Fundamentals of speech
Fundamentals of speech COMST 100HON-027
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victoria Notetaker on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMST 100HON-027 at University of Wisconsin - Stout taught by Richard Schutta in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
What is communication? -The non-verbal and verbal cues and messages sent by individuals when we exchange information. They can be intentional and unintentional. Perspective -The Receiver perceives the verbal and non-verbal behavior of another and assigns meaning. Sender `The Sender encodes a message with cues and sends it to another person. Communication Models Linear Model-Shannon and Weaver 1949 Sender sends message, message goes through channel surrounded by noise, message reaches receiver, message is decoded by receiver. Transaction Model of Communication- https://www.natcom.org/transactionalmodel/ National Communication Association Elements of the Communication model Source-Person who creates a message Encoding-Creating, organizing and producing the message Receiver-Recipient of the message Decoding-The process of interpreting the message Feedback-An audiences’ response to a message-convey verbally or nonverbally Message-The content of the communication. Expressed verbally and nonverbally Channel-The medium through the speaker sends the message; radio, TV, etc. Noise-Any interference with the message; internal and external Shared meaning-the mutual understanding of a message between speaker and audience We are always in a state of communication. When we are asleep and tired we are communicating. Silence tells a message. Communication is always verbal and nonverbal. Even in isolation you can convey an unintentional message. Forms of Communication -Intrapersonal or Dyadic-One on One -Small Group-More than two people. Generally, the most effective group is one that has seven or less individuals. -Mass Communication-Speaker(s) are present but the audience isn’t known. -Public Speaking-Speakers(s) are present and the audience is known and present. How is Public Speaking Similar to Other Forms of Communications? Small Group and Public Speaking The people are focusing on you and you are expected to address issues and topics that’re relevant to the occasion Mass Communication and Public Speaking You need to understand your audience members and appeal to their values, like Political and Sports talk radio Dyadic Communication and Public Speaking You need to express your meaning clearly and respond properly with your conversational partners while taking responsibility for what you say. How is Public Speaking Different than other forms? -There is instantaneous feedback from the audience; written, verbal, nonverbal -The level of preparation is important. Speeches need to be planned and practiced otherwise it’ll be easy to tell. -The degrees of formality have increased in public speaking because they usual are used in formal settings Learning to Speak in Public 1.) Draw on your prior conversation skills 2.) Automatically make certain to understand the subject and adjust the level of meaning accordingly to the situation 3.) You need text in your speech as well as an Intro, Body and Conclusion. 4.) Don’t speak as you write 5.) Research from credible sources 6.) Make clear verbal transitions between subjects and parts of the speech. 7.) Develop an effective oral style 8.) Don’t impress with big words and use simple sentences. Repeat key ideas & words. 9/15/16 Why Learn Public Speaking? -More companies are looking for solid communicators -Positive skill for professional growth -You can’t make a difference if you cannot communicate your ideas in an effective manner History of Public Speaking -Humans are born to verbalize instead of write -Writing is a newer technology -Orators in Ancient Greece settled disputes via verbal discussions that could end on death -Writing numbers came before languages Forensic Oratory-Used in legal speech to advocate for a cause. To Advocate Deliberative Oratory-Used in legislative discussions.To inform Epideictic Oratory-Used at special ceremonies like celebrations or funerals. To remember Rhetoric dates back to Aristotle in 384-322 B.C.E and Cicero (106-43 B.C.E). CICERO was big in Rome Rhetoric is the practice of giving speeches. To Aristotle it was a way of persuasion Cannons of Rhetoric Invention-Discovering the types of evidence and/or arguments you will use to make your case to an audience. Research Arrangement-Organizing the speech so that it is the best suited for the topic and audience. Style-The language you use to express your ideas to express the speech ideas. Memory-You don’t have to memorize your speeches here. The practice of speech until it can be artfully delivered. Delivery-Verbal and nonverbal behavior used when speaking. Trait like CA-Anxiety for any sort of communication setting except family and friends. Generalized-context CA-Anxiety is experienced towards specicic settings. Public speaking, meetings, group discussions, interpersonal conversations Person-group CA-Anxiety experienced when a person has to speak to a specific person or group Situational CA-Anxiety response with another person at a given time Why Do We Experience Speech Anxiety? -Lack of experience -We feel different -Don’t like being the center of attention -Focus on the nonverbal responses of the audience -We tend to be more critical of ourselves -If you make a mistake. Act natural and they may not notice. MLK Speech -Noise-The audience, the crackling of the sound recorder, clapping, the microphone - cheers and laughter -Uses allegories and metaphors, such as the island. Uses alliteration; ex: Some of you…Some of you, Go back…Go back….Go back - Voice carries - uses the balanced check allegory; they’ve received a bad check - Intro-Explanation-Rally as Conclusion--Split—Narrative examples - Examples: the voting and Mississippi - Voice rises during rallying even more and during the conclusion Listening -There are verbal and nonverbal cues -An active process -We tend to listen