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PSY370 Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Holly Houser

PSY370 Exam 2 Study Guide PSY370

Marketplace > University of Miami > Psychlogy > PSY370 > PSY370 Exam 2 Study Guide
Holly Houser
GPA 3.676
Human Sexual Behavior
Franklin Foote

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Human Sexual Behavior
Franklin Foote
Study Guide
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This 31 page Study Guide was uploaded by Holly Houser on Sunday March 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY370 at University of Miami taught by Franklin Foote in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 100 views. For similar materials see Human Sexual Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 03/29/15
PSY370 Second Test Study Guide SEXUAL RESPONSE 1 Know the nature of Masters and Johnson39s model Arousal happens in a continuous manner Very few men have multiple orgasms like women do Tantric sex man can train himself to have multiple orgasms but difficult 0 To have multiple orgasms cannot ejaculate until the last one Resolution very quick compared to arousal Some women can have several orgasm all women capable 2 orgasms before leave plateau stage multi orgasmic multiple orgasms can increasedecreaseremain intensity some women never reach orgasm resolution is slower B way 6070 women never orgasm through coitus alone 2 Master s and Johnson s Model 4 Stages 0 MALE o Excitement I Penis becomes erect I Scrotum thickens I Heart rate blood pressure increase 0 Plateau I Full erection I Deep red purple I Fluid from Cowper s gland I Testes elevated 50 bigger vasocongestion I Scrotum thickens I Prostate enlarges o Orgasm I Muscles contract I Seminal uid I Ej aculatory inevitability cum when muscles start to conctract 0 Resolution I After orgasm erection goes down quickly I Younger man will not become completely accid if he isn t orgasming often I Soles of feet get thin sheet of perspiration FEMALE 0 Excitement o Plateau Vasocongestion Labiaclitoris engorged Spreading of labia Clitoris will elongate and expand Blood pressure increases Engorges further Clitoris seems to disappear bc labia swells Labia minora bright red if woman hasn t given birth Bartholin uid 0 Orgasm Vulva same as plateau 0 Resolution Everything returns to normal size FEMALE BREASTS o Excitement Size increases Nipple becomes erect Flush super cial veins become more visible 0 Plateau amp Orgasm Size increases up to 25 Areolar engorgement may partially hide nipple Sex ush generally appears Super cial veins become more noticeable 0 Resolution Return to unaroused size in 510 minutes Rapid disappearance of sex ush Rapid loss of tumescence in nipples and areola Takes longer for breasts to return to normal than other parts FEMALE UTERUS o Excitement o Plateau Vagina lubricates because of vasocongestion Walls of vagina separate Uterus moves up Uterus almost form straight line with vagina I Outer vagina forms orgasmic platform thickens I Inside of vagina expands outward to make cavity ballooning tenting I Sweating high blood pressure 0 Orgasm I Rhythmic contractions along outer walls I Uterus contracts 0 Resolution I Back to normal rapidly 3 What are vasocongestion and myotonia and how do they relate to Masters and Johnson39s model Vasocongestion accumulation of blood in blood vessels of a region of the body especially in the genitals swelling or erection usually occurs 0 Produces erection in males amp lubrication in females excitement and plateau stages Myotonia Muscle contraction muscle tension 0 In excitement and plateau stages 4 How can a man tell if a woman has experienced an orgasm Very difficult Some women ejaculate but otherwise no way Sudden increase in pulse rate 5 What do many women typically experience when they have an orgasm Spreading sensation o Begins around clitoris spreads outward through whole pelvis Sensation of falling or opening up Contraction of the muscles 0 Similar in men and women 6 So what39s up with vaginal and clitoral orgasms Refers to the region of stimulation Distinction originated by Freud o Clitoral orgasm infantile masturbation I vaginally frigid or fixated if you couldn t move to next orgasm type 0 Vaginal Orgasm mature sexual intercourse 0 Masters and Johnson I Found that all orgasms physiologically the same regardless of stimulation I Contraction of the orgasmic platformclitoral stimulation 9almost always involved in producing orgasm I Usually the trigger to orgasm then orgasm occurs in vagina 7 What is known about female ejaculation Region responsible in Grafenberg Spot G Spot skene s gland female prostate 0 Located on top side of vagina halfway between pubic bone amp