem Cells – In the body of every human and have been assigned a general function for the body – Major function is to maintain homeostasis (balance) Embryonic Stem Cells – Even less specialized and are able to grow into most types of cells Advantages – Further genetic research; diagnosis Disadvantages – Danger and controversy Neuron – A cell that receives signals and transmits information to other cells o A bundle of neurons make up a nerve o Basic unit of the nervous system o Three Types 1. Sensory – Carry messages from sense receptors towards the Central Nervous System (CNS) (brain/spinal cord) 2. Motor – Carry information from the CNS towards the sense receptors 3. Interneurons – Carry messages between nerve cells, especially the brain and spinal cord (CNS) o Structure Soma – Cell body; central part of a neuron; contains the nucleus Axon – Sends signals to other parts of the body; information from soma to terminal buttons; long, branch-like structures (Think: Axon – Away) Axon Terminal Buttons – Found at the end of an axon; carry message to the synapse Synapse – Gap that is the communication link between neurons (Think: Synapse – Space) Dendrites – Receives information from axons of other neurons Myelin Sheath – Fatty insulation that surrounds axons, mainly axons in the CNS because they are the most sensitive; Multiple Sclerosis is a breakdown/deterioration of the Myelin Sheath Diagram of a neuron can be found here (“Axon Terminal” = Terminal Buttons) Neurotransmitters – Chemical messengers that relay neural messages across the synapse o Many are also hormones o Dopamine (Pleasure, reflexes); Serotonin (Sleeping/dreaming, aggression, appetite); Norepinephrine (Autonomic NS, blood pressure, heart rate, blinking, breathing) Nerve Impulses o Action Potential – Electric charge fired by neuron; charge travels down the axon to the terminal buttons where it is passed off to the next neuron o Resting Potential – When the neuron is inactive but ready to fire; it remains at a slightly negative charge o All-or-None Principal – An action potential either fires or does not; does not fire part way Nervous System o Works as one large unit that transmits information instantly o Central Nervous System (CNS) – The brain and spinal cord; controls reflexes to stimuli o Peripheral Nervous System – Connects CNS with all other parts of the body o Autonomic Nervous System – Involuntary activities (breathing, heart rate) Sympathetic Nervous System – Fight or flight; increases activity Parasympathetic Nervous System – Slows and controls body during times of rest o Somatic Nervous System – Sends voluntary messages; information from skin, organs, muscles, joints to CNS; controls motor and sensory messages, recognize object and know what to do Endocrine System o Body’s chemical messenger system o Slower, but longer lasting than the nervous system o Made up of glands and organs Pituitary Gland Controls entire endocrine system Keeps the system from producing too much or too little Master gland Adrenal Glands – Release adrenaline Layers of the Brain o Brain Stem – Sends information from one side of the brain to the other side of the body Medulla – Controls autonomic nervous system; where pathways cross Pons – Connects brain stem to the cerebellum; regulates sleeping and dream cycle; “bridge” Thalamus – Central “relay station;” directs all information o Limbic System – Involved in emotions and memory Hippocampus – Aids in long-term memory, learning, and retaining information Amygdala – Involved in memory and emotion, especially fear and aggression Hypothalamus – Regulates blood in body and levels chemicals in body constantly o Cerebellum – Responsible for coordinated movements (walking, typing, writing, etc.) and sequencing (song lyrics, to-do list) o Cerebrum – Largest area of the brain; split into two hemispheres Corpus Callosum – Nerves that transmit information between the sides so that they work together Cerebral Cortex – Makes up 2/3 of the brain’s mass; controls complicated mental processing tasks such as understanding and organizing Frontal Lobes – Controls our ability to produce speech, plan, and make complex movements; contains motor cortex Parietal Lobes – Contains somatosensory cortex, which processes sensations and understands speech Occipital Lobes – Processes visual stimuli; recognizing objects; contains visual cortex Temporal Lobes – Processes auditory stimuli, but also aids in vision; contains auditory cortex Hemispheres Left Right Memory of words, numbers Memory for shapes and Understanding, writing, and music speech Spatial relationships Regulates positive emotions Regulates negative Self oriented emotions Logic and reasoning Whole-picture oriented Detail