to what we know and what we care about -Hearing is simply the biological aspect and is reflective, while listening is the conscious act of recognizing and understanding another. Includes non-verbal -People listen to what they care about more and what they want to listen to Selective perception: We listen to what we hold important and we listen to information that touches on our own experiences. We filter out what we already know A listening distraction (noise) is anything that competes for our distraction when we pay attention to others Passing distractions -Pause, wait for the distraction to go away Ongoing noise -Raise voice, shut door or move locations Sudden Distraction -Ignore or pause Audience Interruption -acknowledge and follow up at the end of speech. Don’t ignore Dealing with Distractions Scriptwriting -Focus on what we, not the speaker would say next Defensive listening -Deciding we don’t like what the speaker is saying or you know better Avoid laziness or overconfidence -We can filter out important things but miss important things Cultural Barriers Refrain from making judgements against a speaker. Don’t judge to others unless you are dressed Don’t be afraid to ask for clarification by asking questions. Be empathetic Types of listening Comprehensive-To gain understanding Critical listening –to analyze, evaluate and/or make judgements and act on information Empathetic listening-provide support, be silent Appreciative listening-to experience pleasure and enjoyment, I e music Active listening -Set goals -listen for main ideas, topics, transition, patterns, eye contact -take notes Skills for Active listening Observe Focus Acknowledge Respect Use critical things “The ability to evaluate claims based on well-supported reasons” You can challenge arguments Is the source credible or accurate? Where do some of the speaker’s assumptions arise? Is there faulty logic or overgeneralization? Is it valid? What are other ways to view the speaker’s arguments? 4.1 Identify the speakers need ` Indicate performance standard make action statement assess goal achievement Becoming better listeners We listen more than any other communicative act Techniques to become better listeners Meditation Proper eye contact Put away technology so you don’t overload yourself Keep an open mind and don’t complete a speaker’s thoughts and processes. Generating Ideas-Chapter 5, 7 and 27 9/21/2016 Ethical Speaking-Why do we want to be ethical? -Practical-one want to establish credibility with audience and be credible -Moral-Treating your audience with respect -The central theme is to be responsible to yourself and your audience -What is ethics? The study of moral conduct-how people should act towards others -Ethics in speaking is the responsibilities we have towards our audience and ourselves -Audiences listen and trust speakers who demonstrate character or Ethos Ethical Frameworks Consequential ethics: our rightness is determining by the outcome or consequence of out conduct. Greatest good for the greatest number of people -John Stewart Mill- Do not deprive others as you excel to the best of your abilities Rules-based ethics- Ethics based on a set of rules you follow -Virtue based Ethics-Emphasizes the role of the individual moral character in guiding ethical decisions. Positive Ethos Competence-Demonstrated by the speaker’s grasp of the subject Example: We tend to trust president on foreign policy matters Good moral character-reflected in the speaker’s trustworthiness, straightforwardness and honest preparation of the message Goodwill-The speaker’s knowledge and attitude of respect towards the audience and occasion Speaker Credibility -A speaker is looked at in a positive light when the speaker is prepared honest respectful towards audience solid grasp of subject Display sound reason skills Honest and straightforward Genuinely interested in the best interest or welfare of the audience Ethical speakers tell the truth Ethical speakers fully credit their ideas -Allow the audience to research the issue if they choose so Ethical Speech Preparation Always be ethical-using credible and ethical sources telling the truth, and not hiding information Speak up and our-Don’t be afraid to address issues or topics you believe to be morally right. Speak up for those who can’t speak up for themselves Choose topics that promote positive cultural values-don’t suggest illegal things Some guideline for ethical speaking -Be informed and prepared -Acknowledge shades of grey Recognize that not all issues are black and white. -Be up front about your intentions -Stay within one topic -Use concrete language -Use gender neutral language -Avoid verbal attacks-don’t attack others who may not have the opportunity to defend themselves -Avoid the overuse of emotional appeals-you need to combine with proof to base ethics -Respect other people’s time -Accept responsibility Free-Speech Rights Slander (presumed false)- Speech information that can harm another’s reputation. Libel is written communication *there is a difference between the effects of Public figures with slander. You need a higher standard and/or threshold to prove if you’re a public figure. Fighting words: Speech that provokes people to violence Topic Selection Assigned vs Self-Selected ---You may be given a purpose ---You may be given time constrains ---You may be given a challenge or you may be given all three General speech purpose Informative-increase audience’s awareness and understanding on a topic Persuasive-To change the audience’s attitudes and beliefs. Address both sides. Choose ones with competing sides Special occasion speeches-to entertain, celebrate, commemorate, inspire, or set a social agenda. They can inform and/or persuade, but the primary focus is to inspire Help with topic selection ---Look at urgent events and issues ---Personal issues that you are involve with ---Engage in the community and survey grassroots issues ---Avoid overused topics Generating ideas Brainstorm Word association Topic mapping Internet tools
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