SMAD Study Guide First Exam.
SMAD Study Guide First Exam. SMAD 101
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Date Created: 09/21/16
Role of Media in Society- The types of societies include Agricultural, Industrial, and Information. Agricultural Societies have farm Industrial Societies have their based societies. In information based societies, information main priority as manufacturing The most common type in most carries the most weight in the economy. things to make life easier. The key commodities of said era are in lesser developed countries. information and knowledge. Many industrial societies are in Key commodities in the farm existence today. trade via both food and land. The main employment is as an information The key commodities are in Main employment was in the worker; gathering, spreading or creating new information for various purposes. manufactured goods and energy. farm trade and the most basic Basic tech is in steam power technology was in agricultural The Basic technology of such a society is in based electronics and assembly tools. Computers and Networks. lines. Main employment Mass communication moves on into more Mass communication is rare, i.e. opportunity in this society is as a newspapers in the big cities and interactive types of media. factory worker. Mass nowhere else. Interconnectedness among individuals and communication starts to take on institutions. variety in this kind of society. Special status of scientific knowledge. Found in both one-way print and Many messages and channels available to low-level electronic. the public. Widely diffused information technology. Answer: YES! Evidence: The United States work force trends can be summed up fairly (*NOTE- these percentages are not exact and subject to change.) 70% of simply from 1930-2010. Question: Is the U.S. workers have information jobs. 80% of Agricultural jobs are decreasing. equivalent working days are devoted Industrial jobs are decreasing. an information society? to communication related work. 75% of Service jobs have shown a small labor costs are for information work. increase. Information jobs have 80% of work hours are devoted to received an almost exponential communication work. increase. VOCAB: Mediamorphosis- The transformation of communication Three main industries show media, usually brought about by the complex change in signs of convergence: technology through time. Coevolution and Coexistence- as each new form 1. Information and Entertainment Industry. emerges and develops, it influences the development of other existing forms. 2. Telecommunication Metamorphosis- new media emerges gradually from older Industry. media. I.e. Home Phone to cell phone. 3. Computer Industry Propagation- new media propagate dominant traits from earlier forms. Rearview mirror thinking. i.e. AM radio to FM radio to Television to HDTV. Survival- all forms of media are compelled to evolve and adapt. Digital convergence- All media going digital, networks Opportunity and Need- a new media adopted on the technological merits alone. integrating, Institutions are Delayed adoption- take longer than expected to become converging, and access to commercial successes. information is increasing. FACTORS LEADING TO DIGITAL CONVERGENCE: Interactive- Allow one on one interaction between individuals and content or between two individuals. Demassified- exchange information with individuals, and IMPORTANT THEORIES- information is personalized. Convergence of Media (term Asynchronous- capacity to interact with an individual at a coined by Nicholas time that is convenient for that person. Negroponte)- The integration of Convenience- Information can be converted, manipulated, media, into a common and reached more easily. A one-step service. technological base. Device Technological convergence is a device that combines two different devices with similar processes. I.e. Diffusion of innovation- The process of whereby innovations a fax and printer in one device. Corporate/Economic Convergence- Companies buying spread on a social system. out each other to widen, diversify, or expand their market share. Operational/Cultural Convergence- Attitude/value changes, understanding and incorporating others ideals with your own. Roger’s 5 critical attributes of successful diffusion Compatibility- Is this Complexity- Is this Relative Advantage- Is innovation something innovation too complex the innovation better that goes well with the target audience’s for people to than its predecessor? understand? standard habits? Observability- Is this Reliability- Does this innovation getting enough exposure to product do what it's supposed to do? succeed? . Is this product familiar enough? Familiarity- links the innovations to the past. Previous innovations, There has been an the original product, other adaptation, (or innovation?), to this innovations. For example, there model, it is known as are currently dozens of products that intend to add Wi-Fi, even Fidler’s sixth principle. strollers! Society is now familiar with the concept, so it's a common innovation. Digital Consumers Innovators are Early adopters Late adopters Lastly, are the the ones who are after that, are after that, lagers, they don't Spiral of Silence need it first. They and get the they get the tech want the new must get it at “new” tech after after the bugs technology, for