History1301: Study Guide
History1301: Study Guide HIST1301
Austin Community College
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Shulpina on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST1301 at Austin Community College taught by Curtis Baack in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see History 1301 in History at Austin Community College.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
History 1301 Objectives: Study Guide Chapter 1 – Ancient America 1.1. Locate the origin of the PaleoIndians, the first “Americans”. Asia: Siberia 1.2. Explain how environmental change and the extinction of large game (i.e., mammoths) contributed to the development of greater diversity among Native American cultures. After environmental change in weather, PaleoIndians began hunting for smaller animals and collecting wild plants (foraging). These adaptations contributed to diversity in Native American cultures: by adapting to different local environments, diversity was created. 1.3. Describe how Native American cultures differed from European cultures in the late 15th century. Native Americans: hunting, gathering, agriculture; no writing; no wheel; no ships; no domestication of animals; used fire to shape landscape; around 4 million people, but spread out Europeans: large use of agriculture; heavy use of writing; used caravels (large sailing ships); horses, cows, and oxen; massive architecture; used gunpowder; 4 million in just England alone 1.4. Identify and locate the most powerful Native American culture in the New World and describe how they rose to power. The Mexica. They began to rise to power in 1325 when their small bands settled around Tenochtitlan. To expand their empire, they defeated their allies due to their resourcefulness, courageousness and strong warriors. Warriors held an important role in their society, being even above Mexican priests. In 1490, the Mexica had more land than Spain and Portugal combined and had three times the amount of people. The war god Huitzilopochtli was very important in their society and the Mexican priests sacrificed captives of war to him in order to “keep the sun aflame”. 1.5. Analyze the role of “tribute” in the advances made by the Mexica society. The Mexica collected tribute (goods) from subject peoples for military and political purposes. Tribute included people for sacrifice as well as textiles, food, and exotic luxury items. That way they redistributed the wealth that allowed the construction of huge cities, temples, markets, gardens, and storehouses full of treasures. 1.6. Identify the major weakness of Mexican society that the Spanish conquerors eventually discovered. Page 1 of 7 Because the Mexica allowed the conquered to have their ruling elite stay in power (as long as they paid tribute) and the conquered didn’t receive much from the Mexica, they felt exploited. Mexica did not create a feeling of domination so usually the subject peoples rebelled. The Spanish later exploited this weakness after 1492. Chapter 2 – Europeans Encounter the New World, 14921600 2.1. Identify the demographic catastrophe and technological devices in Europe in the 14th and 15th centuries that encouraged European voyages of exploration. The Black Death (bubonic plague), killing about 1/3 of the European population in the 14 century, was the demographic catastrophe that encouraged European voyages of exploration by allowing the Europeans to want to explore more land, not wanting to stay on the devastated, diseased homeland. Scientific and technological advances included the printing press, movable type (Gutenberg, makes printing easier and cheaper), hourglasses, compass, information on sailing techniques and more. 2.2. Explain what motivated the Portuguese to explore foreign lands in the early 15th century. Portugal, although making up less than 2% if the European population, was motivated by religion and want of trade to explore new foreign lands (obtain gold). 2.3. Define “caravel” and discuss its importance in Portuguese exploration. Caravel was ship used by Vasco da Gama and Christopher Columbus which allowed to travel to the Atlantic Ocean by sailing both against and with the wind. It also allowed to carry large quantities of items. 2.4. Name the first Europeans to trade on the West African coast and the objects of their journeys. Portuguese were the first Europeans to trade with Africa on the west coast. They traded for gold, slaves, and ivory. Slaves used to develop sugar plantations on the Cape Verde islands. 2.5. List the consequences of the Portuguese exploration of Africa during the 15th century`. It broke the monopoly of the old Mediterranean trade with the East, as well as expanded the world that was known, established Portuguese outposts, and introduced methods Columbus later used on his voyage. 2.6. Explain how the competing Spanish and Portuguese claims to the New World were settled. Christopher Columbus heads west to find sea route to Asia and lands in the Caribbean in 1492. Spain becomes a serious challenger to Portugal and thus Spain and Portugal negotiate the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494 (West= Spain; East= Portugal). Page 2 of 7 2.7. Discuss the significance of Magellan’s voyage of 1519. Ferdinand Magellan circumnavigated the globe in 1519. His voyage confirmed that America was a separate continent and determined that the trip across the Pacific was too costly. 