IAFS 1000, Midterm 1 Notes
IAFS 1000, Midterm 1 Notes IAFS 1000
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aaron Estevez-Miller on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to IAFS 1000 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Dr. David Bearce in Fall 2013. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Intro to International Affairs in International Affairs at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
1 GLOBAL ISSUES Chapter 1 International relations (IR) – the relationships among the world governments (principal actors) in connection to: (1) other actors international organizations (such as the United Nations,) multinational corporations and individuals, (2) with other social structures and processes (including economics, culture, and domestic policy,) and (3) with geographical and historical influences. Collective goods problem – A tangible or intangible good, created by the members of a group, that is available to all group members regardless of their individual contribution. Participants can gain by lowering their own contribution to the collective good, yet if too many participants do so, the good cannot be provided. Dominants - a principle for solving collective goods problem by imposing solutions hierarchically. Reciprocity - a principle for solving collective goods problem by responding in kind to another’s action. A strategy of reciprocity uses a positive forms of leverage by promising rewards and negative forms of leverage to threaten punishment. Identity – a principle for solving collective goods problem by changing participants’ preferences based on their shared sense of belonging to a community. Issue areas – Distinct spheres of international and global activity (such as global trade negotiations) within which policymakers in various states face conflicts and sometimes achieve cooperation. Conflict – a difference in preferred outcomes in a bargaining situation Conflict and Cooperation – the types of actions that states take towards each-other through time. International security - is a subfield of international relations that focuses on questions of war and peace. International political economy (IPE) - the study of the politics of trade, monetary, and other economic relations among nations, and their connection to other transnational forces. State – an inhabited territorial entity, controlled by government that exercises sovereignty on its territory International system – the set of international relationships, structured by certain rules and patterns of interaction Nation-states - states whose populations share a sense of national identity, usually including a language and culture Gross domestic product (GDP) – the size of a state’s total annual economic activity. Nonstate actors – actors other than state governments that operate either below the level of the state (that is, within states) or across state borders. Intergovernmental organizations (IGO) - and organization (such as the United Nations and its agencies) whose members are state governments. Non-governmental organizations (NGO) - a transitional group or entity such as the Catholic Church Greenpeace or the international Olympic Committee that interacts with states multinational corporations MNCs other NGOs and intergovernmental organizations IGOs. Globalization - the increasing integration of the world in terms of communications, culture, and economics. May also refer to changing subjective experiences of space and time accompanying this process. 2 North-south gap - the disparity in resources, income, wealth, and power between the industrials’ relatively rich countries of the West and the former East and the poor countries of Africa, the Middle East, and much of Asia and Latin America. League of Nations - and organization established after World War I and a forerunner of today’s United Nations. It achieved certain humanitarian and other successes, but was weakened by the absence of U.S. membership and by its own lack of effectiveness in ensuring collective security. Munich agreement - a symbol of the failed policy of appeasement, this agreement, signed in 1938, allowed Nazi Germany to occupy part of Czechoslovakia. Rather than appease German aspirations, it was followed by further German expansion, which struggled World War II. Cold War - the hostile relations—punctuated by occasional periods of improvements, or détente—between the two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, from 1945 to 1990. Containment - a policy adapted in the late 1940s by which the United States shock to halt the global expansion of Soviet influence on several levels—military, political, ideological, and economical. Sino-Soviet split – a rift in the 1960s between the communist powers of the Soviet Union, killed by China’s opposition to Soviet moves towards peaceful coexistence with the United States. Summit meeting - a meeting between heads of states, often referring to leaders of great powers, as in the Cold War superpower summits between the United States and the Soviet Union or today’s meetings of the Group of Eight on economic coordination Cuban missile crisis - a superpower crisis sparked by the Soviet Union’s installation of medium-range nuclear missiles in Cuba that marks the movements when the United States and the Soviet Union came closer to nuclear war. Proxy wars – wars in the 3 world—often civil wars—in which the United States and Soviet Union jockeyed for position by supplying and advising opposing factions. 3 Chapter 2 Realism- a broad intellectual tradition that explains international relations mainly in terms of power. Idealism - and approach that emphasizes international law morality and the international organization rather than power alone is key influences and international relations. Power - the ability or potential to influence others’ behavior as measured by possession of certain tangible and intangible characteristics. Geopolitics – the use of geography as an element of power, and the ideas about it held my political leaders and scholars. Anarchy - in IR theory, a term that implies not complete chaos but the lack of a central government that can enforce rules Norms – the shared expectations about what behavior is considered proper Sovereignty - states right, at least in principle, to do whatever it wants within its own territory. Traditionally sovereignty is the most important international norm. Security dilemma – a situation in which action states take to ensure their own security (such as deploying more military forces) are perceived as threats to the security of another state. Balance of power - the general concept of one or more states’ power being used to balance that of another state or group of states. The