Noelle Neumann proposed that release or they the price goes are out and the one reason or society threatens deviant individuals feel left out. down a little bit. price is another. with isolation. Fear of that causes significantly people to evaluate popularity of down. opinions. Minority views often are not shared because of that. This is where the silence comes from. Views During the early adopter perceived to be dominant gain even period, the takeoff event more grans and alternatives retreat happens. The takeoff is the further. This is the spiral effect. phase where businesses can measure how well a product will diffuse. Digital People Digital immigrants Digital natives, who were are people who immersed into the digital era have to adopt at a young age. Digital modern digital immigrants need to slowly technology, they are phase the technology into typically older. their lives. Decision- The Adoption- The Awareness- the Interest- the public decides Trial- The public public can no Stages of Diffusion- public finds the starts to have it product. public wants it. that they are and use it. longer imagine going to buy it. life without it. ANALOG: DIGITAL: Brian Winston’s supervising Social Continuous variation Takes samples of All information is analog signals Necessities. (Factors the affect diffusion) transmitted including Translates waves into noise. a series of 1’s and 0’s Economic- The financial Technological- Social- Regulation- standing meets Government the needs of the Have Acceptance of support through company and a compatible the innovation the regulation tecchnology in society and hefty enough with a well built the need for agencies. Trade purchasing support with The advantages of Digital power of the infrastructure. innovation. the community. company. transmission are less noise, intelligent channels, easier to manipulate, integrated networks, and easily Compressed messages are sent quicker. Virtual compressible. Intelligent Immediate transfer of information. Globreality could enhance immediacy of understanding. channels have behavior that smaller and more reachable Protection of intellectual property. Easier to copy is different depending on the and disseminate information. nature of the content. Implications of Digital Language: Marshall McLuhan’s Global Village Common experiences defined by media. Example: 9/11. The media defined it as a terrorist attack and The mass data gets segmented and fragmented.t by moving on from we grow together as a society. There are monuments to the tragedy all over the world. Together we stand. Together we strive. Media Bias- built in media features that privilege some Partisan Bias- a position is information and storytelling purposely advertised and and explained. features while minimizing others. COMMUNICATION PROCESS AND THEORY: Unwitting Bias- Selecting stories Propaganda Bias- Intention of to be run, but time restrictions or making a case for a policy but it's some other factor stops Intrapersonal- communication with self, not explicitly stated. everything that should be run like a journal or a diary. from being run. Interpersonal- face-to-face communication with another or machine assisted communication with another. Mass Communication- point to Bias by experience- Do these multipoint, uses mass medium such as Bias by selection- What to or stories play people emotional or newspaper, TV, and radio. what not to include? mental strings? Will they attract or repel them? Functions of Mass Communication: Surveillance- providing newsworthy communication Correlation- interpreting information and editorializing or prescribing action. Bias by market- Choosing to play Transmission of Culture- binding into audience choices? Reinforces their beliefs, either corporate, people across time and distance by the (ads match audience), or education about values and social government, (what government norms. project is supported by the Entertainment- entertaining people network/audience?). without necessarily offering any other functional value. Three Types of Media: Mass Media- Point to multipoint message distribution. Programming for the masses. Uses mediated channels. Message controlled by the sender. NEWSPAPER, RADIO, TV, FILMS, etc. Personalized Media- Point to multipoint, interpersonal and intrapersonal. Uses technology to personalize. User has more control. CD player, VCR, personal computer, camcorder, etc. Telecommunication Media- Interpersonal and point to multipoint message distribution. Mediated by person. Blogs, twitter, text messages, Facebook, phone calls. The two types of innovations Saffo’s 30-year rule states that during the first decade, there is a lot of excitement, and little actual penetration into the market. For example, people were excited when the television was first exposed to the market, but not Sustaining innovations, Disruptive innovations, everyone got one right away. During the second decade, the product grows which make a product which disrupt the natural some momentum, gaining some real popularity, and becoming a regular better, and don't threaten process of a product (like household, or community product. For example, televisions were popular and the market. Sustaining a replacement that is wondrous products, people enjoyed it, and most people wanted it. By the third innovations don't threaten more efficient or popular). decade, the