2.8. Define and give examples of the “Columbian exchange”. Transatlantic exchange of goods, people, disease, and ideas. Europeans brought to the New World Christianity, iron technology, sailing ships, firearms, wheeled vehicles, horses, and viruses (smallpox, measles, etc.). Native Americans brought across the Atlantic tobacco, corn, potatoes, coffee, chocolate, and disease. 2.9. Analyze how Hernán Cortés and his small army were able to successfully conquer the vast and powerful Mexica Empire. Superior weaponry (iron and steel against Mexican stone, wood, and copper), spread of European diseases (smallpox), and exploitation of political tensions allowed Hernan Cortez and his small army to conquer the Mexica Empire. 2.10. Locate the two geographic regions of greatest wealth in Spanish America. Mexica (Mexico) and the Incan empire (Peru) offer the most treasure to the new Spanish America. 2.11. Name the great Portuguese colony in the Western Hemisphere. Brazil (sugar) 2.12. Define “royal fifth”. 1/5 of any loot commandeered goes to the Spanish monarchy 2.13. Define “encomienda”, identify the goal of encomienda, and explain how it worked. It is the distribution of conquered lands that empowered conquistadors to rule the Native Americans and their lands. Ecomiendero: the person who owned the town. Indians gave tribute and labor while the encomendero guaranteed order and justice. Page 3 of 7 2.14. Describe the social class hierarchy that developed in New Spain. The Peninsulares were people born on the Iberian Peninsula (highest class). The Creoles were people born in the New World to Spanish men and women (lower). The Mestizoes were offspring of Spanish men and Native American women (lower). The Native American Indians were the lowest class. 2.15. Enumerate the demographic impact of European diseases on Native Americans by 1570. In some locations, over 90% of Native Americans died of European diseases causing their most valuable resource (labor) to decrease rapidly. Thus colonists began importing African slaves to make up the lack of labor. 2.16. Understand the significance of the Protestant Reformation. Martin Luther publicized his criticisms of the Catholic Church (1517). He wanted to reform the Catholic Church. That ruined the unity of Christianity in Western Europe. Warfare drained Spain’s revenue gained from the Americas. Chapter 3 – The Southern Colonies in the 17th Century, 16011700 3.1. Describe the benefits that the Virginia Company and its supporters hoped to derive from its colony in North America. They hoped to establish an empire rival in Spain; profit from finding gold, silver and crops; Christianize the area; strengthen England; and provide employment. 3.2. Explain how English settlers were able to survive their first year at Jamestown. Through the support of chief Powhatan of the Alonquian. They gave them corn for barter when life was rough. There was disease and starvation. By 1610, 60/500 were still alive. 3.3. Discuss the circumstances that resulted in Jamestown becoming a royal colony in 1624. Algonquian assault (when Opechancanough became chief) of 1622 led to an investigation that found an high mortality rate due to disease and mismanagement rather than from Indian attacks. King James decides to revoke the charter and made it a royal colony, so that the royal government could control it rather than the company’s investors. 3.4. Identify the oldest representative legislative assembly in the English colonies. House of Burgesses (1619): an assembly of representatives (burgesses) elected by people of the colony. 3.5. Explain why tobacco was such a key commodity in the survival of early Virginia? Page 4 of 7 Labor with tobacco promised rewards. Land was abundant so easy and cheap to grow. Common laborers could buy 100 acres for less than annual wages and new settlers who paid their way to the Chesapeake got a grant of 50 acres. 3.6. Identify and describe the predominant labor system used in the Chesapeake colonies in the 17th century. Indentured servants were 80% of the immigrants. They were European males aged from 16 to 25 year old. They went to work for 4 to 7 years, serving out their servitude and eventually becoming free. They signed a contract where an immigrant borrowed money to make their way to the Chesapeake and would work the land for a time period to pay it off. 3.7. Name the colony founded in 1634 as a refuge for Catholics, who had suffered discrimination in England. Maryland (1632), established by Lord Baltimore, was intended to be refuge for the Catholics. 3.8. Identify the two main social classes in Chesapeake society by the 1670s and the relationship between the two. Elite and yeomen (planters and landowners) vs landless colonists. The system of indentured servitude caused inequality. With the growing number of tobacco, prices in Europe decreased and thus reduced planter’s profits. Mortality rates declined and so more servants survived servitude and there became more landless freemen. Planter elite arose. 