Midterm 1 Study guide
Midterm 1 Study guide GEOG 204
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michelle Pope on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 204 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Chen, ZCidell, J in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 217 views. For similar materials see Cities of the World in Geography at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Midterm 1 Study guide: Facts and figures: World population that lives in cities: 54% North American population in cities: 82% Middle American population in cities: 73% South American population in cities: 83% Middle Eastern population in cities: 62% Megacities: New York: about 8.4 million Los Angeles: about 4 million Mexico City: about 8.8 million Sao Paolo: 11.32 million* Buenos Aires: 16.6 million* Rio: 6 million* Cairo: 12 million* Istanbul: 14.03 million *metropolitan area over 20 million Definitions: Capital City: “head cities”; headquarters of government functions City: large, densely populated place that is legally incorporated as a municipality. Colonial City: two types of cities that focus on commercial functions, has peculiar situation requirements, and a blend of Western urban forms with traditions indigenous cultures. Type 1: European city was created where no significant urban place had existed previously Type 2: European city was grafted onto an existing indigenous urban place, becoming the dominant growth pole for that city and overwhelming the original inhabitant center in size and importance Conurbation: extended urban area, consisting of several towns merging with the suburbs of one or more cities Galactic Metropolis: how economic and spatial structure reinforced connections among seemingly disparate spatial elements that created a geometry that favored urban centers Industrial City: economy based on production of manufactured goods Megacity: a large city, typically with a population over 10 million people Megalopolis: “mother city”; a very large, heavily populated city or urban complex Metropolis Area: large and densely populated city or group of towns that make up an urban complex Metropolitan Area: region consisting of a densely populated urban core and a less populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing New Town: planned urban center created in an underdeveloped or rural area, especially with government sponsorship Preindustrial City: “traditional city”; founded and grew before the 19 andh th 20 centuries; very different characteristics from industrial cities; central markets, pedestrian quarters, architecture and predated the industrialization Postindustrial City: in world’s wealthiest countries; economy tied to high service sector employment; mainly headquarters for corporations or for governmental and intergovernmental organizations Primate City: defined solely by size and function; tendency of some counties to have one exceptionally large city that is economically dominant and culturally expressive of national identity Rank-size Rule: alternative to primacy; population of a particular city should be equal to the population of the country’s largest city divided by its rank Site: land of where a city is built Situation: city’s location in relation to surrounding human and physical features Socialist City: cities that evolved under communist regimes Post-Socialist City: cities that are breaking away from the strict urban plans and building businesses as individuals and making their own business decisions th Suburbia: product of 20 century automobile-centric development; intermediate population density, landscapes dominated by trees, grassy yards and single family homes; separation of residential, commercial, and industrial land uses; political jurisdictions that are independent of the urban area’s incorporated central cities Sustainable City: meets the needs of the present without sacrificing the ability of future generations to meet their own needs; attempts to create well-being for multiple species in four domains: ecology, economics, politics, and culture Urbanism: political, economic, and social aspects of the urban way of life Urbanization: two main phases; phase one is population density and economic functions; phase two is social, psychological and behavioral Urban Agglomeration: physical contiguity created by continued urban and suburban expansion around a central urban place, or places Urban Area: built-up area where buildings, roads, and essentially urban land uses predominate, even beyond political boundaries of cities and towns Urban Place: a place where the economy is no longer tied to agriculture or other primary activities Urban Landscapes: manifestations of thoughts, deeds, and actions of human beings; economic, cultural, political, and environmental values of the people who created them World City: function as command-and-control centers of the world economy; defined by financial centrality (IE New York, London, Tokyo) Questions from class: 1. Basic industries are industries that are central to the surrounding economy. Non-basic industries are not as important industries in the surrounding economy. Cities need both to prosper because the basic industry creates the economy of the city and the non-basic helps bring in more people and sustain them in the city. a. EX: In Champaign, a basic industry is education because of the University of Illinois located in the region. A non-basic industry in Champaign is gas production located in the region. 2. Site is the land of where a city is built. Situation is the city’s location in relation to surrounding human and physical features. If the site and situation of a city is good, we can assume that the city is well off and has been in that location for a while. If the site or situation of a city is bad, then we can assume that the city is not well off or has not been in that location for a while. a. EX: Brazilia does not have a good site because it is more inland that the other cities in Brazil. There are many companies there but it does not have that much life on weekends because people would rather go to Rio. 3. In Los Angeles, there are many rules about car emissions because of all the smog in the area. All the smog in the area is caused by these car emissions and factories but it also doesn’t go away because of the basin-like topography of the city. The mountains trap the smog in the area. This is an example of politics are inevitably ecological and ecology is inherently political because of this. There are laws to help clean the air in LA because of the geography of the city. The geography of the city is also political because of where the factories and the roadways are located which makes the smog worse and causes the laws to be in place. This ecology and political relationship is in New Orleans. New Orleans has a bad situation because of the hurricane zone and because some of the city in below sea level. There are laws and plans in the city because of the hurricanes and the hurricanes make such an impact because of the situation of the city. 4. The creative class thesis is a theory that the “creative class” are young and educated people that move into cities. Companies want these young people to become entrepreneurs and such to develop and create new technology or services to improve the economy or the companies. These people drive the economy and the development of new technologies. Previous urban economic development were people working in factories who did not have a high education level. A critique of the creative class was that it was creating a newer environment in the city but not in the areas that needed to be worked on. This made the people living in this area angry. 