Hist 462: History of the Middle East, Exam 1 Study Guide
Hist 462: History of the Middle East, Exam 1 Study Guide Hist 462
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This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayteeessbee on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Hist 462 at Western Kentucky University taught by Dr. Juan Romero in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see History of the Middle East in History at Western Kentucky University.
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IDs 1. Caliph ‘Ali: The fourth rightlyguided Caliph (appointed by Allah), soninlaw and cousin of Muhammad. Shi’I version: he was supposed to immediately succeed Muhammad but Sunni’s thought Abu Bakr was best choice. ‘Ali, 656661, assassinated. Mu‘awiya and ‘Ali; Longterm impact: controversy over who would become successor to Muhammad became the biggest split in Islam. It created the two different factions of Sunnis and Shi’is. Even today, there are tons of conflicts revolving around this very issue in Islamic history. Strong opposition to Umayyads among followers of ‘Ali. 2. Sufism: Shaikh Safi alDin, founder of the Sufi order. Born midthirteenth century. position of Safavid shahs as murshidekamil, i.e. perfect spiritual director of the Sufi order Safaviyya. Tasawweuf: inner mystical or psychospiritual dimension of Islam. It is believed by a lot of Muslims to be on the “outskirts” of Islam. Secularism: caliphate abolished 1924; Sufi orders dissolved (banned them); idea of necessity to ban some of their own traditions, because it was their own traditions that made them weak. Followers of Sufism seek to find the truth of divine love and knowledge to direct personal experience of God. Not a sect, just a point of view. Grew out of early ascetic movement of Islam, which, like Christian monasticism, sought to counteract the worldliness that came with the rapid expansion of Islam. Came about under the Umayyad Dynasty. A member of a Muslim group of people who try to experience God directly especially by praying and meditating. Many of their practices include prayer, music, and whirling, ritual acts designed to bring them closer to Allah. • 3. The sack of Baghdad: Reasons for Abassid decline: Mongol invasion. Baghdad had been established in 762 by the Abbasid Caliph alMansur. Throughout its history, it had been the capital of the Muslims, as well as the world in general. The libraries of Baghdad were unrivaled. The House of Wisdom, established soon after the city was built, was a magnet for the most intelligent scientists, thinkers, mathematicians, and linguists of the world. The caliphs were patrons of literature, science, and the arts. Although by the mid 1200s much of the glamour and importance of Baghdad was gone. The caliphs were figureheads more interested in worldly pleasures than serving God through serving the people. The Abbasid army was effectively nonexistent, and only served as bodyguards of the caliph. And the scientific achievements of the Muslim world were now centered in places such as Cairo, Muslim Spain, and India. It was at this historic and landmark city that the Mongols arrived in 1258. Their army, estimated at over 150,000 soldiers, stood before the city that was just a shadow of the great capital of the Muslim world of the 800s. The siege began in midJanuary and only lasted two weeks. On February 10th, 1258, the Mongols entered the city of the caliphs. A full week of pillage and destruction commenced. The Mongols showed no discretion, destroying mosques, hospitals, libraries, and palaces. The books from Baghdad’s libraries were thrown into the Tigris River in such quantities that the river ran black with the ink from the books. The world will never truly know the extent of what knowledge was lost forever when those books were thrown into the river or burned. More important than the books, however, was the loss of life. It is estimated that between 200,000 and 1,000,000 people were butchered in that one week of destruction. Baghdad was left completely depopulated and uninhabitable. It would take centuries for Baghdad to regain any sort of prominence as an important city. (Copied and pasted from http://lostislamichistory.com/mongols/ ) 4. Janissaries: elite slave army; was paid regular salaries. Reform: Janissaries and ‘ulama’ opposed reform. “formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops and bodyguards. Originally, janissaries were captured prisoners who were trained to be mercinaries. Male children of Christian families were later taken as slaves and trained to be the Janissaries when Christian territories began to be conquered. They were brought up Muslim, and trained to be faithful to the Islamic faith and loyal to the Sultan. They were trained as administrators and officials and given a rigorous military education.” This is relevant today because it shows a long history