cervix o Ducts open into urethra o Stroking produces urge to urinate continue stroking for sexual pleasure o Uterine orgasm First mentioned by Perry and Whipple It is believed that the region responsible for female ejaculation is the Gspot though it s unclear how many women even have a Gspot and of those that do it s unclear how many ejaculate due to Gspot manipulation although in one survey 40 of women reported having ejaculated at orgasm at least once The ejaculation comes out of the urethral opening and it is certainly not urine it originates in the skene s glands analogous to the male prostate whose ducts empty into the urethra The orgasm is sometimes called a uterine orgasm as it is characterized by deeper sensations of uterine contractions 8 What female organ is now usually considered to be responsible for the Gspot and to what male organ is it considered homologous Region responsible in Grafenberg Spot G Spot skene s gland female prostate 0 Located on top side of vagina halfway between pubic bone amp cervix o Ducts open into urethra o Stroking produces urge to urinate continue stroking for sexual pleasure Homologous to prostate in males 9 What happens with women and what happens with men when they have multiple orgasms Series of orgasms within a short period of time First discovered by Kinsey Later orgasms require less work than first ones Don t enter into refractory period after orgasm like men 0 Can immediately be aroused again Most likely to occur from handgenital mouth genital stimulation Some women report having up to 50 orgasms not typical MEN some orgasms included ejaculation some didn t doesn t happen every time 10 What are the limitations and criticisms of Masters and Johnson39s model Ignored psychosocial phenomenon o Aware of this purposely didn t include because studying so much Participants had to be orgasmic o 20 of adult women never had orgasm 0 Model too male oriented o Mechanistic lf you do not follow 4 phases you are not sexual ll Kaplan s Triphasic Model PsychoPhysiological Stages 0 Sexual Desire I Psychological I Before excitement general interest in having sex I Added because of criticism of Masters and Johnson I Emotions stop I Can occur spontaneously or as a result of excitement o Vasocongestion of the Genitals I Physiological I Corresponds to Masters and Johnson s excitement and plateau 0 Release and Reversal I Physiological I Corresponds to orgasm amp resolution B Good for variability in women 12 Reed s Erotic Stimulus Pathway Theory Only psychological aspects not much empirical support Stages 0 Seduction I Desire and initial excitement think about sex and how to excite partner 0 Sensations I Similar to excitement stage in Masters and Johnson I Person is experiencing pleasure I Feelings toward other person enhanced I Start ignoring the world focus on pleasure I Senses more acute I Possible time distortion I Relatively long stage 0 Surrender I Later plateaubeginning orgasm I Give in to total sensation of pleasure I High pleasure of arousal I Let go of guilt I World is unperceived I Time distortionhallucinations I Thought people who couldn t orgasm weren t surrendered 0 Resolution I Re ection I Bring meaning to experience I Tranquility serenity I Selfdisclosure I Feel competent sexually feel closeness I If things go badly feel shame guilt less likely to enter seduction phase again The real big difference is that this model focused much more on the psychological processes than the physiological processes 13 What is the basic paradigm behind Walen and Roth39s model Perception and evaluation of sexual events Nothing happens unless we perceive that something is a sexual stimulus 14 What types of motivation are there for sexual interactions according to Basson39s model What is unique about Basson s model Biological and Psychological motivation for sexual interactions 0 Motivation emotions drive sexual arousal wanting closeness and intimacy Unique 0 takes into account emotional satisfaction and intimacy o More feminine point of view emotions come first them sexual desire Most typical model for women s arousal This model relates to women and older men 15 Remember that Walen and Roth39s model and Basson39s model directly include feedback whereas Masters and J ohnson39s and Kaplan39s do not Reed39s does so indirectly 16 What family of hormones is related to sexual desire in both females and males Androgens 0 Include testosterone and estrogen 0 Related to sexual desire in males and females Limbic System 0 Very important in sexual desire SEXUAL BEHAVIOR 1 Contrast partial celibacy and complete celibacy Partial Celibacy no sex with anyone do masturbate Complete Celibacy no sex or masturbation 2 Recognize primary and secondary