3.9. Discuss the King’s response to Bacon’s Rebellion and how this impacted the different social classes of the Chesapeake region. Number of recently freed servants grew and thus they wanted to spread into Indian land. Bacon saw Indians as enemies. Governor Berkeley pronounced Bacon a rebel. Bacon declares war against him. King learns of effects on tobacco exports so he orders an investigation. Berkeley was replaced, Bacon’s Laws nullified, and export tax instituted. In the end, tensions between great planters and small farmers was lessened and proved that it was better to fight Indians than each other. Elite class was strengthened. 3.10. Explain why slavery came to replace indentured servitude as a major source of immigration to the southern colonies. Cost indentured servitude was too costly. Developed sugar plantations with slaves. Slaves became economically and politically efficient since they never became free, lived longer than indentured servants, children inherited the slave status from parents, and they could easily be controlled. Chapter 4 – The Northern Colonies in the 17th Century, 16011700 4.1. Define 16th century “Puritanism” and its beliefs. Puritanism came from the separation between Catholics and Protestants. Puritans wanted a reformation of the church. They wanted to rid the Church of its traditional Page 5 of 7 rituals and help emphasize connection with God through bible studies and prayer. Certain individuals were already predestined for eternal life. 4.2. Identify and locate the Pilgrim settlement established in 1620. They landed in Cape Cod region, Plymouth. 4.3. Compare the demographic characteristics (race, class, gender, occupation, etc.) of Massachusetts settlers with those of Chesapeake settlers. Chesapeake: 80% indentured servants, the rest being landowners, few middle ranks; very few families; tobacco shaped colony heavily Massachusetts: middle ranks mostly (farmers and tradesmen); paid their own way there; arrived as families; wanted to build a strong community; slavery and indentured servitude rare; timber and fish were exported 4.4. Explain the ways in which Puritans were able to enforce a remarkable degree of conformity in their communities. They made the people pay fines when they didn’t go to church or play the flute of Sabbath. They also had general court and town meetings held in a church where they would have the people discuss important matters. They kept politics separate from religion. 4.5. Name the most prominent “dissenters” in Puritan New England and describe what happened to them. Roger Williams praised the “liberty of conscience” meaning that you should not be forced to go to church and God will be revealed to you through your own conscience. Left and established Rhode Island in 1636, Providence. Anne Hutchinson held meetings in her own house stressing “covenant of grace” that people can be saved only by God’s grace. This contrasted with the covenant of works that stressed that individuals can be saved by behavior. Thomas Hooker disagreed with Winthrop on the composition of the church and thought that both men and women who lived godly lives should have church membership even if they had not undergone conversion. He led an exodus of 800 people to Connecticut River and founded the city of Hartford. 4.6. Describe the Quakers’ attitudes toward gender, ethnic, and religious toleration and diversity. All human beings are equal and women even took leading roles in meetings and religious leadership. Thought that social hierarchy was false and evil. Indians were fairly treated. 4.7. List the goals of English economic policies towards the colonies in the mid17th century, and how the Navigation Acts supported those goals. The goals included producing taxes revenues for the monarchy and increasing profits for shippers and merchants. Regulations controlled this. All colonial goods imported to England had to be transported on English ships. Certain colonial goods will go directly to England before going back out. 4.8. Identify the person called “King Philip” by the New England colonists and explain the consequences of King Philip’s War. Page 6 of 7 Wampanoag chief Metacomet. The Indians were tired of people keep coming onto their lands. Investigation shows that colonists disobeyed English law and encroached on English territory, thus the royal charter was revoked. The Dominion of New England was established by Sir Edmund Andros. 4.9. Discuss how the Glorious Revolution affected the Massachusetts colony. It reasserted Protestant power in England under William and Mary. Rebellious colonists destroyed the Domion of New England (1689). England established royal control of the colonies (1691) and new qualification for voting in Massachusetts were established (possession of property instead of church membership). 4.10. Identify and locate the original thirteen colonies. Georgia (1732); South Carolina (1670); North Carolina (1653); Virginia (1607); Pennsylvania (1643); New York (1614); New Hampshire (1623); Maine (1623); Massachusetts (1620); Rhode Island (1635); Connecticut (1636); New Jersey (1633); Delaware (1638); Maryland (1634) Page 7 of 7
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