Exam 1 Study Guide, EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development
Exam 1 Study Guide, EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development EDPS 251
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marshall DeFor on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EDPS 251 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Jarrett in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Adolescent Development for Education in Educational Psychology at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
DeFor 1 EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development Study Guide for Exam 1: Terms to Know, and Information About Them 1. Storm and stress view of adolescence: This view is attributed to G. Stanley Hall. It is a concept that adolescence is a turbulent time charged with conflict and mood swings. 2. Nature v. nurture: This is a scientific debate about whether development is primarily influenced by an organism’s biological inheritance, “nature,” or by its environmental experiences, “nurture.” Most experts agree that taking an extreme side on this issues is uninformed. This is because the answer is most likely somewhere in the middle for this issue, depending on the characteristic you are examining. 3. Freud’s three branches of personality: Freud’s theory involves three different parts of each person. These parts are: a . The uperego, which is essentially the best part of each person. This is the part that helps each person make the best/most socially acceptable/ethical choices. b. The i d, which is the carnal instincts of each person. This is the part that wants to watch Netflix, eat ice cream, and punch that one kid you hate right in the face. c. The e go, which is the part of each person that is the most “human.” This is the balance between the superego and the id, and essentially makes the final decisions on choices. 4. Erikson’s psychosocial theory: This theory includes eight stages of human development, and each stage consists of a unique developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be faced. These eight crises and stages are: trust vs. mistrust in early infancy, autonomy vs. shame and doubt in late infancy, initiative vs. guilt in early childhood, industry vs. inferiority in middle and late childhood, identity vs. identity confusion in adolescence, intimacy vs. isolation in early adulthood, generativity vs. stagnation in middle adulthood, and integrity vs. despair in late adulthood. 5. Eclectic approach to development: This approach is a mixture of other approaches; it does not follow any one theoretical approach, but rather, selects from each theory whatever the theorist considered worth taking. DeFor 2 6. Stereotype: A stereotype is a generalization that reflects our impressions and beliefs about a broad group of people; all stereotypes refer to an image of what the typical member of a specific group is like. Adelson's concept of generalizations being made about adolescents based on information regarding a limited, often highly visible group of adolescents . 7. Prejudice: Prejudice is forming an opinion of a person or a group of people before becoming aware of relevant facts. It is often a positive or negative evaluation of another person based on their perceived group membership. 8. Bandura’s theory: Bandura’s theory that emphasizes reciprocal influences of behavior, environment, and personal and cognitive factors. 9. Independent variables are the aspects of an experiment that the experimenter manipulates in order to get results, such as “amount of water that a plant gets” 10.Dependent variables are the aspects of an experiment that the experimenter records during the experiment, such as “number of inches that a plant grows” 11.Naturalistic observation: This is when an experimenter observes an uncontrolled environment, such as human beings in a public park. 12.Experimental research: This is when an experimenter sets up a controlled environment to conduct studies, most often in a lab setting. 13.Androgens and estrogens are the hormones that stimulate and control the development and maintenance of male and female characteristics, respectively. 14.Precocious puberty is when girls go through puberty so early that it could damage their bodies. This can be slowed with pharmaceutical drugs. 15.Shared environmental experiences: Siblings’ common experiences, such as their parent’s personalities and intellectual orientation, the family’s socioeconomic status, and the neighborhood in which they live. 16.Nonshared environmental experiences: A person’s own unique experiences, both within a family and outside the family, that are not shared by a sibling. 17.Behavioral genetics: Behavior genetics is the field that seeks to discover the influence of heredity and environment on individual differences in human traits and development. DeFor 3 18.Sleep in adolescence: About a third of adolescents get the recommended eight hours of sleep per night. Adolescents not getting enough sleep is a global trend. Not getting enough sleep leads to a whole lot of problems, such as suicidal ideation, lower memory skills, and attention problems. People attribute this loss of sleep to many things. Some examples listed are caffeine intake, staying up later, and early school times. 19.There are four types of HeredityEnvironment Correlations: a. Passive genotypeenvironment correlations are correlations that occur because biological parents, who are genetically related to their child, provide a rearing environment for the child b. Evocative genotypeenvironment correlations are correlations that occur because an adolescent’s genetically shaped characteristics elicit certain types of physical and social environments c. Active (nichepicking) genotypeenvironment correlations are correlations that occur when children seek out environments that they find compatible and stimulating 20.Neurons are nerve cells, which are the nervous system’s basic units. An axon is the branchlike part of a neuron that sends messages; a dendrite is the part of a neuron that receives messages. 