of conflict between Christians and Muslims that still exists today. “The corps was abolished by Sultan Mahmud II in 1826 in the Auspicious Incident in which 6,000 or more were executed.” Lasted nearly 500 years. It shows the military might of the Ottoman empire for a long part of its history, and identifies how and why it was able to maintain a stable government and control over the area it had. It is important to understand the corps in order to properly understand the success of the Ottoman empire during its peak time. 5. Safavids: Safavid empire was one of three centers in the Islamic world in the sixteenth century. Shah Isma‘il (14871524; shah 15011524) Proclaimed himself shah in 1501. Twelver Shi‘ism official religion of the state. Safavids originally a Turcoman Sunni brotherhood. Created a more centralized government. Army not equipped with firearms. Mesopotamia a battleground for OttomanSafavid rivalry. Shah ‘Abbas the Great (15711629) (1) Built up a Christian slave army as a counterweight to the tribes; (2) Reconquered territory lost to the Ottomans, Uzbeks, Portuguese, and Mughals; (3) Moved capital to Isfahan; (4) transferred lands from tribal leaders to his own estates to finance the new army. Friction b/w Turcomans and Persians. The latter no right to exercise military command. Bases of Safavid power (1) theory of the divine right of Persian kings; (2) claimed to be Mahdi’s (savior of Islam) representatives on earth; (3) position of Safavid shahs as murshidekamil, i.e. perfect spiritual director of the Sufi order Safaviyya. It held a prominent place in the society and politics of northwestern Iran in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, but today it is best known for having given rise to the Safavid dynasty. Safaviyya Shaikh Safi alDin, founder of the Sufi order. Born midthirteenth century. Safavids overthrown in 1722 by invading Afghan forces. Relevant today because: Safavid empire was one of three centers in the Islamic world in the sixteenth century. It was a continuation of the old Persian empire, which is a hugely relevant part of world history. The Safavids established the sect of Shi’I Islam as the prominent religion of Iran, even today. The Safavids unified the region in a way that it had never been unified before. 2. Aboukir: town in Egypt near the Canopus, The town contains a castle that was used as a state prison by Muhammad Ali in the early 19th century. The Battle of Abukir (or  Aboukir or Abu Qir) was a battle in which Napoleon Bonaparte defeated Seid Mustafa Pasha's Ottoman army on 25 July 1799, during the French campaign in Egypt. No sooner had the French forces returned from a campaign to Syria, than the Ottoman forces were transported to Egypt by Sidney Smith's British fleet to put an end to French rule in Egypt. In the long term, a French presence in Egypt was impossible to maintain. 6. Capitulations: Reasons for loss of Ottoman superiority: Capitulation agreements. Originally commercial treaties intended to stimulate trade: granted foreign merchants extraterritoriality and exemption from tax. New privileges were added as Ottoman power declined. “Religious millets combined with commercial treaties created a heavy financial burden for Ottoman society, which caused resentment. It became customary for the treaties to include special tariff duties for nationals paid few or no tariffs/taxes, and were only subject to Ottoman law by the permission of their government.” Longterm impact: it definitely contributed to the decrease in Ottoman power and increased European influence, leading to an overall greater European presence in the Middle East, which has been a huge source of conflict even in modern days. This came to head especially in WWI, when European states such as Russia and Britain began fighting over territorial rights in the middle east as the ottoman empire crumbled. 7. (The Egyptian) Public Debt Commission: 1876: international community established the Egyptian Public Debt Fund (EPD) to manage Egyptian financial affairs. Ismael had asked for British help with fiscal reform because he was worried about the nation’s financial situation. This is relevant because, again, it brought in more British/European influence into Egypt, which would later became a point of contention/conflict, somewhat even lasting to this day. European influence increased steadily from this movement. Government revenue (under the EPD) went to repaying the huge debts that ismael’s overlyambitious building schemes. This was relevant because it resulted in economic hardships, and discontent in the military, due to cutbacks. Nationalist sentiments thrived and even secret nationalist societies formed. 