Public Speaking Exam 1 Study Guide
Public Speaking Exam 1 Study Guide COMM 027
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aroma Bhargava on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 027 at University of the Pacific taught by Marlin Clark Bates in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Public Speaking in Communications at University of the Pacific.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
Public Speaking Study Guide for Exam 1 Vocab words Positive Nervousness controlled nervousness that helps energize a speaker for her or his presentation. Think Positively – If you think you can do it, then you usually can. (confidence is the most wellknown power of positive thinking.) o Many psychologists believe that for every one negative thought, you should have at least 5 positive thoughts. Visualization – Mental imaging in which a speaker vividly pictures himself or herself giving a successful presentation. Ethnocentrism – the belief that one’s own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures. Namecalling – the use of language to demean or degrade an individual or group Plagiarism – presenting someone else’s work ad your own without giving them any credit. Global plagiarism – stealing a whole work from a single source and saying its yours Patchwork plagiarism – taking languages, ideas, or phrases from 23 sources without credit Incremental plagiarism – failing to give credit for particular parts of a speech that are borrowed from other people. Plagiarism and the Internet – it’s too easy to copy information from the internet without being aware to the fact that citing those sources is important when using in speeches and so on. Appreciative listening – listening for pleasure or enjoyment Empathic listening – listening to provide emotional support for a speaker Comprehensive listening – listening to understand Critical listening – listening to evaluate a message for purpose of accepting or rejecting 3 suggestions to focus your listening o 1) listen to the main points Many speeches contain 24 main points and they are the most important things to listen for any speech. By knowing the main points, you can follow the speech better and always know what the speaker is talking about. o 2) listen for evidence It is also needed to listen to the supporting evidence of the main ideas. There are 4 basic questions to think about the speaker’s evidence. Is it accurate? Is it from an objective source? Are they relevant to the speaker’s topic? And is it all sufficient to support the point of the speech? o 3) Listen for Technique Even though you should let the delivery of the speaker to distract you from their speech, it is crucial to analyze the methods the speaker uses. Analyze the introduction, Assess the organization of the speech, Study the speaker’s language, Diagnose the speaker’s delivery. As you listen to the speech make sure to focuses on the speaker’s strengths and weaknesses. Brainstorming – a method of generating ideas for speech topics by free association of words and ideas. o Personal inventory – jotting down your personal experiences, hobbies, interests, skills, beliefs, etc.… and from this list you can choose a general subject to which you can develop a specific topic. o Clustering – on a piece of paper make 9 collops with the titles: People, places, things, events, processes, concepts, natural phenomena, problems, and plans policies; with these collops you can then list few things that come to your minds and then choose from them. o Internet search – just type a random idea into the browser and see what comes up, or search the news from some good ideas. General purpose: o To Inform: when you inform, your goal is to convey information clearly, accurately, and interestingly, so that you can enhance the knowledge and understanding of your listeners. o To Persuade: You act as an advocate or a partisan who wants to win over the listeners with your point and have them believing something because of your speech. Central ideas and guidelines: o Central Idea – a one sentence statement that sums up or encapsulates the major ideas of a speech. (a thesis statement) o There are guidelines to the thesis statement and they are… 1) should be put into one sentence 2) shouldn’t be a question 3) avoid figurative language 4) shouldn’t be vague or general Residual message – what a speaker wants the audience to remember after it has forgotten everything else in a speech. Identification Egocentrism – the tendency of people to be concerned above all with their own values, beliefs, and wellbeing. 2 steps of demographic analysis o 1) Identifying the general demographic features of your audience o 2) Gauging the importance of those features to a particular speaking situation. Situational audience analysis – Audience analysis that focuses on situational factors such as the size of the audience, the physical setting for the speech, and thee disposition of the audience toward the topic, the speaker, and the occasion. Checklist for Evaluating Internet Documents o Authorship – the author of the article or the website is clearly shown and his or her qualifications are valid and show some type of expertise in the subject, as well as the ideas of this author are nonbiased or objective. o Sponsorship – Many online articles/ documents are posted by companies, government agencies, public agencies and more, and not really the author, so it is important to figure out if the sponsoring organization is objective, fairminded, impartial enough to cite and unbiased on the topic as well as a history of accuracy. o Recency – looking up the date on the article to make sure it is the update and recent data rather than the old data. It is necessary to look for the publication date, copyright data, or date of most recent revision at the top or bottom of the article, just so we know that the source is still credible to use for our speeches. Brief examples – a specific case referred to in passing to illustrate a point