term can refer to: (1) any ratio of power capabilities between states or alliances; (2) a relative equal ratio; or (3) the process by which counterbalancing coalitions have repeatedly formed to prevent one state from conquering an entire region. Great Powers - generally a half-dozen or so of the most powerful states. The great powers club was exclusively European until the 20 century. Middle Powers - states that the rank somewhat below the great powers in terms of their influence on world affairs, for example Brazil and India. Neorealism - a version of realist theory that emphasizes the influence on state behavior of the system’s structure, especially the international distribution of power. Multipolar system - an international system with typically five or six centers of power that are not grouped into alliances. Power transition theory - a theory that the largest wars result from challenges to the top position in the status hierarchy, when a rising power is surpassing or threatening to surpass the most powerful state. 4 Hegemony - the holding by one state of a preponderance of power in the international system, so that it can single-handedly dominate rules and agreements by which international political and economic relations are conducted. Hegemonic stability theory - the argument that the regimes are most effective when power in the international system is most concentrated. Alliance cohesion - the ease with which the members hold together an alliance. It tends to be high when national interests converge and when cooperation among allies becomes institutionalized. Burden sharing - the distribution of costs of an alliance among members; the term also refers to conflicts that may arise over such distribution. NATO - the US-led military alliance formed in 1949 with mainly west European members to oppose and deter Soviet power in Europe. It is currently expanding into the former Soviet bloc. Warsaw Pact - a Soviet led Eastern European Military alliance founded in 1955 and disbanded in 1991. It opposed the NATO alliance. US-Japanese security treaty - a bilateral alliance between the United States and Japan created in 1951 against the potential Soviet threat to Japan. United States maintains troops in Japan and is committed to defend Japan if attacked, and Japan pays the United States to offset about half the cost of maintaining the troops Nonaligned movement - a movement of third world states led by India and Yugoslavia, that attempted to stand apart from the U.S.-Soviet rivalry during the Cold War. Deterrence - the threat to punish another actor if it takes a certain negative action (especially attacking one’s own state or one’s allies) Compellence - the use of force to make another actor takes some action rather than as in deterrence refrain from taking an action. Arms race - a reciprocal process in which two or more states build up military capabilities in response to each other Rational actors – Actors conceived of as a single entities that can “think” about their actions coherently, make choices, identify their interests, and rank the interests in terms of priority. National interest - interests of a state overall (as opposed to particular parties or factions within the state) Cost-benefit analysis – a calculation of the cost incurred by possible action and the benefits it is likely to bring Game theory - a branch of mathematics concerned with protecting bargaining outcomes. Games such as Prisoners Dilemma and Chicken have been used to analyze various sorts of international interactions Zero-sum games - situations in which one actors gain is by definition equal to the other’s loss as opposed to a non-zero-sum game in which it is possible for both actors to gain (or lose) Prisoners dilemma (PD) - a situation modeled by game theory in which rational actors pursuing their individual interests all achieve worse outcomes than they could have by working together Chapter 3 Interdependence - a political and economic situation in which two states are simultaneously dependent on each other for their well-being. The degree of interdependence is made in terms of “sensitivity” or “vulnerability.” 5 Neoliberal – shorthand for “neoliberal institutionalism” an approach that stresses the importance of international institutions in reducing the inherent conflict that realists assume in an international system. The reasoning is based on the core liberal idea that seeking long-term mutual gains is often more rational than maximizing individual short-term gains. International regime - will a set of rules norms and expectations of in a international area such as oceans for monetary policy. Collective security - the formation of a broad alliance of most major actors in an international system for the purpose of jointly opposing aggression by any actor, sometimes seen as presupposing the existence of a universal organization (such as the United Nations) to which both the aggressor and its opponents belong. Democratic peace - the position, strongly supported by empirical evidence, that democracies almost never fight wars against each other although they do fight wars against authoritarian states. Constructivism - a movement in IR theory that examines how changing international norms and actors’ identities help shape the content of state interests Postmodernism - an approach that denies the existence of a single fixed reality, and pays special attention to texts and to discourses --that is, to how people talk and write about a subject. Subtext - meanings that are implicit or hidden in a text, rather than explicitly addressed. Economic classes - at categorization of individuals based on economic status. Marxism - a branch of socialism that emphasizes exploitation and class struggle and includes both communism and other approaches. Conflict resolution – the development and implementation of peaceful strategies for settling conflicts. Mediation - the use of third-party (or parties) in conflict resolution. Militarism - glorification of war, military force, and violence. Positive piece - a piece that resolve the underlying reason for war; not just a cease-fire but a transformation of relationships, including elimination or reduction of economic exploitation and political oppression. World government - a centralized world governing body with strong enforcement powers Peace movements – (a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as ending of a particular war or all wars, minimize inter-human violence or type situation often linked to goal of achieving world peace.) - Movements against specific war or against war and militarism in general, usually involving large numbers of people and forms of direct actions such as street protests Difference feminism - stranded feminism that believes gender differences are not just socially constructed and that use women as inherently less warlike than men. Liberal feminism - stranded feminism than emphasizes gender equality and views the essential differences in men’s and women’s abilities or perspectives as trivial or nonexistent. Postmodern feminism - and effort to combine feminist and postmodernist perspectives with the aim of uncovering the hidden influences of gender and IR and showing how arbitrary the construction of gender roles is. Gender gap - refers to polls showing women lower than men on average in their support for military actions, as well as for various other issues and candidates. 