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U.S. Government Chapter 1-6 study guide

by: Anna Shulpina

U.S. Government Chapter 1-6 study guide GOVT2305

Marketplace > Austin Community College > Government > GOVT2305 > U S Government Chapter 1 6 study guide
Anna Shulpina
Austin Community College
GPA 3.03

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Chapter 1: Democracy Chapter 2: U.S. Constitution Chapter 3: Federalism Chapter 4: Structural Foundations of American government Chapter 5: Public Opinion Chapter 6: Media
U.S. Government
Dr. David Albert
Study Guide
american, Government
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Shulpina on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GOVT2305 at Austin Community College taught by Dr. David Albert in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see U.S. Government in Government at Austin Community College.

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Date Created: 09/21/16
GOVT 2305: U.S. Government Course Outline/ Study Guide Section 1- Introduction, Themes, and Structures of Government (Chapters 1-6) Introduction to Course 1. What is politics? What is government? What is the role of government?  Politics (from the word Polis for city/state affairs): art/science of governing  Government has many functions, some of which include: public infrastructure; public education; health care services; retirement- social security; unemployment insurance; law enforcement; military defense; protecting the borders; disaster relief; regulation 2. Competing visions of government  Other forms include authoritarian (North Korea, China, African+ Middle Eastern regimes); monarchy: one person rules, hereditary (Saudi Arabia, Morocco); Theocracy: religious rule dominates (Saudi Arabia, Iran) Chapter 1. Democracy 1. Defining democracy- Direct v.s. Representative Democracy  Democracy essentialy means rule by the people. Comes from the Greek words Demos for “people” and Kraetin for “to rule”  Direct democracy: All citizens meet to decide on political matters, usually only works in smaller countries. For example, in ancient Greece and New England, town meetings were held.  Representative democracy: People select (elect) others to represent themselves in legislative body 2. Three benchmarks of representative democracy/ Does America measure up to these standards? a. Popular sovereignty/ b. Political equality/ c. Political liberty  Popular sovereignty: People rule, wishes of people reflected in policies  Political equality: Each person is equal in voting  Political liberty: Each person has certain liberties not interfered by the government (freedom of speech, religion, fair trial,etc.) Chapter 2. U.S. Constitution 1. Important compromises: The Great Compromise and the 3/5 Compromise  The Great Compromise: issue of representation in Congress. Connecticut Compromise passed: Bicameral national legislature: each state’s representation is based on population  3/5 Compromise: a slave counted 3/5 of a person for apportionment 2. Articles 1 to 3 – The legislative, executive, and judicial branches  Article 1 (Congress): House and Senate; House: representative has 2-year terms; Senate: senators have 6 year terms; until 1913, state legislatures chose senators, elected by the people (changed by 17 amendment). Legislative process: checks and balances, president signs/ vetos congressional bills; but congress can also overturn veto  Article 2 (President): 4-year term- electoral college elects; limited two 4-year nd terms (22 amendment. 1951); commander in chief  Article 3 (Judiciary): lifetime appointment; in Texas, state judges are elected 3. Articles 4 to 6- The rest of the Constitution including the amending process  Article 4: Free enterprise economy; property rights: “full faith and credit clause”; states can’t print own currency; new states can be admitted by congress  Article 5 (Amendments): Constitution can be altered by 2/3 vote of both House and Senate and ¾ of state legislature 4. Article 6: supremacy clause: federal gov is supreme and assumes debts of the states; religion can’t be used as qualification for appointment in office 5. Amendments to the Constitution st nd a. Bill of Rights (Amendments 1-10, especially 1 and 2 amendments (1791))  The ten amendments were ratified in 1791 after the anti-federalists were too scared of too much government power st  1 amendment: freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly  2nd amendment: right to bear arms  3 amendment: protects us from having soldiers in our house  4 amendment: can’t search without reason/paper authority  5 amendment: rights of the accused: grand jury; attorney; double jeopardy th  6 amendment: speedy and public trial  7 amendment: right to a trial by jury in civil suits th  8 amendment: no excess bail; no cruel punishment  9 amendment: rights of the people go outside the constitution th  10 amendment: rights not given to government are state’s rights (limits power of the government) b. thst-Civil War amendments (13, 14, 15)  13 amendment: ended