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Exam 1 Study Guide, EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development

by: Marshall DeFor

Exam 1 Study Guide, EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development EDPS 251

Marketplace > University of Nebraska Lincoln > Educational Psychology > EDPS 251 > Exam 1 Study Guide EDPS 251 Fundamentals of Adolescent Development
Marshall DeFor
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Here you will find notes on the main terms from this section. Topics include "storm-and-stress," nature versus nurture, Freud's theories of personality, Erikson's psychosocial theory, eclecticism, ...
Fundamentals of Adolescent Development for Education
Study Guide
Psychology, adolescence
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marshall DeFor on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EDPS 251 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Jarrett in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Adolescent Development for Education in Educational Psychology at University of Nebraska Lincoln.

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Date Created: 09/21/16
DeFor 1  EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development   Study Guide for Exam 1: Terms to Know, and Information About Them    1. Storm and stress view of adolescence: This view is attributed to G. Stanley Hall.  It is a concept that adolescence is a turbulent time charged with conflict and  mood swings.  2. Nature v. nurture: This is a scientific debate about whether development is  primarily influenced by an organism’s biological inheritance, “nature,” or by its  environmental experiences, “nurture.” Most experts agree that taking an extreme  side on this issues is uninformed. This is because the answer is most likely  somewhere in the middle for this issue, depending on the characteristic you are  examining.      3. Freud’s three branches of personality: Freud’s theory involves three different  parts of each person. These parts are:   a​ . The ​ uperego, which is essentially the best part of each person. This is  the part that helps each person make the best/most socially  acceptable/ethical choices.  ​ b. The i​ d, which is the carnal instincts of each person. This is the part that  wants to watch Netflix, eat ice cream, and punch that one kid you hate  right in the face.  ​ c. The e ​ go, which is the part of each person that is the most “human.” This is  the balance between the superego and the id, and essentially makes the  final decisions on choices.  4. Erikson’s psychosocial theory: This theory includes eight stages of human  development, and each stage consists of a unique developmental task that  confronts individuals with a crisis that must be faced. These eight crises and  stages are: trust vs. mistrust in early infancy, autonomy vs. shame and doubt in  late infancy, initiative vs. guilt in early childhood, industry vs. inferiority in middle  and late childhood, identity vs. identity confusion in adolescence, intimacy vs.  isolation in early adulthood, generativity vs. stagnation in middle adulthood, and  integrity vs. despair in late adulthood.  5. Eclectic approach to development: This approach is a mixture of other  approaches; it does not follow any one theoretical approach, but rather, selects  from each theory whatever the theorist considered worth taking.    DeFor 2  6. Stereotype: A stereotype is a generalization that reflects our impressions and  beliefs about a broad group of people; all stereotypes refer to an image of what  the typical member of a specific group is like. Adelson's concept of  generalizations being made about adolescents based on information regarding a  limited, often highly visible group of adolescents .  7. Prejudice: Prejudice is forming an opinion of a person or a group of people  before becoming aware of relevant facts. It is often a positive or negative  evaluation of another person based on their perceived group membership.      8. Bandura’s theory: Bandura’s theory that emphasizes reciprocal influences of  behavior, environment, and personal and cognitive factors.      9. Independent variables are the aspects of an experiment that the experimenter  manipulates in order to get results, such as “amount of water that a plant gets”  10.Dependent variables are the aspects of an experiment that the experimenter  records during the experiment, such as “number of inches that a plant grows”  11.Naturalistic observation: This is when an experimenter observes an uncontrolled  environment, such as human beings in a public park.  12.Experimental research: This is when an experimenter sets up a controlled  environment to conduct studies, most often in a lab setting.      13.Androgens and estrogens are the hormones that stimulate and control the  development and maintenance of male and female characteristics, respectively.  14.Precocious puberty is when girls go through puberty so early that it could  damage their bodies. This can be slowed with pharmaceutical drugs.      15.Shared environmental experiences: Siblings’ common experiences, such as their  parent’s personalities and intellectual orientation, the family’s socioeconomic  status, and the neighborhood in which they live.  16.Non­shared environmental experiences: A person’s own unique experiences,  both within a family and outside the family, that are not shared by a sibling.  17.Behavioral genetics: Behavior genetics is the field that seeks to discover the  influence of heredity and environment on individual differences in human traits  and development.    DeFor 3  18.Sleep in adolescence: About a third of adolescents get the recommended eight  hours of sleep per night. Adolescents not getting enough sleep is a global trend.  Not getting enough sleep leads to a whole lot of problems, such as suicidal  ideation, lower memory skills, and attention problems. People attribute this loss  of sleep to many things. Some examples listed are caffeine intake, staying up  later, and early school times.      19.There are four types of Heredity­Environment Correlations:  a. Passive genotype­environment correlations are​ ​correlations that occur  because biological parents, who are genetically related to their child,  provide a rearing environment for the child  b. Evocative genotype­environment correlations are correlations that occur  because an adolescent’s genetically shaped characteristics elicit certain  types of physical and social environments  c. Active (niche­picking) genotype­environment correlations are correlations  that occur when children seek out environments that they find compatible  and stimulating      20.Neurons are nerve cells, which are the nervous system’s basic units. An axon is  the branch­like part of a neuron that sends messages; a dendrite is the part of a  neuron that receives messages.  