focused Creativity Facial recognition Video Review (Split Brain Individuals) o Split Brain Individuals – People who have had their corpus callosum severed (usually to control seizures) Info flashed to the right vision field is processed by the left hemisphere Individual can say what he saw Info flashed to the left visual processed by the right hemisphere Individual cannot say what he saw but can draw it with left hand Brain Scans o The four most common ways to view the brain through computerized images are… EEG (Electroencephalograph) – Records brain waves; detects electrical activity CT Scan (Computerized Tomography) – Similar to x- rays but accesses more layers of the brain including soft tissue PET Scan (Positron Emission Tomography) – Shows brain activity rather than structure; injects radioactive sugar consumed by brain active cells MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) – Highly detailed using highly intense magnetic energy fMRI – Shows what sections are doing each movement Lecture 3 (9/19/16) – Developmental Psychology Terminology o Development – How the effects of genetics and environment combine and unfold over time o Developmental Psychology – Study of biological changes and environmental influences across a lifespan Temperament o Strong genetic basis o An individual’s characteristic manner of behavior or reaction o Disposition Methods of Research o Behavioral genetics research, specific field that studies twins, siblings, and adopted children Twin Studies – Show more similarities in genetic factors Expectancy Bias – We make judgments based on one twin about the other Adoption Studies – Twins who were adopted separately were studied; more obvious which factors may be environmental Big Question: Is development a continual process or does it occur in stages? o The continuity view believes that development is a gradual process o The discontinuity view believes that development occurs in stages Graph for continuity vs. discontinuity can be found here Biological Development o Prenatal Development – Fertilized egg = zygote; embryo = 3 weeks, heartbeat; fetus = 8 weeks Placenta – Organ filled with fluid that develops between the embryo/fetus, and mother Teratogen – Any prenatal toxin (alcohol, drugs, etc.) o Neonatal Period – Newborn-1 month; capable of responding to stimuli Poor vision – Legally blind Reflexes – Odors, taste, clinging, Babinski reflex Jean Piaget o 1898-1980 o Schemas – Mental structures that guide thoughts o Assimilation – Modifies new information on to fit existing schemas o Accommodation – Restructures existing schemas so that new info is better understood o Stages of Cognitive Development: 1) Sensorimotor Stage – Birth-2 years old Mostly give instinctive responses, very little, if any, thinking involved Object Permanence – An object exists whether it can be seen or not; children develop this later in this stage 2) Preoperational Stage – 2-6 or 7 years old Ability to solve simple problems and think critically using mental representation Learns to speak and count much better, but unable to understand math o Egocentrism – Children see the world only in their own terms; why sharing is difficult o Animistic Thinking – Belief that inanimate objects are like humans, that they can think and feel 3) Concrete Operational Stage Child still incapable of abstract thinking o Conservation – Understanding that different forms of an object may not necessarily mean different quantities 4) Formal Operational Stage Abstract thought appears; begin to understand and feel love, etc. Very emotional usually; more sensation seeking Freud’s Stages of Psychosexual Development 1) Oral Stage – Birth-18 months Focuses on oral pleasures Too much or too little pleasure in this stage results in oral fixations 2) Anal Stage – 18 months-3 years Pleasure from elimination or retention of feces Learns control 3) Phallic Stage – 3-6 years Pleasure zone is genitals Oedipus/Electra complex 4) Latency Stage – 6-Puberty Sexual urges are repressed, therefore, companionship come from same sex individuals due to repression of natural urges 5) Genital Stages – Puberty and on Adolescence Sexual urges are awakened and this time it is initially acted upon with the opposite sex Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development o At each stage the individual encountered a new challenge and their choice determines that aspect of their personality 1) 0-1.5 years – Trust vs. Mistrust: Dependence on caregiver 2) 1.5-3 years – Autonomy vs. Self-Doubt: A little more independent 3) 3-6 years – Initiative vs. Guilt: Higher independence, planning 4) 6 years-Puberty – Competence vs. Inferiority: Daily interaction with peers, higher function/memory 