product is often taken for granted. When is the last time you the market, like a An example of a realized how amazing the concept of television is? transition from a regular disruptive innovations is typewriter, to an electric the transition from a typewriter. typewriter to a computer. Linear Communication Models: Harold Lasswell stated the pathway of communication is like filling in the blanks of, “Who says what to whom through which channel with what effect.” The message arrives to the receiver with A Transmitter sends The message goes certain additions. These additions are added to the message throughout the a message through a medium transmission process. They are: fields of experience, noise, and feedback. Noise interrupts/interferes with the message between the transmitter and the medium and between the medium and the receiver. (Static, altitude, competing signals) Fields of experience affect how well a message is given. Did the transmitter do a good job of executing the message? Did the receiver do a good job of understanding it? Are they speaking different languages? Are they speaking using any slang or colloquialisms? Feedback comes back from receiver to transmitter, starting the cycle over again. FEEDBACK An event happens in • Sometimes the P.R. Liaison will deliver the message reality. An official source directly to the editor or the or Public Relations liaison audience. Feedback can be delivers a message about sent directly from the the event. That message audience to the editor, from is intended for a specific the editor to the individual, or audience. the audience to the individual. GATEKEEPING An individual (like a Edited message is reporter) is told of that delivered to the audience. MODEL event by the official source or P.R. liaison. Editor edits the message. The message is edited depending on the Reporter or other individual then takes medium. (Where and message to media outlet. who is the audience of (Mass media, intra- or said medium? How much time do they have to interpersonal.) deliver that message?). Dependency Theory: Something that appeals to everyone in some way. It becomes a dependency, and addiction. Three Way relationship: People who create media, audiences develop greatly, society envelops it. Variables- Social Stability, number of centrality of information functions served. 3 types of effects= cognitive - what is in the user's head? Affective- How does it make users feel? Behavioral- What actions will users take? Hegemony- Transmitters are controlling media. Antonio Gramsci believed that the “ruling class” of transmitters, control how we see media by their social institutions and behavior/values. Examples of this “ruling class” include the Police and military, Educational systems, Religions, and Media Outlets. Agenda Setting- McCombs & Shaw. Media covers the “important” issues. That is the sentiment held by all transmitters. They don't tell us what to think, but what to think about. Developed form priorities of media, public, and policy makers. Media gives more attention to certain issues than others. Information Gap Hypothesis In our society information is the grandest form of power. The growing gap between info rich and info poor is supposedly caused by the society members level of education, and what resources are commonly available to them, i.e. computers, the internet, and mainstream media outlets, etc. The information rich are protective of those resources and information because they want to keep their advantage. If you knew somebody’s secret (information with value) would you tell the world, keep it in confidence, or hold it above their heads. Most likely you want that info to yourself one way or another. The information gap is starting earlier and earlier with people getting their first information catalyst (like a phone, computer, or tablet) at a young age. USES OF GRATIFICATIONS THEORY: Emeel Durkham: “People take an active role in choosing media for the purpose of gratifying needs.” This means we expose ourselves to what we want to expose ourselves We satisfy our needs, best illustrated with Alex Tan’s typology of needs: Cognitive- Conscious Escapists Needs- Our need to do something. need to escape whatever ailments reality has given us. Social Integrative Needs- A group of Affective- Emotional engaged consumers need, something to who want to know make you feel or not more and further enjoy the product. feel. (Fandoms) Personal Integrative Needs- Conversational currency. Media that gives us something to talk about. Often leads to identifying with characters. We alter our future Expectancy Value Theory: Seek media based on expectations of media Similar to uses and expectations. Media has depending on whether they gratification, people use value, when it meets meet our needs. “This looks based on satisfying needs. expectations. like something I want to see.” Play and Entertainment Play theory has its origins in Theory: We use the media to Freud’s pleasureprinciple. Pleasurement determined satisfy needs for pleasure We seek to replicate by consumer and no one and entertainment. pleasurable experiences else. through media. Media Bias: Print vs. Electric. Print Bias coincides with Electronic Bias in Film will have the most to do with the program creators and issues of the first directors, i.e. subject matter, and the amendment. That law was backers behind the ideals. Examples of biased or controversial backers are Mel made so that opinions and Gibson and Michael Moore. In Television facts could both be publically time on air to voice an opinion can be easily bought. Blogs are almost entirely addressed. A Newspapers opinionated but can be factual. Broadcast “OPEd” page delivers an Media is monitored so that the news is opinionated viewpoint that is determined to be factual, Cable however does not have to be completely otherwise factual . opinionated. Powerful Effects: Hypodermic needle or magic bullet hypothesis/theory- Media hits us like a bullet, leaving us changed forever. Bias Good or Bad? Copycat Actions based on media: Prosocial (good for society.)