erogenous zones 0 Primary 0 Erogenous for everyone I Genitals I Lips I Anus I Breasts ipples Secondary o Erogenous for some but not all I Neck I Inner Thighs I Ears I Behind the knee common but often unexplored I Lower back I Inner wrists I Collar bone I Scalp I Toes shrimping I Butt I Palm of the hand 3 What are the consequences of sexual fantasies What is implied by someone fantasizing during coitus Sexual Fantasy thoughts or images that alter a person s emotions of physiological state 0 Types Intimate Exploratory Sadomasochistic Impersonal Women much more likely to orgasm with fantasy Fantasize once a day 54 men 19 women 0 Average number per day men 72 women 45 Men s fantasies more visually explicit Fantasy during two person sex is a positive thing 4 Understand sexuality issues with people who are mentally retarded or have spinal cord injuries Spinal Cord Injuries ability to have sex varies 0 May sometimes be aroused by touch 0 Men generally cannot ejaculate cant feel physical stimulation I Usually can have an erection elevation of testes increased heart rate 0 Women I Still have engorgement of clitoris labia I Erection of nipples I Some able to have orgasm from stimulation of genitals Mental Retardation 0 Need training and detailed instructions of what to do 0 Needs models 5 Know approximate of adult men adult women college men and college women who masturbate Adults 0 Men I 27 more than once a week I 62 more than once a year 0 Women I 8 more than once a week I 42 more than once a year College Students 0 Male I 61 more than once a week I 89 more than once a year 0 Female I 27 more than once a week I 60 more than once a year 6 What are dildos how commonly are they used Dildo rubber or plastic cylinder shaped like a penis Not very commonly used 20 of women put something in them when they masturbate 7 Know and understand the advice given to heterosexual men and women K m 2 00000000 Think outside the box If you see it in a porno movie ask her before trying it Kissing is good very good Start touching gently and at the periphery There There Yes Yes Doesn t mean harder and faster Sexually tease her Foreplay beings long before you get to the bed Stimulate her where she wants the way she wants when she wants for how long she wants WOMEN O 0 Find some clear way to communicate to him where you want to be stimulated how you want to be stimulated when you want it and for how long you want it Initiate sexual activities some of the time On average men like to receive more aggressiverough sex play than you do If and only if you are in a good wellestablished longterm relationship push yourself to try new things If on a date you are interested in being sexual with him give clear unambiguous signals Avoid Faking Orgasm 8 Know what terms mean Analingus mouth stimulation of partner s anus Aphrodisiac substance that increases sexual desire no one has really found anything to truly work BDSM 0 00000 0 BD bondage and discipline physical and psychological restraints DS dominance and submission dominant humiliates submissive SM sadomasochism one in icting pain on the other safe sane consensual varies by type intensity of time degree of usual sexual response most common spanking no coitus at BDSM parties no drinkingdrugs Cunnilingus woman receiving oral sex Fellatio man receiving oral sex Fisting insert fist into vagina lnterfemoral intercourse Man puts penis between thighs lntromission insertion of penis into the vagina Sixtynine soixanteneuf mutual oral sex Tantric Sex 0 Based on Hinduism Buddhism yoga o Humans are exquisitely sensual organism with vast capacity for pleasure potential to open ourselves to the divine 0 Three Levels of Consciousness I Gross I Subtle I Very Subtle o Emphasis on cosmology and all of life raise psychosexual energy with mantras yantras breath control meditation Mind body thought emotion all integrated Absolute truthfulness and compassion free of shame and guilt Sex emotional intimate prayer to divine 0000 Sexual ecstasy awareness of one s own and partner s body prolonged sex play delay and control of orgasm Tribadism rubbing vulvas together scissoring 9 Know the bene ts and limitations of different positions for intercourse Missionary position most common Woman on top 0 often better clitoral stimulation amp woman greater sense of control 0 man less likely to ejaculate very quickly especially if man remains passive Rear entry 0 often greatest gspot stimulation 0 penetration can be shallow increased if she lowers her shoulders Side to side 0 Both are relaxed watch legarmhandfoot not trapped lose blood ow so good for leisurely prolonged coitus o penetration tends to be shallow Sitting Standing 10 Understand the basic principles of coitus