5) Adolescence – Identity vs. Role Confusion: Stereotypes 6) Early Adulthood – Intimacy vs. Isolation: Intimacy – Full commitment to another person; close relationships 7) Middle Adulthood – Generativity vs. Stagnation: Focus on what’s ahead 8) Late Adulthood – Ego-Integrity vs. Despair: Legacy, pondering life Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning o Preconventional Morality 1) Egocentric pleasure/pain/profit 2) Cost/benefit orientation, reciprocity o Conventional Morality 3) “Good Child” orientation 4) Law-and-Order orientation o Postconventional Morality 5) Social contract orientation 6) Ethical principal orientation Attachment o Infancy and Childhood – 1 month-1.5 years Begin to learn and rely on reflexes and innate abilities less Attachment/imprinting (Lorenz) to the first moving object that they see o Problems Mary Ainsworth Insecure attachment vs. secure attachment Insecure o Child completely lost it o Child didn’t care Secure – Didn’t need mom every step of the way o Harlow’s Monkeys – “Contact comfort” Parenting Styles o Authoritative – Rule enforcing but also respectful of child’s needs; demands a lot, but gives appropriate responses o Permissive – Set few rules but also give appropriate responses; however, most children desire some structure o Autocratic/Authoritarian – Enforces rules, but does not show warmth or pride o Unengaged/Uninvolved – Indifferent parents; may be neglectful or abusive; little response to child and do not demand much Language Development o Noam Chomsky Language Acquisition Device (LAD) Everyone possessed it and it controlled development of speech and understanding language Cooing, crying, babbling – Proof that a baby has the natural ability to produce sound from all languages and we lose that ability if we only speak one One-word phrases The Psychology and Biology of Aging o Aging Things that are negatively affected by age Hearing Vision Short-Term Memory Alzheimer’s Disease Psychological and medical diagnosis Numerous tests can be used to determine a high possibility of disease, only an autopsy can verify this diagnosis Mid 60s-70s; by age 85, about 50% Things that improve with age Social interactions Control of emotions Vocabulary Things that may decline, but not necessarily as stereotypical as people think Long-term memory Ability to problem-solve and thinking Study Questions!! Mind, Behavior, and Psychological Science 14. Break down the word “psychology” and give the meaning of its roots. “ology” = the study of; psyche = Greek for “mind” 15. Define “psychology.” A science combining mental processes and behavior based on objective and verifiable evidence. 16. What are the three categories of psychology? Experimental, teaching/academic, and applied. 17. What is the difference between a psychologist and a psychiatrist? Psychiatrists can prescribe medication, psychologist rarely can; psychology is the study of individuals, psychiatry is the study of the medicine and other treatments used by those suffering from mental illness. 18. Define pseudopsychology. Theories that have not stood the test of the scientific method. 19. Define psychopathology. The study of individuals with mental illness and the course of illnesses. 20. Define the scientific method; name the four steps and explain them. The scientific method is a four-step process for new ideas to put them to the test that controls for factors that may influence the results. 1) Hypothesis – An educated guess; a testable prediction 2) Gather Data – Objective data only can be used to determine if the hypothesis accepted or rejected; the examination of hypothesis 3) Analyzing Results – Includes accepting or rejecting the hypothesis 4) Publication and Replication – How to publicize and gain respect for research 21. What is an operational definition? What part of the scientific method is it a part of? It specifies exactly how an experiment should be measured; it puts a concrete number on an abstract idea. It is part of the hypothesis. 22. What is a placebo? A “fake pill.” It basically is a way of making a control group for an experiment. 23. What is a blinded study? A double-blinded study? A blinded study is when the subjects don’t know whether they’re getting the placebo or the original medication, A double-blinded study is when neither side knows what the subjects are getting. 24. What is an independent variable? What is a dependent variable? An independent variable is the thing that the experimenter manipulates. The dependent variable is the data, or measured outcome. 