- Edith bunker had a breast Good Bad cancer scare on “All in the Family”, as a result, women all over the country went in for breast Main Stream Media is biased, Main Stream Media is biased and exams. Antisocial (Bad for society)- Beavis and Butthead would set cats on fire, some underage but that is a good thing. Large that's a bad thing. The system or impressionable people would see this and segments of the audience want puts pressure on consumers to then attempt it in real life. slanted or opinionated news. seek all perspectives. The They want reinforcement of audience lack the skills in critically Propaganda and advertising- determine why/how you do something. opinion. Advertisers gain from analyzing messages. The knowing the bases of the audience lacks an understanding media’s audience. The system of media bias to construct works because both independent conclusions. conservatives and liberals have media outlets. Personal and interpersonal influences Media effects can be indirect. Diffusion of Information- Multi step flow, Where the opinion Crystallization is the goal Two step flow, Which goes from leader takes steps to give when the opinion leader The opinion leader to individuals his/her/their message to both delivers their message to the individuals who agree. who agree. individuals who agree and Crystallization id the unconvinced individuals. sharpening of attitudes of individuals who then make the decision to do something, creating a definite decision. Often done through specific reinforcement. Albert Bondura was the man behind the bobo doll experiment. He showed two different movies to two different groups of children. To one, he showed a man beating up a bobo-doll and only that in a room full of toys. In the other, the man played with all the toys and ignored the bobo doll. The kids emulated the behavior shown in whatever video they watched. The conclusion from this experiment was determined to be that violence may not cause violent behavior, but it may encourage it. Selective exposure- “What do you want to watch?” Selective behavior of social categories- Selective attention- Behaving in Paying more attention appropriate ways for to one messagethan situation as displayed another. by the media. Active Audience Selective attention Selective perception- and recall- Only seeing something the rememberingcertain way we want to see it. things from an event. The human need for approval makes us want to emulate those considered heroes. The human need for attention makes us want to emulate those in the spotlight, good or bad. People can and will ignore the means for a specific end that they have witnessed. REAL TV LIFE Social Learning and Media Social Cognitive Theory Behaviors, rewards, and justificatioMedia can teach us to model behaviors, values, and beliefs. Here lies media. We learn TV.ut life from the lithe differenc(continuing behaviors).trying it once) and acceptance Mediated behaviors are especially inSometime media teaches but other adopters motivate us to behave a people don't have experience with those certain way. (With or against TV emulated behaviors) This is the application of TV scenarios and solutions to Mediated behaviors are only influentMedia is more influential when other adopters are absent. Example- TV accept, and imitate the behaviors. Tis the only influence so dangerous TV behavior is emulated exactly scenarios we see on TV. George Gerbner studied the cultivation theory for 40 years and came to the conclusion that violence on TV made us more scared of violence being done to us. George Gerbner founded the Cultural Innovations Resonance- similarities between TV Research Project, which tracked media violence and the ramifications in the real world. As a result, there world and us. was a discovery of Mean World Syndrome. Mainstreaming- cultural and Social forces Mean World Syndrome- The media shows violent and are diminished, and TV forces replace it. vile, “mean world” stories because that is what the audiences find the most intriguing and fascinating. As a result, approximately 61% of news is about violent crimes, actions and disasters. “Mainstreaming” of violence in the media makes the world think that there's more violence than there is. In actuality, more violence is being covered in the media, and less is Cultivation Theory- A stalagmite theory (from the ground up) happening in the country. Popular media, especially TV, There is no cognitive conclusion that media is the shapes or cultivates the view of social reality cause of increased violence, but it is a known factor. It TV dominant storyteller cannot be fully measured because