presented in class Person on top has more control of depth rhythm type of motion Person on bottom can attain control by planting feet In man on top greater depth gained if woman s hips are raised in some way Be sure everyone has adequate support and control of balance 11 Understand coital variations beyond differences in position Keep hands feet lips tongue busy Don t have to by cylinder piston Vary timelocation Toys and props 12 Know the practices for safer anal intercourse Liberally lubricate Go slow Good hygiene 13 Know the safer sex practices for f1sting Huge amounts of lubricant Go very very slowly good hygiene Start with 1 finger then 2 then 3 etc then hand and make fist instead person s body 14 What are the possible consequences of blowing air into a pregnant woman39s vagina Has been known to cause death damage to the placenta and embolism caused by air getting trapped in placenta 15 What is the name of the most popular type of vibrator among women who insert vibrators during masturbation The rabbit 16 Compare and contrast sexual techniques of gay males and lesbians with those of heterosexual couples Lesbians and gay males engage in longer foreplay Lesbians caress breasts and nipples more Gay males spend more time on nipples In heterosexual sex more concern for male s orgasm Preliminaries are the same as for heterosexual couples kissing hugging petting 17 What oral technique has the greatest risk for disease transmission if no precautions are taken 0 Analingus 18 Recognize all the true ie all that actually work aphrodisiacs Alcohol Marijuana Organic foods may enhance sexual functioning Viagra Cialis 19 Recognize when a fetish has crossed the boundary to abnormal behavior Abnormal when it becomes a necessity 20 What limits in iction of actual damage to people in BDSM especially in BDSM clubs Using a safe word 9person on bottom says it to stop session Decide ahead of time what will be done No drinkingdrugs 21 Based on Moser s study what recreational drugs are allowed at BDSM parties NONE 22 Understand Baumeister39s theory of masochism Motivated by a desire to escape from selfawareness Behavior helps the individual escape from being conscious of the self 0 Similar to drunkenness or meditation Male role especially burdensome 0 Heavy pressure for autonomy separateness individual achievement Accomplishes an escape from these aspects of the male role A o Explains why masochism is more common among males 23 Be able to identify all the paraphilias discussed in class and in the textbook Voyeurism looking at people who are naked or undressing without their knowledge and become sexually aroused o Scoptophilia looking at people having sex secretly without their knowledge Exhibitionism someone who derives sexual pleasure by exposing their genitals to others when they do not wish to see them Frotteurism sexual fantasies of rubbing genitals or bodies with a nonconsenting person 0 Usually try to escape before their victim knows who did it Pedophilia urge or desire to have sex with a child before puberty Sexual abuse is the actual act Some people have the desire but do not commit the behavior some abuse children for other reasons Ephebophile older person who wants to have sex with an adolescent someone who is not yet 18 Saliromania men who like soiling women s clothing ex Peeing on someone Coprophilia feces like being pooped on Hot and fresh in mouth Urophilia like being peed on golden shower Necrophilia like having sex with dead people Illegal but whose going to tell Zoophilia beastiality Varies by culture illegal in most places In US 28 of males have done this and 25 of females dogs most common 24 Regarding pedophilia About what percent of men and of women report recalling being sexually abused as a child 0 15 women 7 men How has this percent changed in recent years 0 The rates that people report sexual abuse are less than they were 2030 years ago How speci c are perpetrators of child sexual abuse about the age and gender of their victims 0 27 prefer boys 25 prefer girls 47 don t have a preference 0 Age varies 9 some have very specific ages and some don t care 0 Specificity of what type of child they consider desirable varies What are the effects of child sexual abuse in adulthood 0 Display more I depression anxiety eating disorders I alcohol and drug dependence I negative feelings about sex I diff1culty forming stable safe romantic relationships I sexual disorders lack of sexual desire lack of arousal About what is the rate of recidivism among people convicted of child sexual abuse 0 335 reoffend What factors affect the rate of their recidivism o Chances of reoffending a third time is much higher 0 If offense is incest or pseudo incest are less