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Test 1 Notes

by: Radhika Kamath

Test 1 Notes BIOL 1107K

Radhika Kamath


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Chapters 1-5
Principles of Biology
Dr. Patterson
Study Guide
Water, glaciars, Density, Molecules, atoms, periodic, Table
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Radhika Kamath on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1107K at University of North Georgia taught by Dr. Patterson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at University of North Georgia.


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Date Created: 09/21/16
Chapter 2  Keep in mind Iodine  Of the 92 Natural elements, about 20-25% are essential elements that an organism needs to live a healthy life and reproduce.  Just four elements: C, O, H, N make up about 96% of living matter.  Trace Elements are required by an organism in only minute quantities  Emergent Properties of a compound o The metal sodium combines with the poisinous gas chlorine, forming the edible compound sodium chloride or table salt  For atoms, subatomic particles, and mlcls we use a unit of measure called the Dalton o It’s the same as the amu  Isotopic Discrimination (Partitioning) is when certain physical and chemical processes result in isotopic partitioning within substances  Forams o Take O2 out of the water and fill their shells so when they die and sink too the bottom of the ocean scientists can date them and understand the time ranges of ocean floors  Glaciars have more 16O and ocean water has more 18O o Eavporation will take up lighter 16O and then when precipitating down againt he glaciars are formed with 16O  Matter has a natural tendency to move to the lowest possible state of potential energy  The further away the electron is from the nucleus the higher its energy (Potential Energy)  In a covalent bond : Polar vs. Non Polar  In a Ionic bond: Cation vs. Anion  Iodine is an important trace element that can be found in Salts  Weak Chemical Bonds o The attraction between hydrogen and an electronegative atom is called a hydrogen bond o The result of ever-changing areas of positive and negative charge that enable all atoms to stick together are called van der Waals interactions  Morphine affects pain perception by mimicking the brains natural endorphins Chapter 3  Emergent Properties: New properties that arise with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as a complexity increases.  Cells are composed of 70-95% water th  Hydrogen bonds are 1/20 the strength of a covalent bond  Four emergent properties of water o Cohesion behavior  Surface tension  adhesion o Ability to moderate temperature o Expansion upon freezing o Versatility as a solvent  The stomata is the cite of evaporation (water pulls up more water from the tube) o The lighter 16O will leave the plant first. o Isotopic signature is different from the top of the plant than it is the middle  Water resists changing its temperature; when it does change its temperature, it gains or looses a relatively large amount  Heat must be absorbed to break a Hydrogen bond. Vice versa.  The temperature near the coast is lower than the rest of the land.  Evaporative cooling is when liquid water evaporates the surface left behind ends up cooling o High kinetic enercy water mlcls evaporate first  Aqueous solution is when the solvent is water  Heat: a measure of the matter’s total kinetic energy (thus, it is dependent upon volume)  Temperature: a measure of heat intensity that represents the average kinetic energy of the molecules, regardless of volume  Makes frozen water ~10% less dense than liquid water (10% fewer molecules per unit volume)  Hydration Shell: the sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ions  Why is sea water salty? o Acidic rain water (pH 5.2) chemically erodes rocks and run-off to the ocean o Seawater seeps into earth’s crust, becomes super-heated, dissolves crust materials and is ejected back into the ocean through vents o Cl and Na make up 90% of dissolved ions in seawater  More salt means lower freezing point  Colloid: a stable suspension of fine particles in liquid; some molecules are too large to dissolve in water     Acidifications of the ocean o When CO2 dissolves in seawater, it reacts with water to form carbonic acid, which lowers the ph of ocean water  Chapter 4  Miller Urey Experiment o Formaldeh yde and Hydrogen Cyanide were created  Isomers o Structural: differ in the covalent arrangement of their atoms o Cis-trans: atoms are arranged differently due to the inflexibility of double covalent bonds  Cis: The two Xs are on the same side.  Trans: The two Xs are on different sides o Enantiomers: isomers that are mirror images of each other  Seven most important Functional Groups in biological processes: hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, sulfhydryl, phosphate and methyl groups o Hydroxyl: is polar due to electronegative oxygen. Forms hydrogen bonds with water, helping dissolve compounds such as sugars. Compound name: Alcohol (specific name usually ends in “ol”) o Methyl: affects the expression of genes when on DNA or on proteins bound to DNA. Affects the shape and function of male and female sex hormones. Compound name: methylated compound. o Amino: Acts as a base; can pick up an H+ from the surrounding solution (water, in living organisms) Compounds name: Amine Chapter 5  Avogadros number allows you to switch from Daltons to Grams, which is much more practical in the lab o Microscopic cs. Macroscopic Carbohydrates o Monosaccharides o Disaccharides o Polysaccharides  Ketoses is when the C has a double bond to O and single bonded to two C  Aldehyde is when C has a double bond to O and a single bond to a C and H  Most stable state for a carbohydrate is a ring structure  Polysaccharides o Plants store starch, a polymer of glucose monomers, as food energy o Animal enzymes that hydrolyze starch  Amylose: the simplest form of starch- unbranched  Amylopectin: more complex starch with 1-6 linkages at the branch points o Animals store a polysaccharide called glycogen, a polymer of glucose and similar to amylopectin, but more extensively branched  Stored in liver and muscles o Structural Polysacharides  Cellulose is the most abundant organic compound on earth Composition is like starch, but the glycosidic linkages differ between the two  Alpha and Beta glucose ring structures  Alpha: (Starch) OH groups all on one side  Beta: (Cellulose) OH group alternate top and bottom  Chitin is the structural polysaccharide used by arthropods (e.g., insects, spiders, crustaceans, etc.)  Lipids are the only class of large biological molecules that do not include true polymers and are generally not large enough to be considered macromolecules o Made of glycerol and Fatty acids  Glycerol is an alcohol molecule- each of its carbons bears a hydroxyl group  The fatty acid typically has a long skeleton (~16-18 carbons in length); the carbon at the end is part of a carboxyl group (i.e., acid) o The molecular building blocks of a fat are (Triglycerol) are one molecule of glycerol and three mlcls of fat throught an Ester linkage o Steroids are lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings  Cholesterol is a common component of cell membranes, but is also an important precursor of other steroid molecules  Proteins comprise ~50% of the dry mass of most cells o CHONSP o amino acid monomers held together by covalent bonds called peptide bonds o All proteins composed of different combinations of 20 amino acids, which differ from each other by the presence of specific R groups o Types of Proteins:  Enzymatic  Defensive  Storage: amino acid storage  Transport  Hormonal: coordination of an organisms activities  Receptor: response of cell to chemical stimuli  Caontractile and motor: movement  Structural o Enzymes help amino acids dehydrate and create a peptide bond o Four levels of protein structure determine shape and function  Primary: linear sequence of amino acids  Secondary: how primary amino acids interact with each other  Alpha (α) helix coils resemble a spring  Beta (β) pleated sheets resemble accordion ribbons  Tertiary: how secondary structures interact  Quaternary: how two or more different polypeptides interact with each other  Hemoglobin  Sickle cell disease  Nucleic acids are polymers of monomers called nucleotides o Nucleotides are composed of a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group o Nucleotides contain a deoxyribose sugar, phosphate group and one of four nitrogenous bases:  Purines: Adenine (A), Guanine (G)  Pyrimidines: Cytosine (C), Thymine (T) o A always pairs with T o G always pairs with C o Thymine in DNA o Uracil in RNA o DNA strands are antiparallel o


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