there can be no control. WE ALL were exposed to media in some form Stories are relatively uniform in values and images. since birth. The very young and the very old Cultivation- a stable system of messages shapes our are influenced the most in this theory. conception of the world. The media shows “Happy Violence”, which is entertaining, well-choreographed, humorous violence that ends in a happy conclusion. Gun sales have increased in contrast to the decreased crime rate. 2/3rds of those who say they are afraid, get their news from their television. The fear of being attacked, being a victim, has made the nation more afraid of their fellow man. Gerber said he was most shocked that his study showed that TV causes its Mean people- Racial profiling in MOST OF THESE VIOLENT own subcultural effects with media. It's media has made some people PORTRAYALS ARE FALSE. However, the fear of violence starts so visually, and mentally captivating, more prone to be seen as that it becomes the main focus of more offenders and victims. A Mean a chain reaction. Fear making someone strike first, then more than we realize. world cultivates mean people. violence in retaliation, and so on. The Fallout of course is fear. MINORITY REPRESENTATION Produced by early immigrants from Spain, Central, and South America. Latino native media approach is when Latino media follows the news and trends of the Latino community inside the United States. Mexico Outside media approach is when Latino media follows the news and trends from/about Central and South America, particularly Mexico. Women make up more than Instrumental Latino Media Producer- Raoul Cortez. half of the population but are wildly under-represented in the media. When they are, they are often put into the stereotype roles of the Homemaker, the Beautiful object, or the Superwoman. Increased after the 1969 Stonewall Riots in NYC, over 150 new Media representation of gender publications evolved. roles are especially influential Friendship and Freedom was the first Gay publication. TV networks generated programs such as Will and Grace and Ellen. on children as they are developing their attitudes about sex roles. Ellen Feis was used as the German symbol for the legalization of Marijuana because in a testimonial she gave for apple computers, she African American media was produced by white abolitionist but acted in a manner similar to that of one under was taken over by early African the influence of Marijuana. After over 50 years in the market, Barbie from Mattel was American writers to establish a more direct perspective. redesigned to include the more natural looks/ standards of beauty. Often opposed to being used in films and Television in favor of white actors playing in “Yellow actors playing in “Yellow face”, a face”, a technique that technique that used heavy makeup used heavy makeup to give a Caucasian person to give a Caucasian person the appearance of an Asian, Like David the appearance of an Carradine used in the movie “Kung Asian, Like David Carradine used in the Fu”. movie “Kung Fu”. Margaret Cho was given tips on how to act “Asian “by playing into stereotypes. Mass Media can affect socio-political Promotion of drugs: tobacco, alcohol, and illegal environment on a local, national, and or controlled substances. international level. Can also influence how the Promotion of sex, because of the ignorance public views select issues and events. towards sexually transmitted diseases. Closed societies discourage freedom of thought Time displacement: Media is not a social, or active and expression and government is no open. activity. Heavy phone/ internet usage has been Often defined as positive freedom. Use connected to increased rates of depression. information filtering to keep people uninformed. Open Societies are where the media monitors and reports on government operations. Often defined as having negative freedom. Encouraged participation with democracy. Social-Responsibility System Media ensures that government isn’t abusing its powers. Government is typically not allowed to influence media content but still owns media outlets in some way, (air ways, leasing’s, etc.) Britain is an example. Soviet-Communist System Media publically owned and government controlled. Ideas of ruling calss are the ruling ideas of the media. Unmotivated by profit. Used to educate, promote, socialization and conformity to Authoritarian System Government totally controls media content. the masses. Non government approved Media is used as propaganda arm of state broadcast cause people to typically flows out of a monarch or religion based system. Iran is an example. disappear. China, North Korea, and Cuba are examples High Cultural Context Culture can either bring people together or seperate Low cultural Context Japan, China, Saudi Arabia are all examples of this. them. The United States is an example They are places where consumers heavily depend on Mass media can accelerate the cultural changes of this Where the people have the a shared understanding of the context within which Different meanings for different cultures ability to parody or satire almost that media content is presented. No ability to parody The greater the differences, the greater the anything. or satire government or national values. communication barrier.
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