likely to reoffend than other 25 Understand the different facets of the speculative biopsychosocial model of the causes of paraphilias Sexual behavior PowerPoint slide 45 26 What helps to maintain sexual capacity into old age Be healthy in general 0 Exercise 0 Eat right Masters and Johnson say if you don t use it you lose it 27 Know approximately the percent of elderly people who remain interested in sex and who remain sexually active Masturbated o 40 Females 72 Males Had Sex 0 30 Females 63 Males Fantasized o 50 Females 70 Males 28 What sexual activity did the course instructor recommend everyone do Masturbate ATTRACTION LOVE AND INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS lDon t dwell Understand the basic concepts of evolutionary theory e g reproductive agendas and social cognitive theory e g environmental in uences schemas expectations interpersonal patterns scripts systemic causation generally and how they apply to sexuality and romance speci cally Evolutionary Theory o Instinct to reproduce o Oriented to adaptions necessary to huntergatherer acenstors from very many thousands of years ago 0 Looks at men and women differently I Men D get as many females pregnant to perpetuate genes U need to be picky to choose good female healthy relatively young I Women U Need man who is successful protector helper I Men more concerned with attractiveness Women more concerned with successfulness D Consistent but WEAK f1nding D Interviews both genders rate intelligence kindness and understanding higher Social Cognitive Theory 0 Environmental In uences outside forces individuals society via media and institutions and the manmade amp natural environment via I association classical conditioning I consequences operant conditioning I observation of others modeling D generalization D discrimination o One39s Own Cognitions attempts to make sense of and organize environmental in uences via I schemas framework for perceiving interpreting amp remembering new information and for creating expectations I expectations U instrumental performing a behavior leads to specific consequence U self efficacy The person39s belief that he or she will be able to perform the behavior successfully o Interpersonal Tendencies I Interactional Patterns habitual way of interacting with a specific other person D How we train each other when we interact with each other as individuals I m eXpected chain of actions and responses in an interpersonal situation 0 Cultural U Interpersonal U Intrapsychic 0 Systemic Causation Sexual Attraction Love Relationships PP slide 6 2 Know and recognize the effects of on interpersonal attraction Propinquity being physically near someone makes you aware of their existence The more you are familiar with someone the more you like them 0 How physically close you are to someone Physical attractiveness main determinate of how much you like someone 0 Both men amp women are attractive if they have I Symmetrical face I Clear complexion I Large eyes I Prominent cheekbones I Big smile 0 Women also should have I Small nose I Small chin I Narrow cheeks I High eyebrows I Large pupils 0 Men also should have I Large chin 0 Women prefer mediocre nice guy than the good looking jerk but big limitation of study what we cognitively think may be different than how we actually behave 0 Ex Who would you actually make out with at a frat party 0 More likely to get a job if you re attractive 0 It s better to be more attractive unless you used your attractiveness to commit the crime easier sentences for more attractive people 0 We tend to like people we interact with 0 Ex Pass them in the hall every day amp look at them o The confederate who showed up to every class was more liked than the confederate who only showed up every second class or the confederate who showed up only to exams or who never showed up 0 Architecture gt you ll be more popular if you live somewhere that people see you coming in and out have runins with 0 Only variable that predicted who they liked after the dance was physical attractiveness same for men amp women Arousal makes you like people more 0 If someone likes running run next to them and start talking so some of their arousal will be transferred to you 0 Bridge study more aroused after danger got more phone calls 0 Arousal exaggerates what you are feeling so if you like a person you will like them more if aroused and like them less if you already do not Complementarity opposites attract 9 NOT TRUE Sex history 0 after about 2122 years old some are expected 0 does not really matter as long as its not extremely high Similarity o 1 determinant o No two people are exactly alike but will still be similar Success and wealth 0 women want someone who can