6 Chapter 4 Rational model - a model in which decision makers calculate the costs and benefits of each possible course of action, then choose the one with the highest benefits and lowest costs. Organizational process model - a decision-making model in which policymakers or lower-level officials rely largely on standardized responses or standard operating procedures. Government bargaining model - a model that sees foreign-policy decisions as flowing from a bargaining process among various government agencies that have somewhat divergent interests in the outcomes (where you stand depends on where you sit.) Also called the bureaucratic politics model. Misperceptions, Selective perceptions - the selective or mistaken processing of the available information about a decision. One of several way—along with affective and cognitive bias—in which individual decision-making diverges from the rational model. Information screen - the subconscious or unconscious filters through which people put the information coming in about the world around them. Optimizing - picking the very best option contrast with satisfying or finding a satisfactory but less than best solution to a problem the model of bounded rationality postulates that decision-makers generally satisfice rather than optimize Satisficing - the act of finding a satisfactory or “good enough” solution to the problem. Prospect theory - a decision-making theory that holds that options are assessed by comparison to a reference point, which is often the status quo, but might be some past or expected situation. The model also holds that decision-makers fear losses more than they value gains. Groupthink - the tendency of groups to validate wrong decisions by becoming overconfident and underestimating risks. Interest groups - coalitions of people who share a common interest in the outcome of some political issue and organize themselves to try to influence the outcome. Military-industrial complex a huge interlocking network of governmental agencies industrial corporations and research institutions all working together to promote and benefit from military spending. Public opinion – in IR, the range of views on foreign policy issues held by the citizens of the state. “rally round the flag” syndrome the public’s increased support for government leaders during wartime, at least in the short term. Diversionary foreign policy - foreign-policy’s adopted to distract the public from domestic political problems. Foreign-policy process - the process by which foreign policies are arrived at and implemented. 7 Chapter 5 Hegemonic war - war for control of the entire world order—the rules of international system as a whole. Also known as world war, global war, general war, or systematic war. Total war - warfare by one state waged to conquer and occupy another. Modern total war originated in the Napoleonic wars, which relied on conscription on a mass scale. Civil war - a war between factions within a state trying to create, or prevent, a new government from the entire state or some territorial part of it. Guerrilla war - warfare without frontlines and with irregular forces operating in the midst of, and often hidden or protected by, civilian populations. truth commissions governmental bodies established in several countries after international wars to hear harnessed testimony and bring to light what really happened during these wars and in exchange to offer most of the participants asylum from punishment. Conflict - a difference in preferred outcomes in a bargaining situation. Cycle theories - an effort to explain tendencies towards war in the international system as cyclical, for example, by linking wars with long waves in the world economy (Kondratieff cycles). Nationalism - identifications will with, and devotion to the interest of one’s nation. It usually involves a large group of people who share a national identity and often a language, culture, or ancestry. Ethnic groups - large groups of people who share ancestral, language, cultural, or religious ties and a common identity. Ethnocentrism – the tendency to see one’s own group (in-group) in favorable terms and the out-group in unfavorable terms. Dehumanization - stigmatization of enemies as subhuman or nonhuman, leading frequently to widespread massacre or worse. Genocide - an intentional and systematic attempt to destroy a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group in whole, or part. It was confirmed as a crime under international law by the UN Genocide Convention in 1948. Secular (state) – a state created apart from religionist establishments and in which there is a high degree of separation between religious and political organizations. Islam/Muslims - a broad and diverse world religion whose divergent populations include Sunni Muslims, Shi’ite Muslims, and many smaller branches and sects from Nigeria to Indonesia, centered in the Middle East and South Asia. Islamist - political ideology based on instituting Islamic principles and laws in government. A broad range of groups using diverse methods come under this category. Irredentism – a form of nationalism whose goal is to regain territory lost to another state. It can lead directly to violent interstate conflicts. Ethnic cleansing - euphemism for forced displacement of an ethnic group or groups from a territory, accompanied by massacres and other human rights violations; it has occurred after the breakup of multinational states, notably in the former Yugoslavia. Territorial waters - the waters near states’ shores generally treated as part of national territory. The UN convention on the Law of the Sea provides for a 12 mile territorial sea (exclusive national jurisdiction over shipping and navigation) and a 200 mile exclusive economic zone (EEZ) covering exclusive fishing and mineral rights (but allowing for free navigation by all.) Airspace - the space above a state that is considered its territory, in contrast to outer space, which is considered international territory.
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