5. The three location based factors that lead to Europeans colonizing Middle America and not anyone else were the proximity of the country, the locations of the cities in Europe, and the trade winds to help the ships get to the Americas. The Europeans were closer to Middle American than anyone else. The cities in Europe were on the sea rather than the ones in Africa that were farther away and more inland. The trade winds were in a perfect spot for European travelers. If the Africans tried to get to Middle America, the trade winds would prove to be a hindrance rather than a useful source. 6. Europeans were the most colonized and civilized at the time that Middle America was founded. They had better technology which helped them discover Middle America. The Portuguese were more about trading, not settling but they were the ones that brought the first slaves to the country. The Spanish were more interested in colonialism and brought plants and animals. They also introduced new diseases to the environment which killed most of the previous inhabitants. 7. The Latin American city model has 6 sections. The center square, which has the church and government buildings; the spine, which has the central business district at the head and skyscrapers are built along the spine; the zone of maturity, which is where the old buildings of the city are located; the in situ accretion zone, which in the location of the unstable population; the Periferico, which is the highway system; and Colonias Populares, which are the new arrival neighborhoods, the poorer are towards the outskirts. The spine is where all the business buildings are located. This influences were all the factories are in the city. This also influences the infrastructure because as the business district grows, the more businesses want to locate there. This makes the spine longer and influences where the workers in those businesses live. 8. US politics has influenced urban migration within Mexico and between Mexico and the US because of NAFTA, The North America Free Trade Agreement. This agreement lowered tariffs to almost nothing which influenced where people moved in Mexico. A lot of people moved to the border cities of Mexico to work because of the doubling of trade. They also moved into the US because of the trading. 9. The Madres de Plaza de Mayo were mothers of people who “disappeared” in South America. More than 30,000 people disappeared because they were opponents of the military dictators that were in control of the government in the 1970s. The government either killed or tortured the opponents but did not tell anyone that they were killing people because they would be responsible. The mothers set up a secret organization to try to find their loved ones in the city square. They might not have been able to do this in other regions because some countries do not have a city square or they might have more intense rules about talking in the city squares if they were under a dictatorship. 10. The role of Sao Paolo is the financial center of the country. Its main industry is the service sector is called the “New York of Brazil”. The role of Rio is more of a vacation spot. It recently hosted the 2016 Olympics and is a fun entertainment city. It is the cultural capital of Brazil and called the “Los Angeles of Brazil”. Brazilia is Brazil’s capital. It hosts all the government buildings of the country. It is said to be a failed city because of its situation. It is car dependent and very expensive to live there. 11. The death toll is very low in Chile when there are massive earthquakes because the people are ready for them. The residents build their structures to help withstand the earthquakes. The people also live offshore where the result of earthquakes can be tsunamis. The residents also have drills and training to prepare when the earthquakes occur. 12. The Law of the Indies was a set of plans written for the location and layout of new cities by the Spanish crown. The central plaza and the grid system of the Spanish colonial cities that were built lasted even when the political and economic conditions changed. The financial center and the harbors of the foundation site are still recognizable in the city of Santiago. This foundational site influenced how other cities were built in South America. 13. The first two “zones” of the city are where the citadel is and the old city. A wall was built around this when the city was first getting built. As time went on, the city expanded into the “new city” zones, and then the “modern city” zone was added onto the current zones outside the walls. The last zone to be built was the “urban expansion” zone. These zones all link to different time periods because one can see as he or she enters each zone the buildings of each and see how old they are. 14. Cairo’s growth depended on managing its waterways because water from the Nile made very fertile soil. The people of Cairo needed to manage the flooding of the river in order to know when to plant and harvest their crops. Doing this lead to economical sustainability and the city grew because of this. 15. The Gulf states are different from other Greater Middle East because they are much smaller than the other countries, their economies depended on the production and sale of pearls, and the late independence of the countries. The states also don’t guarantee citizenship, even if a person is born there. The states pay their citizens subsidies based on the work they do. The economy is trying to diversify with the building of instant cities and trying to get people from around the world to visit but their economies mostly depend on oil. 16. In Kurish cities, it depends on a woman’s social class if she is in public space or not. If a woman is rich, she is rarely seen out on the streets or markets because she has servants that do the work for her. If a woman is not so rich, she is in the streets and markets because she is not wealthy enough to have servants to do those things for her. In the suburbs of the Kurish cities, it is somewhat the opposite. There are more public recreational spaces in the suburbs than in the cities. Here, there are more wealthy women who are outside enjoying this space whereas the less wealthy are not seen because they either do not have access to this space or cannot afford to live in the suburbs. Regions and city layouts North America Concentric circles Sector model Multiple nuclei Middle America Law of the Indies o Central plaza surrounded by key buildings Middle East Citadel o Gridded, narrow streets Old City South America Historic center square New City Central business Modern City Urban Expansion district Spine Zone of maturity (filtering) In situ accretion zone Periferico’ Colonias populares (poor people)
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