support them playing hardtoget o In general guys don t want someone very easy but they don t want to be rejected 0 Guys want someone that is rejecting for other guys but easier for them 3 Know about pheromones and the vomeronasal organ in animals generally and in humans Pheromones o airborne biochemicals used to mark territory and for sexual attraction 0 Causes women s periods to be together Vomeronasal Organ 0 some say is separate from smell and can only pick up pheromones o All animals have it male monkeys react to ovulating females 0 In humans some say it is not important just have not evolved away from it yet I Not everyone has it 4 What does mutuality mean What creates intimacy Mutuality Weness 0 think as we say we are doing this not me and my boyfriend are doing this Intimacy is created through gradual and reciprocal self exposure Will increase in depth and breadth more self disclosure on more topics Intimacy Social Penetration Intimacy Theories 0 Don t typically get intimate in one aspect of our lives 0 Intimacy can be used to hurt another person 5 Know Fisher39s theory of love very well Love is not an emotion It is a motivation leads us to approach goal directed behavior 3 Components 0 Lust Sometimes called libido or sex drive Drives you to nd a mate Amygdala and hypothalamus o Attraction Romantic Love Attraction in animals romantic love in humans Obsessive person takes on special meaning Focus on what we like about the other person Infatuation phenylethelamine PEA cingulate cortex insula striatumcaudate nucleus hippocampus retrosplenial cortex phenylethylamine PEA dopamine epinephrene reduced serotonin Focuses on one person Obsessiveness Can t stop thinking about them They take on special significance amp meeting We focus on what we like about the other person We can recognize that they re not perfect but we don t pay much attention to those Intense hot literally Feels like a fever Related to infatuation but not the same thing Infatuation is a very immediate form of this Not under control Psychologists call it passionate love I Not an emotion it s motivation I We are motivated to be with this love object I The emotion is how we feel when the other person responds to us I If the other person responds similarly we feel ecstasy I If not we feel extreme disappointment amp hurt I At most it lasts 3 years 0 Attachment I Tolerance for long term companionship I Companionate love I Sense of contentment security and peace I insula striatum I oxytocin vasopressin dopamine 6 Understand and recognize passionate and companionate love Passionate Love lasts a MAXIMUM of 3 years Long Term Relationships are based on companionate love 7 Recognize the different styles of love What predictions does the styles of love theory make about which couples will have the best relationship Agapealtruistic o A giving selfsacrificing love only happy if their beloved is happy Erosromantic 0 An all consuming emotional experience very strong physical attraction high in extroversion agreeableness conscientiousness low in neuroticism Ludusgameplaying o No commitment high in neuroticism low in agreeableness Maniapossessive 0 Get intensely jealous easily correlated with neuroticism Pragmapractical 0 Have a checklist with specific qualities Storgefriendship 0 Love based on friendship comfortable with intimacy sharing warmth extroverted and conscientious not neurotic Better to have someone that matches your style of love The best style of love is a combination of Bros and Agape 8 Understand the components of Stemberg39s triangle of love theory and what it says is needed for a relationship to be satisfying 3 Components o Intimacy emotional component 0 Passion motivational 0 Decision commitment under complete cognitive control others are not Liking and intimacy alone 0 true friendships without passion or long term commitment Romantic Love 0 intimacy and passion o Lovers are physically and emotionally attracted to each other but without commitment ex Summer romance Infatuation o passion alone 0 Passionate obsessive love at first sight without intimacy or commitment Fatuous Love 0 passion and commitment 0 Commitment based on passion but without time for intimacy to develop 0 shallow relationship such as a whirlwind courtship Empty love 0 commitment alone 0 Decision to love each other without intimacy or passion Companionate love 0 intimacy and commitment 0 Long term committed friendship such as a marriage In which passion has faded Consummate Love 0 a complete love existing of all three components 0 An ideal that is difficult to obtain Best couples have similar or close matched involvements and triangles 9 Know and understand the dimensions and types of attachments in attachment