Study Guide for Exam 1 for BIOL 1441 - Christensen
Study Guide for Exam 1 for BIOL 1441 - Christensen BIOL 1441
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madalyn on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1441 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Shawn Christense in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Study Guide BIOL 1441 Thursday, September 22, 2016 9:22 PM Exam Study Guide I have put in a lot of time going over this guide making sure everything is correct which explains the reason why it is late. I apologize for any inconvenience Chapter 2 Chemical contexts Trace elements- they are required by organisms But only in small amounts. These include iron and iodine. Elements make compounds. Essential elements that are found in biology are -Oxygen -Hydrogen -Carbon -Nitrogen *radioactive tracers are used Atoms to detect cancers Protons- (+) in biological Neutrons- (0) research. Electrons- (-) Sodium Isotopes- Same elements with different mass numbers due to more Mass number neutrons Atomic number = # of protons and electrons Protons- 6 Protons- 6 Protons- 11 Neutrons- 6 Electrons- 6 Electrons- 11 Electrons- 6 Neutrons- 10 Neutrons- 12 Energy of Electrons (23-11=12) Carbon Energy absorbed Electron shells Carbon has 4 valence electrons. Carbon is in group 14. Energy lost The 4 in fourteen tells us the number of electrons. Same goes for groups Nucleus Protons- 6 1,2,13,14,15,16,17,18. Neutrons- 6 They do NOT work for transition metals Electrons- 6 S orbitals hold 2 electrons P orbitals hold 6 electrons The S orbital must be filled first in order for it Move on to the P orbital. Fig 1. Shows that there are Two electrons in the s orbital then 4 more in the outer shell; The outer shell is also called the valence electron shell. The hold the valence electrons. Bonds Covalent Bonds Ionic Bonds They share electrons. These happen between They transfer electrons. They are usually called salts. Non-metals. Water (H2O) is a covalent bond These happen between non-metals and metals. Sodium Chloride, salt, is ionic. (NaCl) EXAM 1 REVIEW Page 1 Hydrogen Bonds Van der Waals These are when hydrogen bonds to a negatively element. Or when hydrogen bonds to anything. They are weak as easily broken. These are also weak bonds. The charge of the molecule or elements are not Evenly distributed. They are stronger when they are more of them. But are still easily broken. An example of this is a gecko's feet. The sticky stuff on its feet allow it to climb walls. It is weak enough to break so it can walk up walls, but strong enough to keep it from falling, neat, huh? A polar covalent bond is a bond that electrons are not shared equally. Water is polar; which is why it is drawn in a bent and V-like shape . Oxygen is electronegative And hydrogen is electropositive. A non-polar covalent bond is where electrons are shared equally. Chapter 3 Water Cohesion- basically it is breaking and sticking together again. Water is an example of this Temperature- the measure of energy Specific heat- the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 gram of a substance to change its temperature by 1 degree Celsius. Water's specific heat is 1 gram PER 1 degree Celsius. The lower the specific heat, the faster it takes to heat it up. Iron has a lower specific heat than water, which is why it gets hotter if left out in the sun for a certain amount of time. The 3 S's SOLUTE- substance that is dissolved Hydration Shell SOLVENT- the substance doing the dissolving SOLUTION- homogenous mixture It is the sphere of water molecules around each dissolvent. (salt water- salt is the solute, being dissolved. H+ is attracted to Cl- and O- is attracted to Na+ as shown below. Water- solvent, dissolving the salt.) They break up salt this way. Hydration Shell Hydrogen; H+ PHILIC AND PHOBIC PHILIC- LOVES WATER Oxygen; O- PHOBIC- FEARS WATER ACIDS and BASES and the PH scale Acid- substance that increases So basic y'all The H+ concentration of a solution EQUATION to find pH Base- substance that reduces the H+ concentration of a solution pH= -log[H+] Strong acids and bases dissolve completely in H2O **put the exponent in the [x]** 0 The scale goes from 0-14. 14 being very basic and 0 being very acidic. EXAMPLE: [H+] = 10^-7 SO, pH = 7 … or you can just take it from PURE water is neutral, it’s a 7 on the scale. The exponent … 2 Stomach acid is usually 2. Stomach Acid Buffers - buffers are a substance that EXAM 1 REVIEW Page 2 EXAMPLE: [H+] = 10^-7 The scale goes from 0-14. 14 being very basic and 0 being very acidic. SO, pH = 7 … or you can just take it from PURE water is neutral, it’s a 7 on the scale. The exponent … 2 Stomach acid is usually 2. Stomach Acid Buffers - buffers are a substance that minimize the concentrations of H+ and OH- in a solution Ocean acidification The main reason why Ocean acidification (O.A.) exists, or is caused by, is CO2 CO2 reacts with H2O and forms carbonic acid. Then, the carbonic acid breaks down into H+ and HCO . 3he added H+ combines with the carbonate ions in the ocean, CO , formi3g even more 7 Water HCO .3Therefore, these is less carbonate ions to help form corals and shells for crabs. The more you pollute, the less ocean there is… 13 Bleach 14 EXAM 1 REVIEW Page 3
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