Extended examples – a story or narrative developed at some length to prove/make/illustrate a point Hypothetical examples – an example that describes an imaginary or factious situation Making examples vivid – everyday details bring the examples to life, and the more vivid your examples the more of an impact the audience will have. Delivery to enhance extended examples – the delivery of the example is what is important, take your time on delivering it by slowing down, changing the tone of your voice, build suspense, create a sense of action, as well as rising your voice at some parts and dropping it off at some other parts. And finally make eye contact with the audience and emphasis with your body language. Statistics Numerical data for speeches o Use sparingly: Use the data at a very minimum and very clearly, only when words cannot describe the data. o Rounding off: When the numbers in the data get to complicated, it is okay to round of the numbers so that the audience can better understand your point, unless it is crucial to give exact numbers. o Use visual aids: Visual aids can help with conveying the data even easier and clearer, which than can save your speech from being boring and just full of data the audience doesn’t understand. Expert testimony – testimony from people who are recognized experts in their fields Peer testimony – testimony from ordinary people with firsthand experience or insight on the topic. Chronological order a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time pattern. Spatial order – A method of speech organization in which the main point follows a directional pattern. Casual order – A method of speech organization in which the main points show a cause effect relationship. Problemsolution order – A method of speech organization in which the first main point deals with the existence of a problem and the second point deals with the solution to the problem. Topical order – where the main points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics. Transitions – A word or phrase that indicates when a speaker is finished one thought and is moving onto another. Signposts – A very brief statement that indicates where a speaker is in the speech or that focuses attention on key ideas Internal previews – a statement in the body of the speech that lets the audience know what the speaker is going to talk about next. Internal summaries – a statement in the body of the speech that summarizes the speakers preceding point or points. Getting attention and interest: Getting and keeping the attention of your audience is very difficult but there are a few things that you can do as a speaker to maintain that. o Relate the topic to the audience by using examples, something that they would hold to value or importance or that they could just relate to. o State the importance of the topic you are speaking on so they understand why they should find this topic interesting and important too. o Startle the audience in between your speech with an intriguing statement my building up to it, this will not only capture your audience’s attention it will also bring them back to attention if they started dozing off. o Arouse the curiosity of the audience with a series of statements, where they are eager to know more about what you are going to talk about. o Question the audience with usually one, or a couple that deepens their thoughts on the topic you will talk about or are talking about and keeping them engaged. o Begin with a quotation from a source that doesn’t have anything to do with your speech but the quotation is the only thing that links back to the topic and is a very interesting and intriguing quotation for the audience o Tell a story as long as it has suspense, drama and is provocative because these are things that will grab the audience’s attention and also get them emotionally involved. Reveal the topic in basic and simple words, and don’t be too afraid to state the topic/s multiple times so that the audience can keep up with the speech and understand that topic. Establish credibility and goodwill by letting the audience know how you know the information, whether it be from firsthand knowledge or from readings in class or online, make sure the audience knows how you are linked/affected by your topic as well. Preview the body of speech by giving a short statement on what they should listen for in your speech. o Preview statement – a statement in the introduction of a speech that identifies the main points to be discussed in the body. Signaling the end of the speech is very important so that your audience knows when you are getting to the end and when they should clap for you. This can be done with “in conclusion” or “my purpose has been” and other statements following the brief cues of a conclusion. Reinforce the central idea o Summarize your speech in your conclusion o You can end with a quotation o Make a dramatic statement (go out with a bang) o REFER to the INTRODUCTION to tie everything up. Guidelines for the preparation outline o In your intro state the purpose of your speech o Identify the central idea o Label the introduction, body, and conclusion on the outline Write out your complete introduction and conclusion to keep you on track o Keep a consistent pattern Main point Sub point Sub point o Subsub point o Subsub point Subsubsub point And so on Main point 2 Sub point Sub point o Subsub point o And so on o State the main points in full sentences o Label transitions, summaries, and previews o Attach a bibliography o Have a title Guidelines for the speaking outline o Speaking outline – a brief outline used to jog a speaker’s memory during the presentation of a speech. o Follow the visual framework used in the presentation outline o Make sure the outline is legible o Keep the outline brief as possible o Give yourself CUES for delivering the speech Like where to put more emotion or emphasis, or even just changing the tone of your voice.
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