theory Scales are high trust in others 69 avoidance vertical And anxiety high self worth horizontal Secure 0 high trust in others and high self worth 0 enjoy exploring in relationships positive ideas high self esteem trust lasting and satisfying relationships Preoccupied 0 high trust in others and anxiety 0 low self esteem high trust think they are unworthy vulnerable clingy needy Fearfulavoidant o anxiety and avoidance 0 low self esteem low trust 0 Avoid relationships Avoidant people want to be in control want distance don t care about others erotophobic o Anxious people are hyperactive clingy seem controlling use sex as a gauge because they like being nurtured avoid abandonment sex is barometer for love desperate though so tend not to have good sex Dismissive 0 high self esteem low trust in others 0 No one is good enough fear closeness because no one is good enough 10 How do anxious avoidant and secure attachments affect sex and relationships in adults Bring their own personal history of love and attachment to romantic relationships 0 Prediction of attachment depends on quality of the relationship with each parent Con icts caused by mismatch of attachment styles Provides explanations for jealousy 11 How do securely attached couples handle con ict Respond constructively Make effort to discuss and solve problem 12 Understand about scripts in romanticsexual relationships People have scripts for what they think will happen in romantic relationships 13 What does Rusbult s Investment model attempt to predict According to the model what factors affect this outcome Attempts to predict the stability of the relationship Based on expectations such as rewards cost and comparison level 0 lead to satisfaction with relationship level of investment costly to leave time dog apartment etc and quality of alternatives better off alone with someone else Determine the commitment of the relationship All of this put together determines the stability of the relationship Love is like a business relationship and this model works well 14 What are relational dialectics Bipolar Dimensions o Openness versus Closedness o Autonomy versus Connection 0 Predictability versus Novelty These are dynamic always in ux no stable balance point 15 Understand pluralistic ignorance in the context of relationship formation Pluralistic Ignorance we aren t sure what to do so we look to see what others are doing but no one knows what to do so no one does anything Pluralistic ignorance occurs when two people are interested in each other and want to develop their relationship further but both of them think that the other is not interested l6 Understand the cognitive processes involved with dating Ideal partner amp relationship 0 Warm amp Trustworthy 0 Healthy Passionate amp Attractive 0 High Status amp Many Resources What if there is a discrepancy between this ideal amp reality 0 Discrepancy will be within one dimension not all three I if minor discrepancy gt rationalize idealreal inconsistencies o If segmentation is possible seek solace in activities with others 0 If cannot rationalize or segment try to change partner I Attempts at change usually result in lower relationship satisfaction 0 If view self Lery highly higher the standards for the ideal amp the lower the tolerance for idealreal inconsistencies I may be more likely to leave relationship 17 How do long distance relationships compare with proximal relationships Understand the consequent dialectics of long distance relationships Fairly common about 40 of college students Comparisons to proximal relationships 0 No difference in overall satisfaction 0 People in long distance relationships seem to idealize more The Consequent Dialectics of Long Distance Datingthe good amp the bad of long distance dating 0 Together excitement vs pressure 0 Separating refreshed amp rejuvenated vs the big letdown o Segmentation concentrate on one aspect of life vs greater sense of intrusion when cannot segment 19 Know Lawarence amp Byers Interpersonal Exchange Model of Sexual Satisfaction How widely has it been applied and what are the limitations in its research to date Sexual satisfaction a combination of rewards of sex costs of sex rewardcost relative to expectations and perceived equality of rewardscosts 20 What are the gender differences with respect to jealousy Emotional vs Sexual Girls are jealous if guys want a relationship with someone else Guys are jealous if girls want sex with someone else Men experience much more sexual jealousy whereas women are more likely to experience emotional jealousy 2 1 Understand how jealousy affects a relationship in both positive and negative ways Negative 0 Evolutionary Theory Explanation I Mate guarding I Induced