EXAM 1 EXTRA NOTES
EXAM 1 EXTRA NOTES 104
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ariel Notetaker on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 104 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by David Wilson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Social and Cultural Geography in Geography at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Geography 104 Study Guide Ariel Note taker Note: This Study Guide will only cover the HIGHLIGHTS of each topic. INTRODUCTION 1. Human Geography a. Spatial Forms- Macro Scale-scale of the Globe ex: Northern Hemisphere Maso Scale- the scale in between macro and micro ex: region Micro Scale- Small scale, ex: abandoned building 2. Focus of Geography - A discipline characterized by the study of unique perspectives, not a unique subject Examples of fields with unique subjects: anthropology= dynamics of cultures 3. Method of Geography (Form vs. Process) a. Form is synonymous with Description b. Process is synonymous with Explanation Cluster Index Cluster Random Dispersion Sitting on each other 50% of the points occupy Every Point is as far away Ex: weather, the same space, other as it is allowed to be points don’t Ex: population city vs. rural 4. Spatial Mismatch-Place where people want to work vs. where they actually live Note: Association does not imply causality TWO TYPES OF REGIONS Formal (Uniform) Region- • characterized by Functional Region- a specific criteriadegree of functionalhigh linkage within it (core and tributary) Example: Core= loop Tributary= Hinterland 2. Reductionist Tendency in Geography- As we opt for more generalization and universal principle, we gain, we lose. The More we simplify, the more we can generalize- but we lose space-specific details. HISTORY OF HUMAN GEOGRAPHY objectives, that weather overwhelmed people's ability to act indpendently Cr•de Form of Explanation- belief that the physical environment was a major determinant of human goals, values, and De•cribing Commodity Flows accross Space (1900-1920) Ma•ping New Portions of the Earth's Surface Environmental Determinism Fi•st attempt at explaining human geography, commercial cataloging, the era of exploration Sem•le Thesis: the existence of mountains pass has an efect of turning mountain dwellers in theives Ho• & Dry Climates- society is characterized by a low degree of technological advancemment Co•l Climates-societies characterized by a high degree og technological development Hu•tington Thesis: EXAMPLES Ph•sical Environment is still infuential, but people's actions are given more weight Lo•g Term- Represented by a only slight modification Sh•rt Term- humans preseented as a more active agent 1930) Ex• Grifth Taylor Possibility (1920- Environmental 3.•Unique Method: Description of Uniqueness 2.•Unique Perspective- Focus on Space 1.•Unique Subject Matter- regions formal and functional Th•ee Attributes Given: 1960) Da•k Ages of Geography , ex: Richard Hartshorne-A retreat from explaining, just describe Regionalism (1930- We•cannot find laws, if we keep looking for diferences, commonality is key Un•que Method: the description of uniqueness dooms geography to a descriptive non-science Pe•spsective: Focus on space Re•ions ( are mere artifical constructs) EXAMPLES Fr•d Schaefer- "Exceptionalism in Geography , 1953) Er• of mathematical geography (quantitative revolution) Se•rch for Universal Parallels (1960-1970) Spatial Analysis Ne• Subject Matter: application of theory to contemporary real world problems (1970- Present) School of Revelance ROOTS AND MEANING OF CULTURE 1.Culture- goals, values, objectives of a population that guides their behavior and activities, the glue that structures actions and norms in societies 2. Material Culture- the physical manifestation of culture Example: suburbia culture and malls 3. Gentrification- the physical and social restructuring of neighborhoods got affluent consumption ex: Chicago, new York Facets of Culture: 1.Cultures are dynamic entities, ( not static, can change compositions and aerial extent) 2.Cultures move by difusion process: Difusion Theory- a general body of knowledge which seeks to understand how real world entities move across space TWO TYPES OF DIFFUSION Contagious Difusion- Hierarchical Difusion- probability of adopting Probability of Adopting an innovation is a an innovation is NOT a function of distance to function of distance the core innovative EX: high fashion area ,music HAS CULTURE BEEN EXXAGERATED? Question: Is Bad Culture the problem? Or Too few jobs? Bad gov/ policy? SUBCULTURE OF POVERTY THESIS • Participant Observation • The Low-income adapt to dispair Ocsar • 1. Unwilling to defer gratifcation • 2. Low Aspirations Lewis • 3. Telelogical Thinking (Pre- Determination) Banefie • The poor have to be culturally rehabed • The submainstream have thier own ld - directives, goals, and norms, • Three kinds of present Orientedness "SO- • Cognitive- poeple acting for the moment CALLED • Situational- People acting out of desperate circumstances Heaven • Volitional- people acting for the moment ly City" because they refexively chose this lifestyle • Heterogenous Poverty Population • Only A Select group resides in the Herbert subculture, most know regular societal norms Gans • Process Forms disparity between aspirations and ability to achieve aspirations • Evident in 1980 • Most Poverty-Stricken and Non-Mobile Group • Forces Responsible Wilson (The • Spataial Mismatch Black UnderClass) • Evolution of Service Economy, loss of industrial jobs with benefits • Out-Migration of Black Middle Class • Decline of Institutions Major Causes of This: - Industries became “ foot-loose”, looking for places that had lower wage requirements, taxes - Post-Industrial State pushing lower-wage jobs Tertiary Secondary Sector Sector • Expanding • Contracting • ex: • Low-wage • No Benefits manufacturin • ex:fast food g industry DEATH OF URBAN SPACE -changing the purpose of public space -Creating a more vibrant downtown -Public Space is now about the gathering of money, no-free events, surveullant-heavy atmospheres - Public Space is now meant to be a extention of the creative class only GROWTH MACHINE MODEL U S E V A L U E • liv in g o f o f re a l e s ta te p a rc e ls • U s e Va lu e A d v o c a te s : • S e e k to d e fe n d s o c ia l fa b ric s o f c o m m u n iti e s • h o m e o w n e r a s s o c ia tio n s E X C H A N G E V A L U E • L a n d Pa rc e ls a n In s tru m e n t fo r c a p ita l a c c u m u la tio n • e x : G e n trifi c a tio n • E x a h n g e Va lu e A d v o c a te s : • s e e k to g e n e ra te fi n a n c ia l m a x fi n a n c ia l re tu rn s fro m p ro p e rty • G ro w th O rg a n iz a ti o n s : C C C C h ic ag o Trivia questions: 1. What is the most densly populated city in the world? Daka, Bangledesh 2. Two poorest Cities in the US: st a. Detroit is the 1 nd b. Milwaukee is the 2 3.
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