25. Name the five types of psychological research and explain them. 1) Experimental – The researcher changes the independent variable and the other conditions 2) Correlational – Study relationships; researcher does NOT manipulate the variables 3) Surveys – Not basing on observation or experiment, but on honesty 4) Natural Observation – Watching and taking notes 5) Case Studies – The study of one particular individual or small group 26. What are the three types of correlations? 1) Positive Correlation 2) Negative Correlation 3) No Correlation 27. Name the six psychological perspectives and explain them. 1) Biological Perspective – Body studied separately from the mind 2) Cognitive Perspective – Emphasis on mental processes such as learning, memory, and thinking 3) Behavioral Perspective – Study observable behavior, not mental processes 4) Whole-Person Perspective – Two types: Psychodynamic, which emphasized the unconscious mind; and humanistic, which emphasized the healthy mind 5) Developmental Perspective – Nature vs. nurture 6) Socio-Cultural Perspective – Social and multi-cultural psychology 28. Who was the first “psychologist?” Wundt 29. Which scientist emphasized a focus on the whole, not the details? Gestalt 30. Which scientist studied visual illusions and ambiguous figures? Wertheimer 31. Who was the father of modern philosophy? Descartes 32. Who wrote “Origin of Species?” Darwin Biopsychology 1. What does biopsychology study? The interaction of mental processes, behavior, and the biological makeup of the brain. 2. In what field is biopsychology studied? Neuroscience 3. Define evolution. Gradual process of biological change that a species undergoes to adapt to their environment over time. 4. What is a genotype? Biological/genetic makeup (non-observable) 5. What is a phenotype? Observable/physical characteristics 6. How many chromosomes do humans have altogether? How many are sex chromosomes? 23 pairs (46 total); 2 sex chromosomes 7. What are stem cells? Primal cells found in all multi-cellular organisms. 8. What two properties must a stem cell retain to still be a stem cell? Self-renewal and unlimited potency 9. What is the major function of adult stem cells? Maintain homeostasis 10. What is a neuron? A cell that receives signals and transmits information to other cells. 11. What makes up a nerve? A bundle of neurons 12. What are the three types of neurons and their function? 1) Sensory – Carry messages from sense receptors towards the CNS 2) Motor – Carry info from the CNS towards the sense receptors 3) Interneurons – Carry messages between nerve cells, especially the CNS 13. Label the below neuron. What do each of its parts do? Dendrite s Axon Terminal Buttons Axon Soma Myelin Sheath Soma – Cell body; central part of a neuron; contains the nucleus Axon – Sends signals to other parts of the body Axon Terminal Buttons – Found at the end of an axon and carry message to the synapse Dendrites – Receives information from axons of other neurons Myelin Sheath – Fatty insulation that surrounds axons, mainly axons in the CNS 14. What are neurotransmitters? Chemical messengers that relay neural messages across the synapse. 15. What is an action potential? Electrical charge fired by a neuron. 16. What is a resting potential? When the neuron is inactive but ready to fire, it remains at a slightly negative charge. 17. Explain the all-or-none principle. An action potential either fires or does not. It does not fire part way. 18. What is the job of the nervous system? Works as one large unit that transmits information instantly. 19. Fill out this chart on the nervous systems. What does each one do? Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Brain Spinal Cord Autonomic Somatic Nervous Nervous System System Sympatheti Parasympathet c ic Nervous Nervous System System Central Nervous System – Controls reflexes to stimuli Peripheral Nervous System – Connects the CNS with all other parts of the body Autonomic Nervous System – Involuntary activities (breathing, heart rate) Somatic Nervous System – Sends voluntary messages; controls motor and sensory messages Sympathetic Nervous System – Fight or flight; increases activity Parasympathetic Nervous System – Slows and controls body during times of rest 20. Name some important characteristics of the Endocrine System. It’s the body’s chemical messenger system. It’s slower but longer lasting than the nervous system. It is also made up of glands and organs. 21. What is the role of the pituitary gland? What about the adrenal glands? The pituitary gland controls the entire endocrine system; the adrenal glands release adrenaline. 22. What is the job of the brain stem? What two organs are located in it and what are their functions? It sends information from one side of the brain to the other side of the body. The two organs are the medulla and the pons. The medulla controls the autonomic nervous system and the pons connects the brain stem to the cerebellum. 