8. The ‘Urabi revolt: was a nationalistled movement leading to the british occupation of Egypt in 1882, when Ismael was forced to step down as khedive. Tewfik, a weak, pro british ruler, replaced him in 1879. Government revenue (under the EPD) went to repaying the huge debts that ismael’s overlyambitious building schemes. This was relevant because it resulted in economic hardships, which led to the Urabi revolt, because the military became disgruntled and nationalist sentiments thrived, as a result of military cutbacks. 1880: Ahmed Urabi led army officers in drawing up a petition listing their grievances, especially as their salaries were often late in being paid. Long story short, Britain decided in 1882 that it was time to formalize British control in Egypt, and the Urabi’s Egyptians revolted, killing people in Alexandria. The Brits used this as an excuse to move into Alexandria’s harbor, and bombarded Alexandria, defeating the Egyptian army and occupying Cairo. This is relevant because it also lends to the modern tensions between the Egyptians and the Europeans (especially the Brits.) 9. The Tobacco Protest: “The Tobacco Protest was a Shi'a revolt in Iran against an 1890 tobacco concession granted by the Shah to Great Britain. The protest was held by Tehran merchants in solidarity with the clerics. It climaxed in a widelyobeyed December 1891 edict (misunderstood as a fatwa) against tobacco use supposedly issued by Grand Ayatollah Mirza Hassan Shirazi.” Great Britain was granted a concession on trading tobacco (so they did not have to pay any taxes/tariffs over it) so they had a tobacco monopoly in the area around this time, basically. Shi’a activists then started a boycott of this situation to display their displeasure with the Shah’s decision in this capitulation. This had massive longterm effects, especially in that the Iranians saw, really for the first time, that they had the means to go against the word of the Shah and they could influence the presence of the Europeans in their region. 10. Jamal alDin alAfghani: Muslim politician, political agitator, and journalist whose belief in the potency of a revived Islamic civilization in the face of European domination significantly influenced the development of Muslim thought in the 19th and early 20th centuries. [Jamal alDin alAfghani was a political activist and writer, perhaps best known for his role in the PanIslamic movement. A controversial figure during his lifetime, al Afghani became one of the most influential figures in the Muslim world after his death.] The moving force behind alAfghani's life and work was his hostility toward British rule in Muslim lands. His anger toward the British was part of a more general antiimperialism. In keeping with his emphasis on antiimperialism and his desire to maintain the independence of Muslim countries, alAfghani emphasized practical aspects of political reform and self improvement. This included technical and scientific education. When necessary, it also included cooperation with dictatorial rulers. He was not the first to promote these ideas, but he was highly effective at spreading the messages. This was, in part, because he wrote in Arabic, which made his work accessible to more people. AlAfghani saw nationalism and PanIslamism as different but not necessarily contradictory. Both were essentially strategies for Islamic unity and antiimperialism. AlAfghani was one of the first Muslim figures to participate in various forms of political activism. He spoke publicly, wrote for newspapers and encouraged his followers to do so, led opposition groups, and even supported a plot to assassinate the shah of Iran. His use of different arguments for different situations made alAfghani popular with many groups. His ideas still appeal to those who support political reform and to those who emphasize Islamic principles. He left a legacy of practical, antiimperialist political activism that continues to be of great importance to the modern Islamic world. (from http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t243/e8) 11. The First Balkan War: 19121913, First Balkan War. Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, and Greece vs. Ottoman Empire. The Empire lost onefifth of its European territory. This is obviously implicative of longterm impacts, because just a few years later (5 years), after losing so much of its territory, the Ottoman Empire fell for good. In short, this was the first real major incident that signified to the beginning of the end of the Ottoman Empire. They fought against the Balkan League of Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, and Greece (formed under Russian Auspices in 1912 to take Macedonia away from Turkey.) Stressed Turkish contribution to success of the Empire (Turkism). This was the “true beginning” of Turkish collapse. They tried to sign a peace treaty, but the young Turks had a coup d’etat and restarted the conflict of the war and led to the loss of the remaining Ottoman territory in Europe. Albania then became its own independent state after this. The rest of the conquered territories were split amongst the Balkan