FAD 2230 Exam 1 Study Guide
FAD 2230 Exam 1 Study Guide FAD2230
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Carstens on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FAD2230 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Mallory Greer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
FAD2230 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1: Why Study Families? o Families are a central social institution o Microsystem Family, School, Peers o Exosystem Who am I in the context of my surroundings? Government How do you define family? o A relationship by blood, marriage or affection o Cooperate economically, care for children, consider their identity to be connected Types of Family o Family of Orientation/Origin o Family of Procreation o Fictive Kin Why define family? o Shared meaning o Social implications o Policy implications Purpose of family o Economic cooperation o Care, warmth, protection and intimacy o Reproduce and socialize children o Regulate sexual behavior o Understanding social placement, status and roles Social Structure o Patterns of social organization that guide our interactions with others Themes o Micro-level perspectives and macro-level perspectives Micro: Focused on the individual and his/her interactions Macro: Focused on how relationships are interconnected with society and social structure o Families are always changing Needs change so families change Monogamy vs. Polygamy Patterns of Authority Patriarchy Matriarchy Egalitarian o The importance of social science research Quantitative Research Numbers Qualitative Research Words Different goals of research Describe phenomenon Examine factors associated with the phenomenon Explain cause and effect Examine meanings and experiences o How do we study families? Research Question Theory Hypothesis Research Methodology Chapter 2: Social Location o We have different experiences based on our location in society Social imagination o Personal experiences are shaped by forces within our society o How society empowers or constrains us Gender vs. Sex o Sex: Biological differences o Gender: Characteristics that a society delineates as masculine or feminine o The Gender Similarities Hypothesis Males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological findings 78% of “gender differences” were small or not apparent at all Different in 2 areas Motor performance Measures of sexuality o Why does everyone talk about the differences? Gender socialization: we are taught the cultural norms for being a male/female Agents of socialization: who teaches us these norms Most influential: parents How does gender influence relationships? Patriarchy Rae vs. Ethnicity o Race: real or perceived physical traits deemed important by society o Ethnicity: Shared cultural characteristics o Prejudice: attitude o Stereotypes: judgment o Discrimination: action/behavior Individual discrimination Institutional discrimination o Privilege Different opportunities you’re not often aware of Social Class o Socioeconomic Status Occupational prestige Education Income o How does social class influence relationships? Think about the family you were born into vs. Honey Boo Boo or Prince William o Social Stratification Hierarchal ranking of people within society o American Dream: Social Mobility Upward movement from one class to another Family Stress Model (Conger et al) Financial hardship Parent Distress Disrupted Family Relations Child Adjustment (behavior issues) How do we study families? o Research Question o Theory Our “lens of families” Provides basic assumptions about nature and society o Hypothesis o Research Methodology Chapter 3: Rational Choice/ Social Exchange Theory Utility o Ability of something to satisfy needs or wants o Quality or state of being useful, profitable or beneficial Framework o Utilitarianism Individuals rationally weight the rewards and costs associated with behavioral choices Exchange Theory o Examines motivation o Assumptions The individual is real Methodological individualism Prediction and understanding by understanding the individuals Actors are motivated by self interest Actors are rational o Concepts Rewards and costs Profits/ maximizing utility Comparison level Comparing yourself to someone in the same position Comparison level for alternatives Comparing yourself to someone in a different situation Rationality Value of rewards change over time Exchanges and equity in relationships Human capital and social capital Human: knowledge, skills, techniques Social capital: Relationships between people Generalizable sources of rewards o Propositions Actors will choose whichever behavior maximizes profit In a situation with no rewards, actors seek to minimize costs What does exchange theory tell us about families? o Voluntaristic notion: why we choose to engage in a relationship Chapter 4: Symbolic Interactionism (*Dr. Greer’s favorite*) Symbols have meaning o We pay attention to how events and things are interpreted o Symbol: any sign agreed upon by convention System must be relatively stable Must have shared meaning Symbols can be phased out Looking Glass Self (Charles Horton Cooley) o We see ourselves based on interactions with others and how they see us o We may see something to be true about ourselves simply because another has said it so many times Focus o The acquisition and generation of meaning o Relationships require shared meaning Assumptions o Human behavior must be understood by the meaning of the actor o Actors define the meaning of context and situation o Individuals have minds (memory, thought, processing information) Concepts o Self I and me What did I do? What happened to me? o Socialization How we learn what symbols mean o Role and role taking Expectations of different roles need to be understood o Identity Understanding which role is primary o Definition of the situation Chapter 6: General Systems Theory Framework o The whole is greater than the sum of its parts o Members influence the family system Assumptions o All parts of the system are interconnected o Understanding is only possible by viewing the whole o Systems are heuretics, not real things You can’t touch a system Concepts o System: distinguishable objects and relations You can see the differences between systems o Subsystems Ex: Parental, sibling, parent-child o Boundaries Between the system and environment Between members of the system Different relationships between each member o Rules of Transformation Rules and interactions o Variety Presence of diverse resources to meet demands Propositions o The adaptability of the family system is Positively related to variety in a system Negatively related to tension in the system Theories help us make sense of relationships and understand why/how people behave in a certain manner Chapter 7: Building Relationships Four types of single o Voluntary temporary singles College students focusing on school o Voluntary stable singles Nuns o Involuntary temporary singles Someone who was just dumped o Involuntary stable singles Widow Research Methods o Quantitative vs. Qualitative o Surveys o In-depth interviews Can catch nonverbal ques o Experiments o Focus Group Getting together to talk about a specific topic o Observational Studies No intervention o Secondary Analysis Someone else collects the data and then you analyze it Why date? o Fun o Social norm o Social status o Desire for marriage/ family/ mate selection o Desire for intimacy o Assortive mating You don’t consider marrying everyone you date o Micro vs. Macro level influences Micro: Homogamous relationships: usually due to propinquity (geographic closeness Pool of eligibles Social Exchange Theory o Comparison level: Comparison of your current partner to what you believe you deserve OR to someone else in a similar situation’s partner o Comparison level for alternatives: Comparison of your current partner to other potential partners o Principle of least interest: the person with the least interest in the relationship has the most power (less to lose) Implications: Relationship quality and stability Macro: Dating scripts o Expectations about dating Pool of eligibles o Differences based on race/ethnicity and social status Cohabitation o Living together, but not married o People who cohabitate are more likely to have an unhappy marriage and get divorced Correlation: Her primary question is to find out whether having an alcoholic parent causes this Comparison level: Someone is considering transferring to a school closer to home because she feels homesick (she is comparing herself to what she thinks she would feel in a different situation)
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