slavery  14 amendment: those born in US are citizens th  15 amendment: black males have voting rights c. 20 century amendments (16, 17, 18 & 21, 19, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, and the failed ERA amendment)  16 amendment: income tax can be collected by government th  17 amendment: senators are directly elected  18 amendment& 21 amendment: prohibition of alcohol; repealed it  19 amendment: right of women to vote nd  22 amendment: 2 term rule for presidents  23 amendment: 3 Electoral votes for DC th  24 amendment: Ending the poll tax in order to vote  26 amendment: Voting rights for 18 to 21 year olds th  27 amendment: members of congress can’t raise own pay for duration of current session of Congress  Failed ERA: guaranteed equal rights to women, failed to pass Chapter 3. Federalism 1. What is Federalism?  Government powers divided between central government and state and local governments 2. State vs Federal powers (10 amendment vs Supremacy clause)  10 amendment: powers not given to the government are given to the states  Supremacy clause: constitution, laws, and US treaties are supreme 3. Current Federalism controversies -same sex marriage, marijuana, and immigration  Same sex marriage: although legal across the US, used to be only 36 states legalized it; not Texas  Marijuana: legal in California, Colorado, DC, AK, WA,OR; still illegal under federal law  Immigration: Arizona checking immigrants of proof of documentation 4. The historical evolution of Federalism  Federal power has expanded over time due to wars and crises to help regulate easier Chapter 4. Structural Foundations of American Government and Politics 1. Population, immigration, demographics, ethnic diversity, and Nativism  Population: 310 million people +  Immigration: Today mostly Latin Americans and Asians. We have 850,000 new immigrants per year. 12.4% of US population are foreigners  Nativism: has been a topic for a long time due to economic and security fears. In terms of economy: Anti-Irish, Anti-Chinese, Anti-Jewish, (now more Anti-Hispanic): false fear of “taking jobs”. In terms of security: after WW2 and 9/11: anti-German, anti-Japanese, and anti-Muslim 2. Income, poverty, and the changing American economy  Poverty line: $20,000 for a family of 4 people. 13.2% (2008); 14.3% (2009); 15.1% (2010). 46 million Americans (2010) live in poverty. o African Americans (25%); Hispanics (23%) o -18 children (19%); 65+ (9.7%)  1790s: more an agricultural economy; after civil war: more industrialized  New economy more based on service industry, retail (Walmart, restaurants, more) 3. Brief overview of American foreign policy  Heavy intervention in other countries  Ex. Iraq War, Vietnam War 4. Themes of American political culture.  Individualism: the American Dream: people move here for personal success  Private Property: based on a free-market economy- you work hard for your rewards; greed is good  Citizenship and nature of political order: distrust of strong government  Conservativism Chapter 5. Public Opinion 1. What is public opinion and how is it measured?  Public opinion is the attitudes and beliefs of the people expressed through the media  Measured through public opinion polls (random but representative of society) 2. Political socialization and the role of demographic factors (race, class, education, gender, region, age, religion.)  How people develop their beliefs over time  Gender: women more liberal than men  African Americans more politically liberal on economic issues but more conservative on social ones  Hispanics more liberal on economic issues, sometimes more conservative on social ones  Education correlates with liberal views on social issues  Cities more liberal than rural areas  South more conservative; Mountain West more economically conservative; west coast and northeast more liberal  Catholics split between liberals and conservatives 3. Is government responsive to public opinion and should it be more responsive to public opinion?  During Vietnam War, public was highly dissatisfied and government listened Chapter 6. News Media 1. The role of the news media and a free press and investigative journalism  It is crucial for people to be well informed but often media focuses on ratings and not on valuable information 2. Different types of media- newspapers, radio, TV, and the internet  Newspapers: not many people use them anymore  Radio: talk radio; satellite radio is currently expanding rapidly  Television: visual media helps out a lot- pictures are more expressive  Internet: more popular with younger generation, growing fastest of all 3. Government regulation of news media  Internet is mostly unregulated and the obscenity ban was overturned by the court 4. The role of media ownership and media bias.  Media is usually owned privately by corporations that make money off of it.  There isn’t really a systematic bias whether it is liberal or conservative but liberals say there is a conservative bias to it. Reporters are usually liberals.


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