League members after this. 12. The CUP: committed to Ottomanism limited monarchy; guarantee rights of non Muslims. The Committee of Union and Progress was founded by students in 1889, in order to restore the Constitutional Regime. It was a secret protest society, but they were found out by Hamid’s spies in 1895 and they began to be arrested and exiled. After this, they never really came back as an organized group, at least in Hamid’s lifetime. Longterm/side effect: Hamid became nearparanoid, and began believing even his own military was conspiring against him. He distrusted all organized institutions, but his paranoia actually led to more proconstitution/ottomanism groups to arise, and eventually, in 1908, Hamid accepted the demand from a postCUP group of army soldiers to restore the constitution, rather than risk a physical revolt. 13. The SykesPicot Agreement: 1916: AngloFrench division of Greater Syria and Mesopotamia, it was the agreement between the British and the French stating that they would split up Ottoman territory in the Middle East between the two European Spheres of influence. Important because it is the basis for the instability in the Middle East today. It marks the beginning of the fight over Middle Eastern territory, especially in regards to the natural resource of oil. 14. The Balfour Declaration: 1917: British govt. sympathetic to creation of Jewish homeland in Palestine. Proposed by Rothschild, wealthy European Jew, who wanted to create an independent Jewish state for the Jews of the world, based on their traditional homeland. The huge longterm impact is that this is the moment that pinpointed the beginning of the IsraeliPalestinian Conflict which is still a huge source of conflict in the Middle East, and in the world, to this day. This is also significant because it furthered the divide between Hebrew and Arabspeaking peoples, because there are still people over there who only speak one or the other, leading to a severe lack of effective communication between the two peoples. 15. The Treaty of Sevres: August of 1920, the nonfunctioning Ottoman government agreed to the treaty, acknowledging the Allies’ agreement of San Remo (their settlement of the Middle East). The treaty gave the allies the right to split up the Ottoman territories and even gave them the right to supervise all Turkish activities in the small territory it was able to keep. This basically took all of Turkey’s sovereignty. The Allies would control Turkey’s budget and expenditures. A huge longterm implication was the fact that this treaty did not specifically define the borders between Mesopotamia, Syria, and Palestine, which is obviously a huge issue even to this day (the question of borders in the region.) Secondly, the treaty left a big conflict about to whom the oil in the region would belong (it used to belong to Germany and Turkey, but now the US and France claimed authority over.) This is another issue that would continue for decades to come. 16. Alexandretta: French who controlled this part of Iraq decided in the 1930s to “flirt with the Turks” because they had a pretty strong army. They didn’t want the Turks to join the Germans/Hitler in WWII. So they would be neutral or join the Allies, France decided to give a portion of Iraq to the Turks. So Alexandretta became recognized as a Turkishruled area in 1932. The French tried to appease the Turks by seating them Alexandretta (part of the Frenchcontrolled Syria), knowing that a war was imminent, and hoping that this would prevent Turkey from joining the enemies (Nazis.) This was effective because the Turks did claim neutrality, which allowed for the occupation of Turkey by the Allied Powers, allowing for the opening of supply lines. If this had not happened, a serious change in the tide of the war would have occurred for the allies. If France had not given Alexandretta back to the Turks, the Turks may have joined the Axis powers, and the entire course of the war could have changed, which could have changed all of history from that point on. 17. AngloPersian Oil Company: 1901: British were granted an oil concession, allowing them to continue searching for oil, leading to their discovery of more oil in 1908. Based off of this, the Europeans realized they needed to control the commodity of oil, so they went in search of more oil. And the Brits discovered more oil in 1908. General conception of this company from the Persians was very negative, because it was foreign, and meddled in Persia’s domestic affairs and bribed members of Parliament that passed bills favoring the government, so it was perceived as a state in the state. Important part of the economy, but the Brits kept most of the money from the company, while the Persians got very little, so it was really good for the Europeans, but not particularly great for the Persians. 