21.Myelination is the process by which the axon portion of the neuron becomes covered and insulated with a layer of fat cells, which increases the speed and efficiency of information processing in the nervous system “White matter” refers to the part of the brain that is made up of myelinated axons. Grey matter refers to the other parts of the brain, like the cell bodies and dendrites. 22.Synapses are gaps between neurons, where electrochemical connections between the axon and dendrite occur. 23.When puberty starts, the levels of different chemicals in your brain, called neurotransmitters, begin to change. 24.The main way that children develop their ideas of the world is through different schemas, which are mental concepts or frameworks that are useful in organizing and interpreting information. There are two main ways that children adapt or change schemas: a. assimilation: the incorporation of new information into existing knowledge b. accommodation: an adjustment of a schema in response to new information DeFor 4 25.Sensorimotor Stage: (02 years) a. Babies learn through sensory sensations and manipulating objects in the environment around them. b. Object permanence, or the fact that objects that are out of sight still exist, is an important part of this stage and usually happens towards the end of this stage. 26.Preoccupational Stage: (27 years) a. Rapid expansion of language skills i. Grammar becomes more complex ii. Fluency strengthens b. Exploring social cues through play and miming observations; this ties in with active play/interaction, assimilation/accommodation, schema development c. Lack of Logical Rules i. Egocentrism: 1. Child knowledge is indistinguishable for other’s knowledge; the child’s perspective is the only perspective that exists in the world. 2. This stage is a time of figuring out distinctions between self and the other. ii. Animism: 1. Assume that inanimate objects, like a teddy bear, can think and feel because they can think and feel iii. Lack of Conservation: glass of water poured into a differentshaped glass does not mean that there is less juice; shape doesn’t determine size 27.Concrete Operational Stage (711 yrs.; sometimes this is where the development stops) a. More logical and flexible thinking develops: b. Conservation is consistent; egocentrism has diminished c. Multiple classification: classifications of objects as members of different groups simultaneously d. Seriation: Objects arranged in order according to plan, flexible strategy, transitive inference may be used i. If A is shorter than B, and B is shorter than C, then A is shorter than C. Generally best if kept to pictures in this phase, not necessarily in the abstract ii. Spatial operations become more developed; cognitive maps can be used in this stage. DeFor 5 28.Formal Operations Stage (11+, if at all) a. Logical thinking develops more fully while abstract and scientific thought becomes common b. Metacognition: cognition about cognition, can think about the way people think c. Hypotheticaldeductive reasoning: early adolescents begin using a general theory to produce specific (and multiple) hypotheses, then test them d. Propositional thought: what would black snow look like? Theoretical statements without realworld example e. Proportional reasoning: Understands and uses concepts in problems solving (e.g. fractions) 29.Knowledge advancement is collaborative and can be promoted through cooperative activities with others. This is known as cooperative learning. 30.The zone of proximal development is the range of tasks that an individual can complete with assistance. As difficulty increases, the level of assistance increases. The zone of proximal development will move with time, and this is because the level of independent performance gets higher 31.Scaffolding is the idea that a teacher or guide can provide support that helps an individual get from current knowledge abilities to further knowledge abilities. DeFor 6 32.Executive functioning is an umbrellalike concept that involves higherorder, complex cognitive processes that include exercising cognitive control, making decisions, reasoning, thinking critically, thinking creatively, and metacognition. 33.Attention is the concentration and focusing of mental resources. There are many different ways that people can distribute their mental resources: a. selective attention: focusing on a specific aspect of experience that is relevant while ignoring others that are irrelevant b. divided attention: concentrating on more than one activity at the same time c. sustained attention: the ability to maintain attention to a selected stimulus for a prolonged period of time d. executive attention: type of attention that involves planning actions, allocating attention to goals, detecting and compensating for errors, monitoring progress on tasks, and dealing with novel or difficult circumstances 34.Memory is the retention of information over time. There are three important memory systems involved in adolescents’ learning: a. ShortTerm Memory: This type of memory holds information for about thirty seconds, and it can hold very little information at one time. b. Working Memory: Many psychologists prefer this term to shortterm memory because it better represents all of the memory work that takes place during this period, since the memory process is much more active and powerful. This part of memory is thought to increase greatly during adolescence. c. LongTerm Memory: This is the part of memory that holds most of an individual’s past memories and information. If an individual’s memory is undamaged, much of this information can be held for an individual’s entire life. 35.Metacognition is literally cognition about cognition, or “knowing about knowing.” This includes knowing which strategies to use in order to learn or solve problems, planning how much time to focus on a task, or selfmonitoring progress towards completion of a goal. Metacognition includes knowledge about strategies. Thinkers with good metacognition skills know when to use which strategies in order to complete a goal.
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