23. What is the job of the limbic system? What three organs are located in it and what are their functions? It’s involved with emotions and memory. The three organs are the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus. The hippocampus aids in long-term memory and retaining information. The amygdala is involved in memory and emotion. The hypothalamus regulates blood in the body and levels of chemicals in blood constantly. 24. What is the cerebellum responsible for? Coordinated movements and sequencing. 25. How many hemispheres is the cerebrum split into? Two 26. What is the corpus callosum? Nerves that transmit information between the sides so that they work together. 27. What does the cerebral cortex control? Complicated mental processing tasks (understanding and organizing). 28. What are the four lobes in the brain? What are their functions? 1) Frontal Lobes – Controls speech and planning 2) Parietal Lobes – Processes sensations and understands speech 3) Occipital Lobes – Processes visual stimuli 4) Temporal Lobes – Processes auditory stimuli 29. What are the four most common ways to view the brain through computerized images? What are their unique functions? 1) EEG – Records brain waves; detects electrical activity 2) CT Scan – Similar to x-rays but accesses more layers of the brain including soft tissue 3) PET Scan – Shows brain activity rather than structure 4) MRI – Highly detailed using highly intense magnetic energy Developmental Psychology 1. What is the definition of development? How the effects of genetics and environment combine and unfold over time. 2. What is developmental psychology? The study of biological changes and environmental influences across a lifespan. 3. What is meant when referring to someone’s temperament? An individual’s characteristic manner of behavior or reaction; their disposition. 4. What are two methods of research used in studying developmental psychology? Twin studies and adoption studies 5. What is an expectancy bias when referring to twin studies? We make judgments based on one twin about the other. 6. What does the continuity view believe? What about the discontinuity view? The continuity view believes that development is a gradual process. The discontinuity view believes that development occurs in stages. 7. Is prenatal development during pregnancy or the first few years of life? Pregnancy 8. What is a teratogen? Any prenatal toxin (alcohol, drugs, etc.) 9. What is the age for the neonatal period? Newborn to 1 month 10. What are schemas? Assimilation? Accommodation? What researcher is responsible for defining these terms? Schemas are mental structures that guide thoughts. Assimilation modifies new information to fit existing schemas. Accommodation restructures existing schemas so that new information is better understood. Jean Piaget was responsible. 11. What is each stage in Piaget’s stages of development? Describe them. The sensorimotor stage goes from birth to two years old. In this stage, the children mostly give instinctive responses. There is very little, if any, thinking involved. Later in this stage, children develop object permanence. Object permanence is when a child knows an object exists whether it can be seen or not. The second stage is the preoperational stage, which goes from 2 to 6 or 7 years old. In this stage, children have the ability to solve simple problems and think critically using mental representation. They learn to speak and count much better, but they are still unable to understand math. The third stage is the concrete operational stage, which goes from 7 to 11 years old. In this stage, the child is still incapable of abstract thinking. Lastly, in the formal operational stage, which goes from 11 years and up, abstract thought appears and the children begin to feel love and understand it. They are very emotional and more sensation seeking. 12. What is each stage in Freud’s stages of development? Describe them. The first stage is the oral stage, which goes from birth to 18 months. In this stage, the child focuses on oral pleasures. Too much or too little pleasure in this stage results in oral fixations. The second stage is the anal stage, which goes from 18 months to 3 years. In this stage, children get pleasure from elimination or retention of feces, and they also learn control. The third stage is the phallic stage, which goes from 3 to 6 years old. In this stage, the pleasure zone is the genitalia. The fourth stage is the latency stage, which goes from 6 years old to puberty. In this stage, sexual urges are repressed so companionship comes from same sex attractions due to the repression