16. The Muslim Brotherhood: “The Muslim Brotherhood is an Islamic organization that was founded in Ismailia, Egypt by Hassan alBanna in 1928 as an Islamist religious, political, and social movement. The group spread to other Muslim countries but has its largest organizations in Egypt, where for many years it has been the largest, best organized political opposition force, despite a succession of government crackdowns after alleged plots of assassination and overthrow. Following the 2011 Revolution the group was legalized, and in 2012 presidential election when its candidate Mohamed Morsi became Egypt's first democratically elected president. One year later, however, following massive demonstrations, Morsi was overthrown by the military and arrested. As of 2014, the organization has been declared a terrorist group by Russia, Egypt, UAE, Saudi Arabia and is once again suffering a severe crackdown.” 17. Millet: a system wherein nonmuslim groups were organized based upon their religious traditions/beliefs. They were granted reasonable autonomy and were able to govern themselves as long as they obeyed the ruling Arabs. However, they could not become members of the military or become ruling members of the elite. 18. Ottomanism: a sort of amendment to the Millet System, implementing full equality regardless of one’s millet. Did not dismantle the system, but made it more equal. No matter your millet, you were to be considered an Ottoman person with equal rights. So everybody would pay the head tax, anybody could join the military, etc. Put simply, Ottomanism stated that all subjects were equal before the law. It is imperial nationalism to the point where everyone sees themselves as Ottoman, rather than focusing on religious identity, etc. 19. William Knox d’Arcy:In the concession D’Arcy was granted the privilege to “search for and obtain, exploit, develop, render suitable for trade, carry away and sell natural gas, petroleum, asphalt and ozokerite . . . for a term of sixty years”; it was applicable to the entire country except the five northern provinces (for the text, see Hurewitz, pp. 48284; cf. Ferrier, 1982, pp. 42, 64043; Lesānī, pp. 6569). D’Arcy also received the exclusive right to lay pipeline from oil wells to the Persian Gulf and to establish distribution depots, construct and maintain factories, and undertake all other works and services necessary for operation of the concession. These provisions aroused particular opposition from the Russians, who hoped to gain oil concessions in the northern provinces, the value of which would be severely curtailed without access to the Persian Gulf coast.b. The concession was to become void if D’Arcy had not established within two years a company or several companies. Within one month from the date at which the first company was established he was to pay the Persian government ₤20,000 in cash and ₤20,000 in stocks; he was also to pay an annual sum equal to 16 percent of the net profits of all companies formed. The government was entitled to appoint an imperial commissioner to safeguard Persian interests and to be available for consultation with the concessionaire. Exports and imports would be free from taxes and duties. On the expiration of the concession all assets would become the property of the Persian government, and the concessionaire would have no right of indemnity.c. D’Arcy founded the First Exploitation Company in 1903 and made the required initial payments. Drilling had already begun near Qaṣre Šīrīn, though no oil had been discovered. D’Arcy had agreed to finance the search himself, and by 1905 he had spent more than ₤225,000, mortgaged his remaining Australian stock holdings, and exhausted his ability to raise further capital. He began discussions with the French branch of the Rothschild family to sell the concession (Wright, 1977, p. 108; Carment, p. 208).d. The intervention of the British government had become crucial. The royal navy, convinced that oil would replace coal as the main source of fuel, wanted a secure source of petroleum supplies, and naval officials thus put D’Arcy in touch with the British Burmah Oil Company with the object of promoting a joint venture. The result was the Concessions Syndicate Ltd., established in 1905 with control of the First Exploitation Company shares and the concession under the trusteeship of D’Arcy. The syndicate provided the necessary capital for Persian operations. Drilling began at a new site, which also proved unsuccessful; two wells were abandoned. In January 1908 a third well was sunk, at Masjede Soleymān, 80 miles northeast of Ahvāz, in Ḵūzestān. The syndicate was on the verge of withdrawing from oil exploration entirely, abandoning this well too, when, on 24 Rabīʿ II 1326/26 May 1908, a reservoir of considerable size was struck. A year later the AngloPersian Oil Company was founded; it acquired the rights and shares of Concessions Syndicate, Ltd. In 1914 the British government became part owner of the