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CHM 111 Exam 1 Studyguide

by: Pooja P.

CHM 111 Exam 1 Studyguide CHM 111

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These notes cover what's going to be on your next exam.
General Chemistry 1
Dr. Vanessa dos Reis Falcao
Study Guide
Chemistry, atoms, bonds, Molecular, formula, mass, ions, Isotpes, Molecules, Naming Covalent Compounds, functional groups
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Pooja P. on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHM 111 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Vanessa dos Reis Falcao in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 174 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 09/21/16
CHM 111­ EXAM 1 STUDYGUIDE Chapter 1­Matter, Measurement, and Problem Solving Atoms and Compounds  The way matter behaves is determined by the atoms and molecules that make it up  Atoms are the submicroscopic particles that make up the fundamental building blocks of  matter  Compounds are made from 2 or more atoms bonded together The Scientific Approach to Knowledge   The Scientific Method  Process for understanding nature by observation and experimentation  Includes… o   Observation  Also known as data  Descriptions about the characteristics or behavior of nature  Help to formulate hypothesis o   Formulation of hypothesis  A hypothesis is an interpretation or explanation of the observations o   Experimentation  Experimentation may support a hypothesis or prove it wrong. o   Formulation of laws and theories  Well established hypotheses may form a scientific theory  Scientific Law: statement that summarizes past observations and  predicts future ones…allows you to predict future observations  The Classification of Matter  Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass   Solid: atoms are packed close together; fixed volume and rigid shape  Crystalline: atoms arranged in a pattern  Amorphous: atoms do not have any arranged order  Liquid: atoms are packed closely, but are free to move relative to each other; have a fixed volume, but not a fixed shape  Gas: atoms are free to move relative to one another; compressible  Pure Substance: made up of only one component and its competition is invariant  Mixture: composed of 2+ components in proportions that can vary  Heterogeneous  Homogenous   Separating Mixtures: o Decanting o Filtration o Distillation Physical and Chemical Properties  Physical: doesn’t change composition   Odor  Chemical: changes   Taste composition  Color  Flammability  Corrosiveness  Appearance  Acidity  Melting Point  Boiling Point  Density Energy: A Fundamental Part of Physical and Chemical Change  Energy: the capacity to do work  Kinetic energy  Potential energy  Thermal energy  Law of Conservation of Energy: energy is always conserved in a physical or  chemical change; it is neither created nor destroyed  Work: the action of a force through distance  Energy = work = force × distance The Units of Measurement  Mass: a measure of the quantity of matter within it  Weight: a measure of the gravitational pull on its matter   Temperature:  Kelvin= °C+273.15  °Celsius=(°F­32)/1.8     Significant Figures Precision and Accuracy  Accuracy: how close the measured value is to the actual value  Precision: how close a series of measurements are to one another or how  reproducible they are  Random Error: an error that has the equal probability of being too high or too low  Systematic Error: error that is too high or too low  Chapter 2: Atoms and Elements Dalton’s Atomic Theory  Atoms…  …are tiny particles of matter  …of an element are similar to each other and are different from other  elements  …of 2+ different elements combine to form compounds  …are rearranged to form new combinations in a chemical reaction Atoms   Electrons: negatively charged particle in an atom; orbits nucleus; very low mass  Protons: positively charged particle in the nucleus of atoms; equal to the # of  electrons in an atom  Neutrons: neutrally charged particles in the nucleus in an atom; slightly larger than  protons  Bohr model: electrons travel in discrete orbits about the nucleus Elements / Periodic Table  The # of protons = # of electrons = an element’s atomic # = defines an element  Isotopes: Varied # of neutrons (ex. Ne­20…Ne­21…Ne­22)  Ions: losing or gaining electrons   Cations: positively charged ions; losing electron(s)  Anions: negatively charged ions; gaining electron(s)  Atomic Mass: average mass of an elements atoms  Metals  Good conductors of heat & electricity  Malleable (can be turned into flat sheets)  Ductile (drawn into wires)  Shiny  Tend to lose electrons     Nonmetals   17 nonmetals o 5 solids at room temp. (C, P, S, Se & I) o 1 liquid at room temp. (Br)  o 11 gases at room temp. (H, He, N, O, F, Ne, Cl, Ar, Kr, Xe, & Rn)  Poor conductors or heat & electricity  Not ductile nor malleable  Gain electrons   Metalloids  (semimetals)  Have mixed properties   Semiconductors   Noble Gas  Group 8A elements  Mostly unreactive  Halogens  Group 7A  Very reactive nonmetals  Found in nature as salt  Alkali  Group 1A elements  Reactive metals  Alkaline Earth Metals  Group 2A  Fairly reactive Molar Mass  1 mole = 6.02214 × 10  particles (Avogadro’s number)  Chapter 3: Molecules, Compounds, and Chemical Equations Chemical Bonds  Ionic­ b/w metals and nonmetals; transfer of electrons  Covalent­ b/w 2+ nonmetals; sharing of electrons  Chemical Formulas  Empirical Formula: relative # of atoms of each element in a compound  (ex. For C H , the empirical formula is CH ) 4 8 2  Molecular Formula: the actual # of atoms of each element in a compound  Structural Formula: figure that shows how atoms are connected and bonded to  each other; lines are used to represent covalent bonds Polyatomic Ions  Ions that are themselves composed of a group of covalently bonded atoms w/ an  overall charge Naming Ionic Compounds Type 1:  (ex. KClpotassium chloride) Type 2:   Contains a metal w/ a charge that can differ in different compounds   (ex.) FeSO 4ere iron is +2 cation (Fe ) 2+ 3+          2Fe (4 3)  Here iron is +3 cation (Fe ) Oxyanions: anions containing oxygen and another element   If there are two ions in the series,  o the one with more oxygen atoms has the ending ­ate o the one with fewer has the ending ­ite.  If there are more than two ions in the series then the prefixes hypo­, meaning less than, and per­, meaning more than, are used. ClO hypochlorite            BrO hypobromite – – ClO 2hlorite BrO 2 bromite ClO 3hlorate BrO 3– bromate – – ClO 4erchlorate           B4O perbromate Hydrated Ionic Compounds: ionic compounds with a specific # of water molecules   Common hydrate prefixes o hemi = ½ o mono = 1 (Ex.) CoCl 2 6H O2 cobalt(II)chloride hexahydrate o di = 2 o tri = 3 o tetra = 4 o penta = 5 o hexa = 6 o hepta = 7 o octa = 8 Molecular Compounds Formula Mass Practice Problems: 1. Ibuprofen has the following mass percent composition: C 75.69%, H 8.80%, O 15.51%. What is the empirical formula of ibuprofen?                                                                               13  18 2              Answer: C H 0 2. Determine the mass of oxygen in a 7.2 g sample of Al (SO ) 2 4 3                                                                                                    Answer: 4.0 g Oxygen 3. Butane (C H 4 i10the liquid fuel in lighters. How many grams of carbon are present  within a lighter containing 7.25 mL of butane? (The density of liquid butane is 0.601  g/mL.)                                                                                      Answer: 3.60 g Carbon  4. A compound with the percent composition shown next has a molar mass of 60.10 g/mol. Determine its molecular formula. C, 39.97%             Answer: C H2N 8 2 H, 13.41% N, 46.62% Combustion Analysis  analyzing compounds by burning a known mass of compound and weighing the  amounts of product made Organic Compounds  compounds from living things  easily decomposed  cannot be made in the lab  Carbon Bonding: o Carbon can form 4 covalent bonds o Can form limitless chains (straight and branched) and rings o Hydrocarbons: organic compounds that only contain carbon and hydrogen (ex. Oil, gasoline, natural gas)  Single bonds: alkanes  Double or triple bonds: alkenes and alkynes, respectively   Functional Hydrocarbons: has a functional group


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