21.Myelination is the process by which the axon portion of the neuron becomes  covered and insulated with a layer of fat cells, which increases the speed and  efficiency of information processing in the nervous system “White matter” refers  to the part of the brain that is made up of myelinated axons. Grey matter refers to  the other parts of the brain, like the cell bodies and dendrites.  22.Synapses are gaps between neurons, where electrochemical connections  between the axon and dendrite occur.  23.When puberty starts, the levels of different chemicals in your brain, called  neurotransmitters, begin to change.      24.The main way that children develop their ideas of the world is through different  schemas, which are​ ​mental concepts or frameworks that are useful in organizing  and interpreting information. There are two main ways that children adapt or  change schemas:  a. assimilation: the incorporation of new information into existing knowledge  b. accommodation: an adjustment of a schema in response to new  information      DeFor 4  25.Sensorimotor Stage: (0­2 years)  a. Babies learn through sensory sensations and manipulating objects in the  environment around them.  b. Object permanence, or the fact that objects that are out of sight still exist,  is an important part of this stage and usually happens towards the end of  this stage.  26.Pre­occupational Stage: (2­7 years)  a. Rapid expansion of language skills  i. Grammar becomes more complex  ii. Fluency strengthens  b. Exploring social cues through play and miming observations; this ties in  with active play/interaction, assimilation/accommodation, schema  development  c. Lack of Logical Rules  i. Egocentrism:   1. Child knowledge is indistinguishable for other’s knowledge;  the child’s perspective is the only perspective that exists in  the world.  2. This stage is a time of figuring out distinctions between self  and the other.  ii. Animism:  1. Assume that inanimate objects, like a teddy bear, can think  and feel because they can think and feel  iii. Lack of Conservation: glass of water poured into a different­shaped  glass does not mean that there is less juice; shape doesn’t  determine size  27.Concrete Operational Stage (7­11 yrs.; sometimes this is where the development  stops)  a. More logical and flexible thinking develops:  b. Conservation is consistent; egocentrism has diminished  c. Multiple classification: classifications of objects as members of different  groups simultaneously  d. Seriation: Objects arranged in order according to plan, flexible strategy,  transitive inference may be used  i. If A is shorter than B, and B is shorter than C, then A is shorter than  C. Generally best if kept to pictures in this phase, not necessarily in  the abstract  ii. Spatial operations become more developed; cognitive maps can be  used in this stage.  DeFor 5  28.Formal Operations Stage (11+, if at all)  a. Logical thinking develops more fully while abstract and scientific thought  becomes common  b. Metacognition: cognition about cognition, can think about the way people  think  c. Hypothetical­deductive reasoning: early adolescents begin using a general  theory to produce specific (and multiple) hypotheses, then test them  d. Propositional thought: what would black snow look like? Theoretical  statements without real­world example  e. Proportional reasoning: Understands and uses concepts in problems  solving (e.g. fractions)      29.Knowledge advancement is collaborative and can be promoted through  cooperative activities with others. This is known as cooperative learning.  30.The zone of proximal development is the range of tasks that an individual can  complete with assistance. As difficulty increases, the level of assistance  increases. The zone of proximal development will move with time, and this is  because the level of independent performance gets higher      31.Scaffolding is the idea that a teacher or guide can provide support that helps an  individual get from current knowledge abilities to further knowledge abilities.          DeFor 6  32.Executive functioning is an umbrella­like concept that involves higher­order,  complex cognitive processes that include exercising cognitive control, making  decisions, reasoning, thinking critically, thinking creatively, and metacognition.  33.Attention is the concentration and focusing of mental resources. There are many  different ways that people can distribute their mental resources:  a. selective attention: focusing on a specific aspect of experience that is  relevant while ignoring others that are irrelevant  b. divided attention: concentrating on more than one activity at the same time  c. sustained attention: the ability to maintain attention to a selected stimulus  for a prolonged period of time  d. executive attention: type of attention that involves planning actions,  allocating attention to goals, detecting and compensating for errors,  monitoring progress on tasks, and dealing with novel or difficult  circumstances  34.Memory is the retention of information over time. There are three important  memory systems involved in adolescents’ learning:  a. Short­Term Memory: This type of memory holds information for about  thirty seconds, and it can hold very little information at one time.  b. Working Memory: Many psychologists prefer this term to short­term  memory because it better represents all of the memory work that takes  place during this period, since the memory process is much more active  and powerful. This part of memory is thought to increase greatly during  adolescence.  c. Long­Term Memory: This is the part of memory that holds most of an  individual’s past memories and information. If an individual’s memory is  undamaged, much of this information can be held for an individual’s entire  life.  35.Metacognition is literally cognition about cognition, or “knowing about knowing.”  This includes knowing which strategies to use in order to learn or solve problems,  planning how much time to focus on a task, or self­monitoring progress towards  completion of a goal. Metacognition includes knowledge about strategies.  Thinkers with good metacognition skills know when to use which strategies in  order to complete a goal. 


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