firm, acquiring more than 50 percent of the voting rights, reimbursing D’Arcy for all his previous expenditures, and granting him ₤900,000 worth of shares. He remained a director until his death. Essay Questions 1. Discuss critically the transformation of Arab society under the Prophet Muhammad. Be sure to include several aspects of contemporary life in the Arabian Peninsula. Did any values or aspects of Arabian society persist under the new religion? The time before the Prophet Muhammad is described in Islam as Al Jahaliyya, or the Age of Ignorance. Muslims look down on this time period, especially since this time period encompasses a period of history where paganism and sin ran rampant in Arab society. During this time, Arab society was formed around a clanbased system brought together based on kinship ties. In the society, the main source of history and entertainment was poetry. Those who could recite the history of the clan were held in high esteem, and they were even considered to be connected to the spiritual world (gods) and to knowledge not granted to ordinary man. PreIslamic values included courage, loyalty, and generosity, including guest rights. Under Muhammad, society transformed under a new religion. With Islam, society transformed from a polytheistic society to monotheism. Mecca transformed from the cultural hub of idols to the focal point of the worship of Allah, the one God in Islam. Society became focused around the Qur’an, the word of God, and the belief of forming a religiopolitical society based on Islamic principles, the caliphate. When Muhammad died, the question of succession came to the front. Abu Bakr, the most militarily capable of Muhammad’s followers, had a large following behind him, wanting him to be caliph. Ali, Muhammad’s cousin and soninlaw, had a large faction behind him (those who thought the caliph should be a blood relative of the prophet). This created the large schism that still exists today between Shi’i (Ali) and Sunni (Abu Bakr) Muslims. This transformation from the tribal society of Preislamic arabia to the rapid expansion of arab influence from empirical conquest changed the region drastically. Islam became a world religious power through raped militaristic expansion. During this time period, the first four caliphs (abu bakr, Umar, Uthman, and ali) expanded arab empire across the middle east, and after them, the Umayyad and Abbassid caliphates transformed the cultural landscape of the Middle East. Tribal values, the moon, mecca, ka’ba, mecca’s sacred ground, prayer, and ritual still important in arab society under the new religion. 2. Analyze the reasons for the collapse of the Umayyad dynasty and to what extent society was transformed under the successor dynasty. Continuity, a break with the past, or something else, whatever your argument might be, make sure to explain how you arrive at your conclusion. Reasons: a. Rivalry and friction between north and south arabs b. Lack of fixed rules of hereditary succession c. Strong opposition to Umayyads among followers of ali d. Dissatisfaction among nonmuslims and Persian muslims Significance: e. Purely arab domination of the caliphate came to an end f. Mesopotamians were liberated from Syria g. The capital was moved to alkaufa h. Persians held important positions in government i. Abassid state was the successor dynasty j. Under the umayads the nonarabs were treated as second class citizens regardless if they were muslim or not k. Under the abassids, the people of other religions were able to hold public office l. Ethnic equality and racial equality under the abassids; sense of shared interests and less focus on tribal division m. Shi’ites were persecuted under the abassids even though they were the main reason for their rise to power n. Separation of mosque and state o. Racist element under the umayyads that went away 3. Analyze the reasons for and the impact of the Tanzimat. Did the reforms achieve their objective? What were the domestic reactions to the Tanzimat? Tanzimat reorgnanization of the ottoman empire began in 18391876 with first constitutional era modernize ott empire secure territorial integrity against national mvmt from within and aggressive powers from outside encrouraged ottomanism Grant emancipation to nonmuslims and integrate Turks into ott society by enhancing civil liberties and granting equality elimination of devshirne systm, educational, legal, institutional, eliminating corruption GOALS: wanted to get rid of millet system to better control citizens and increase legitimacy of ottoman rule. Being more open to demographics will attract more people to the empire. More religious freedom to reduce internal religious conflicts. DRIVING FORCE WAS THAT THEY DIDN’T WANT EUROPEAN POWERS TO INTERVENE IN THEIR AFFAIRS basically called for a complete reconstruction of the public Reaction: Not entirely positive christians and Balkans refused to support