of natural urges. The fifth stage is called the genital stage, which goes from puberty and on. In this stage, sexual urges are awakened and this time it is initially acted upon with the opposite sex. 13. What is each stage in Erikson’s stages of development? Describe them. The first stage goes from zero to one and a half years. In this stage, the individual chooses between trust and mistrust. They have a very high dependence on their caregiver. The second stage goes from one and a half to three years. In this stage, the individual chooses between autonomy and self-doubt. They a little bit more independent than in the first stage. The third stage goes from three to six years. In this stage, the individual chooses between initiative and guilt. They have a higher independence and a better at planning. The fourth stage goes from 6 years to puberty. In this stage, the individual chooses between competence and inferiority. They have a daily interaction with their peers and have higher function and memory. The fifth stage is adolescence. In this stage, the individual chooses between identity and role confusion. They react to stereotypes placed on others. The sixth stage is early adulthood. In this stage, the individual chooses between intimacy and isolation. The seventh stage is in middle adulthood. In this stage, the individual chooses between generativity and stagnation. They tend to focus on what’s ahead. The final stage is in late adulthood. In this stage, the individual chooses between ego-integrity and despair. They tend to think a lot about their legacy and they ponder life choices a lot. 14. What is each stage in Kohlberg’s stages of development? The first two stages fall under the label of preconventional morality. These two stages are called the egocentric pleasure/profit and the cost/benefit orientation. The next two fall under the label of conventional morality. These two stages are called the “good child” orientation and the law-and-order orientation. The final two stages fall under the label of postconventional morality. These two stages are called the social contract orientation and the ethical principle orientation. 15. What are the three methods of attachment the Mary Ainsworth discovered? Describe them. The first one is called secure attachment. This child did not need mom every step of the way, and was comfortable exploring without mom right by their side. The last two fall under something called insecure attachment. The first one was when the child completely lost it and was inconsolable when mom left. The other one was when the child didn’t care at all when mom left. 16. Describe Harlow’s Monkeys. What did the study show? There was a baby monkey that was taken away from its mother. It was put in a cage with two fake “monkeys.” One of those monkeys had a terry cloth covering, but no food, while the other one had no terry cloth covering, but had food. They found that though the baby would feed from the food monkey, it would spend most of its time with the terry cloth monkey, proving that there was another factor that played into attachment other than food. 17. What are the four parenting styles? Describe them. The first is called authoritative parenting. This is when the parents enforce the rules, but are also respectful of the child’s needs. They demand a lot from their children but give appropriate responses. The second is called permissive. This is when the parents set few rules but also give appropriate responses. The third is called autocratic or authoritarian parenting. This is when the parent enforces rules but does not show warmth or pride. The final one is called unengaged or uninvolved parenting. This is when the parent is indifferent and may be even neglectful or abusive. The have little response to the child and don’t demand much. 18. Who discovered the device used for understanding language? What is that device called? What is the concept behind it? Noam Chomsky discovered the Language Acquisition Device. Basically, it was a belief that everyone possessed this and it controlled development of speech and understanding language. The fact that babies coo and cry and babble is proof that we are born with the ability to understand all language and then we lose that ability once we only start to speak one. 19. What are three things that are negatively affected by aging? Hearing, vision, and short-term memory 20. What are three things that improve with aging? Social interactions, control of emotions, vocabulary 21. What are things that may decline, but don’t necessarily as much as stereotypical people think, with aging? Long-term memory and the ability to problem solve
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'