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Exam 2 Ch. 17, 18, 19.1, 19.2 Review

by: Kelli Restivo

Exam 2 Ch. 17, 18, 19.1, 19.2 Review CHEM 1332

Marketplace > University of Houston > CHEM 1332 > Exam 2 Ch 17 18 19 1 19 2 Review
Kelli Restivo
GPA 3.75
Fundamentals of Chemistry 2
Simon Bott

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Fundamentals of Chemistry 2
Simon Bott
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelli Restivo on Sunday March 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 1332 at University of Houston taught by Simon Bott in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 1538 views.

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Date Created: 03/29/15
Chemistry Exam 2 Review Ch 17 18 and 191 192 I Chimter 17 Energemnd Equilibrium A Reversible reactions and equilibrium 1 ALL reactions are reversible and they do NOT go to completion but to equilibrium 2 when the rate of the forward reaction equals that of the reverse reaction CONCENTRATIONS are equal but the reaction does NOT stop 3 Equilibrium quation for AX B I A BX 4 A BX AX B Keq expresses relationship between CONSTANT concentrations in a rxn 5 ALL concentrations at equilibrium LEAVE OUT solids and pure liquids mass does not change so concentration is not affected by change in temperature B EnergeticsSize of Keq 1 Keqgt1 if more products than reactants at equilibrium 2 Keqlt1 if more reactants than products at equilibrium C Reaction Line 1 QltKeq then reaction goes to the RIGHT forward rxn is faster 2 QgtKeq then reaction goes to the LEFT reverse rxn is faster 3 QK then reaction is at EQUILIBRIUM rates are equal D Value of Keq represents relationship btwn AMOUNTS at equilibrium 1 Depends on how you describe the rxn 2 Flip an equation KDlK 3 Multiply equation by a factor of X KKX 4 Add equations together Multiply K values E Phases and K 1 Solidspure liquids NOT INCLUDED in Keq or Q 2 Gases Kc and Kp REAL Keq depends on ACTIVITY of substance which is really close to 3 Using concentrations Kc Cc DdAquot 1 Bb 4 Using partial pressures Kp pCc pDdpAquot 1 pBb 5 where An of moles on right moles on left 6 Keq calculations i Plug and chug given all but one variable to plug into Kc or Kp equation ii Real chemistry ones Use SCE chart Start change equilibrium F If equilibrium system is disturbed it will try to recover back to equilibrium 1 Add product rxn use productmove to LEFT 2 Add reactant rxn use reactantmove to RIGHT 3 Remove product rxn make more productmove RIGHT 4 Remove reactant rxn make more reactantmove to LEFT G Temperature 1 Heat a rxn wants to REMOVE heat endothermic direction 2 Cool a rxn wants to REPLACE heat exothermic direction H Pressure effects II Chapter 18 Acids covalent compounds that behave like ionic substances When dissolved in water anion With right of H to balance charge so considered IONIC in water A B II III A B IV PU Binm monatomic anion right number of H 1 EX HCl hydrogen chloride I hydrochloric acid OXv or Ternarv oxyanion right number of H 1 EX HClO3 chlorate lchloric acid Carboxvlic acids contain COOH group 1 Naming ane anoic acid 2 EX Methane I methanoic acid 3 EX Ethane I ethanoic acid OR acetic acid Strong acids COMPLETELY DISSOCIATE into H and anion STRONG ions in solution 1 HCl HBr HI HNO3 HClO4 H2SO4 Weak acids PARTIALLY DISSOCIATE into Hanion WEAK ELECTROLYTES 1 HF HCOOH CH3COOH H3PO4 HClO3 m ionic substances that dissociate in water to form OH and a CATION Strong Bases COMPLETELY dissociate to form STRONG ELECTROLYTES 1 LiOH NaOH KOH SrOH2 BaOH2 RbOH CsOH Weak Bases PARTIALLY dissociate 