reforms some previous sought independence through rebellion had to have strong British backing to ensure reforms First tanzimat failed to properly promote religious freedom Some major important people were educated in the schools made by the reform before they were ended Modernization was encouraged 4. Analyze the policies of the Great Powers towards Egypt, the Ottoman Empire, and th Persia in the second half of the 19 century. Adopt a holistic approach to this essay, discussing different aspects of foreign influence in these countries. What were the differences and similarities of these policies? How did the foreign intrusion affect Egyptian, Ottoman, and Persian societies, and what were the local reactions to these policies? Capitulations: Reasons for loss of Ottoman superiority: Capitulation agreements. Originally commercial treaties intended to stimulate trade: granted foreign merchants extraterritoriality and exemption from tax. New privileges were added as Ottoman power declined. “Religious millets combined with commercial treaties created a heavy financial burden for Ottoman society, which caused resentment. It became customary for the treaties to include special tariff duties for nationals paid few or no tariffs/taxes, and were only subject to Ottoman law by the permission of their government.” Longterm impact: it definitely contributed to the decrease in Ottoman power and increased European influence, leading to an overall greater European presence in the Middle East, which has been a huge source of conflict even in modern days. “The Tobacco Protest was a Shi'a revolt in Iran against an 1890 tobacco concession granted by the Shah to Great Britain. The protest was held by Tehran merchants in solidarity with the clerics. It climaxed in a widelyobeyed December 1891 edict (misunderstood as a fatwa) against tobacco use supposedly issued by Grand Ayatollah Mirza Hassan Shirazi.” Great Britain was granted a concession on trading tobacco (so they did not have to pay any taxes/tariffs over it) so they had a tobacco monopoly in the area around this time, basically. Shi’a activists then started a boycott of this situation to display their displeasure with the Shah’s decision in this capitulation. This had massive longterm effects, especially in that the Iranians saw, really for the first time, that they had the means to go against the word of the Shah and they could influence the presence of the Europeans in their region. Positive equilibrium: whenever Persia granted certain powers to the Russians, they granted similar ones to the Brits to instill a rivalry. Slow Ottoman decline Reasons: (3) AngloFrench intervention on side of the Porte (Ottoman or Turkish government) in the Crimean War 18531856 (Russian influence over Orthodox Christians in Ottoman Empire. FrenchRussian rivalry in Jerusalem). Reform (1) Janissaries and ‘ulama’ opposed reform; (2) French officers instructed the army; (3) permanent embassies established in Europe. Persia Unfortunate enough to have powerful neighbors: Russia and Britain vied for influence. (1) ended the country’s ability to expand and exact tribute; (2) inability to modernize militarily, administratively, and economically; (3) central government challenged by local tribal leaders. Change in Persia happened slower than in the Ottoman Empire. Reason: ‘ulama’ strongly opposed reform. Reforms: (1) French officers helped Muhammad Ali modernize the army; (2) Frenchmen established schools and hospitals; (3) established Egyptian industries; (4) only marginal success b/c Egypt lacked raw materials for industrialization. Ottoman Empire Important developments: Alliances: Triple Alliance, 1882; Germany, AustriaHungary, Italy. Triple Entente, 1907; France, Russia, Britain. Young Turk Movement: three separate groups; (1) active Ottoman exile community in Paris and Geneva; divided; restoration of the constitution of 1876; (2) Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), founded by students in 1889; restoration of constitutional regime; Public debate over political and cultural loyalties (1) how to achieve proper mix b/w European and Ottoman ideas and institutions; (2) national identity. The CUP committed to Ottomanism: limited monarchy; guarantee rights of non Muslims. Young Turk government abolished the millet system. Turkism: stressed Turkish contribution to success of the Empire. Impact on Arab provinces of CUP policies: (1) purged administration of officials of the old order, Arab notables dismissed. (2) upset social and political order in Arab provinces; local issues could not be addressed due to lack of access to central government. (3) Arab protonationalism; no demand for political independence. (4) Arabs demanded Arabic recognized as official languages 5. Analyze the consequences of World War I for the Arab provinces of the Ottoman Empire. Make sure that you address both international and local issues, discussing their short and longterm impact. Turkey Greek invasion and occupation, 19191921; govt. in Ankara headed by Mustafa Kemal resisted. Izmir/Smrna had a Greek population, so this is where Greeks invaded, and then reached the outskirts of Ankara; Nationalists (government) saved Turkey by regrouping and pushing the Greeks out of Turkey entirely, here. Principles of Kemal (1) Reformism: wanted to turn Turkey into a modern European state through the means of authoritarianism; They wanted to advance, since the Ottoman empire had been in decline since the 1800s. (2) Republicanism: Turkey became a Republic under a president (Kemal—Authoritarian President) (3) Secularism: caliphate abolished 1924; Sufi orders dissolved (banned them); idea of necessity to ban some of their own traditions, because it was their own traditions that made them weak. 1925: Islamic caliphate had existed for centuries, until abolishment in 1924. Reestablishing caliphate was very important to Islamic State. Kurdish question: Ottoman empire was on verge of being wiped off the map and divided among other nations, so they became very nationalistic, because nationalism saved Turks from extinction. This made them very intolerant. Kurds were fiercely independent. Nationalist government did not recognize them as a separate group—so they called them “Mountain Turks” instead of Kurds, and would not allow them to use their own language, newspapers etc. This is still relevant because even today, this has carried on, and a lot of ethnicities in the Middle Eastern region are still not acknowledged as being their own ethnicities—especially by the Islamic State. Now PKK: Communist Kurdish community exists—Kurds still fighting against Turks sometimes. Alexandretta: French who controlled this part of Iraq decided in the 1930s to “flirt with the Turks” because they had a pretty strong army. They didn’t want the Turks to join the Germans/Hitler in WWII. So they would be neutral or join the Allies, France decided to give a portion of Iraq to the Turks. So Alexandretta became recognized as a Turkishruled area in 1932. Iran: WWI: foreign military presence (Russia, Ottoman, Brits, etc.) Ottomans had invaded Prussian territory in West during WWI. AngloPersian Agreement, 1919: Russia had ceased to be an imperialist power under the Bolshevik government, so Bolsheviks decided to annul the treaties that had been signed in the past by the powers (including Persia), becoming very popular with the Persians. Russians were no longer involved. However, a lot of opposition among Persian intellectuals about the AP Agreement. The agreement was actually never ratified, which came as a shock to the Brits. It would have placed British advisers in every government sector in Persia, which would have reduced Persian independence. Cossack Brigade. Impact on tribes (which were still well armed and fiercely independent): centralization, confiscation of lands; Reza Khan: Caused tension between Shari‘a courts and state courts. Confiscation of waqf (religious endowments) lands: created bad blood between Khan and religious establishment. Emphasis on achievements of preIslamic heritage. AngloPersian Oil Company (APOC): Generally conception of this company from the Persians was very negative, because it was foreign, and meddled in Persia’s domestic affairs and bribed members of Parliament that passed bills favoring the government, so it was perceived as a state in the state. Important part of the economy, but the Brits kept most of the money from the company, while the Persians got very little. WWII: (Iran declared) neutrality → occupation 1941. Brits did not like this, because that meant Nazis could spread propaganda throughout Iran. Reza Shah would not expel Nazis; Soviets would be assisted in fighting the Nazis, the US got involved even though they did not occupy any part of Iran at the time. Brits and Russians still had Iran split; Americans were asked to guard the tracks along the North and South border. Brits withdrew eventually, but Soviets did not, which caused a crisis. What was the significance of WWI in the Middle East? It drew the lines that we have for the countries today; Borders were drawn by Europeans (Churchill played big role, etc.) Tl;dr: The Arab provinces of the Ottoman empire were effected by WWI in that it caused many crises in the Middle East that are still problematic today, such as an identity crisis in the Middle East. The ongoing trend of many outside nations “having their hands” in the Arab provinces’ economic, political, cultural, and societal business was a direct result of the First World War. Border ambiguities arose, and these ended up being longterm problems, as we can see in such issues as the IsraelPalestine conflict today. The European/Western influence in the region became overwhelming, and has had effects lasting to this day.
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