1 NH3 other metal hydroxides carbonate bicarbonate Reactions of AcidsBases Neutralization acid neutralized by basevisa versa 1 Acid Base I Salt H20 H OH IH2O Gas Forming Reaction Acid bicarbonate I H20 CO2 1 Double displacement Titrations adding one reactant bit by bit to other to follow progress of reaction take one reactantadd to other until rxn is complete Detect using property color change etc at end point Acids and Ka acid dissociation constant Strong acid Kagt1 because LOTS of products made Weak acid Ka NOT BIG 1 For SCE chart X can be ASSUMED small if Ka is small because that means small amount of products 2 Answeroriginal concentration 100 make sure it s lt5 error Acid solution strengthDH 1 assume 100 for STRONG ACID ionization increases as acid decreases for WEAK ACID 2 pH log H H is the SAME as H30 3 pOH log OH VI BronstedLowrv Acid other definitions of acidsbases A Reaction NOT a dissociation 1 HAaq H20aq lH30aq Aaq OR HAaq IHaq A aq 2 Ka H30 AHA OR H AHA 3 Therefore H and H30 are the SAME B Acids are H DONORS VII BronstedLowrv Bag A Bases H ACCEPTORS HA aq BaqBHaq Aaq 1 EX NH3 does not have OH but it doesn t matter because we concentrate on the rxn NOT the dissociation NH3 grabs H from water 2 Use Kb base dissociation constant VII General Acid Base Reaction HA aq BaqBHaq Aaq A differ by H 1 Proton ping pong 2 NO proton ping pong in STRONG ACIDS bc acid always donates H ONE WAY RXN 3 Strong acids have WEAK conjugate bases B Water amphiprotic can act as acid or base 1 Kw H30 OH 1 x 10quot14 2 pKw pH pOH C Acidic Solution H30gtOHgt1 X 10quot7 pHlt7 D Basic Solution H30ltOHlt1 X 10quot7 pHgt7 VIII Binary Acids HnX where H hydrogen and X nonmetal atom A Why are some strongsome weak LOOK AT X 1 Acid strength increases ACROSS a period and DOWN a group 2 Strength depends on how happy X is to receive an electron all electrons go to X when bonds are broken 3 BIGGER atoms have more room to put an extra electron IX Oxy Acids HnXOm nonmetal hydroxides A Process of determining strength of acid 1 Look at X apply preVious rule stated in A 1 2 Look at number of oxygens m as m increases acid strength increases 3 Called X Qrboxvlic Acids organic A Structure COOH R group 1 Stronger R group stronger acid 2 Carbonoxygen are more e1ectronegative than usual XI XII Value of Kc gt lt 1 lt 0 1 The stronger the acid the more it wants to GIVE AWAY H 2 Stronger acidstronger base always on SAME SIDE 3 Stronger acids push reaction to other side left so Kc on left Bases Metal hvdrides Metal hvdroxides metal oxides dissolved in water Amines POW guru Anions are BASES A 1 Conjugate bases of HA weak acid 2 Kw Ka HX Kb X Cations are ACIDS 1 Conjugate acids of B 2 Very weak acids LI Na etc because they immediately dissociate in H20 because part of strong bases Metal cations no H Polvprotic acids HnX 1 Gets harder to remove successive protons H 2 Ka1 HnX gt K212 Hn1X gt K213 Hn2X Chapter 19 Overall Process A Steps 1 Get correct concentrations M nV M1V1 M2V2 2 Remove spectator ions from consideration gt quotquot Spectator ions Conjugate acids of STRONG BASES and conjugate bases of STRONG ACIDS Li Na K Rb Cs Sr2 Ba2 Cl Br I NO3 C104 3 Neutralize using a SCAN chart start before neutralization change after neutralization 4 Identify what s affecting H30 and OH and Calculate XIII Neutralization Acid basesaltwater A B Use SCAN chart where you know C because you use the amount of the limiting reactant 1 Start Change in limiting reactant After Neutralization SC half way to neutral 11 buffer solution IDEAL buffer


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