jealousy I make my partner jealous I Fidelity checks I cause something that might make me jealous Positive 0 Induce constructive and effective communicating that lead to attempt to change problematic aspects 22 At what stage in a relationship is jealousy most likely When the relationship is starting to get serious 23 Know Walker s cycle of violence 9Tension explosion honeymoon Batterer will build tension by drinking picking ghts etc Abused will walk on eggshells After being beaten once or twice they know when he will explode Sometimes she will do something on purpose so he will beat her and the tension can be broken Then there is the honeymoon phase where he apologizes says he won t do it again 24 When is an abused partner most likely to be murdered by her or his abuser If the victim leaves whatever the abuser considers leaving 0 Could be leaving the house breaking up divorcing 25 Understand why an abused person may stay in an abusive intimate relationship including learned helplessness and the battered woman syndrome as one such reason Lack of Financial Resources Not Enough Shelter Resources or Other Safe Places to Go Threats of Murder Social Stigma Threats of Outing the Victim Religious Beliefs Immigration Issues Victim Blaming Wanting to Keep the Family Together Societal Acceptance Learned Helplessness O batteredwoman syndrome 26 Recognize the early warning signs of dating abuse Early Warning Signs of Dating Abuse 0 COO 0000 O 0 Is excessively jealous Checks in with you constantly or makes you check in with herhim Has an explosive temper or a history of ghting or abuses animals Tries to control you by giving orders e g telling you what you should and should not wear Puts down people who are important to you Believes in the stereotypical gender roles for males and females Gets too serious about the relationship too fast Does not accept responsibility for herhis actions e g Blames you when he she mistreats you tells you that you provoked herhim You fear you worry about how he she will react to things you say or do Won t let you break up with herhim 27 What is a wise thing to do after a relationship breakup Grieve the break up express emotions Elizabeth Kubler Ross 0 O Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance Need to go through all this before starting a new relationship Ex sex is not a good idea 28 In fact and according to stereotype which gender is more romantic Females 29 Understand attribution theory39s ideas on positive and distressed relationships Happy Couples Make RelationshipPromoting Attributions EVENT ATTRIBUTIONAL STYLE OUTCOME Global You are thoughtful in many areas of our relationship Stable Positive Internal You remembered You are a kind and You always treat our anniversary thoughtful person me this way WellBeing Negative External Unstable Speci c You forgot my You ve been very It probably won t You remember other birthday busy with work happen again important things Distressed Couples Make Relationship Harmmg Attributions EVENT ATTRIBUTIONAL STYLE OUTCOME Unstable Speci c You re usually not so You never remember Positive External You remembered Your secretary must thoughtful It won t other important our anniversary have reminded you happen again occasionsquot Distress Global This is just another example of your thoughtlessness Negative Internal Stable You forgot my You are an uncaring You always treat birthdayquot inconsiderate person me this wayquot 30 Know the effects of dopamine oxytocin phyenylethylamine and vasopression on sex and love AttractionPassionate Love 0 Dopamine I Focuses our attention 0 Phyenylethylamine I lnfatuation o Phases lasts 3 years or less AttachmentCompassionate Love 0 OxytocinNasopression o Tolerance for a long term relationship 0 Sense of contentment and security 31 Recognize how the cingulate cortex caudate nucleus hippocampus insula and amygdale are involved in love and lust What method is used to determine these structures involvement Attraction Passionate Love 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 o Cingulate cortex insula caudate nucleus hippocampus Lust 0 Amygdala o Gives us energy In which societies is love less important as a requirement for marriage Societies with arranged marriages China What type of tactic to encourage a dating partner to have sex showed a gender difference Men pressure and manipulate more 0 Alcohol persistent threaten to end relationship In retrospect how did people view their unrequited love relationships Rejector sees it as negative because they felt bad The one in love says it was a good experience because they felt euphoria How can married couples with dual careers and children nd time for sex Schedule Sex What status of couples have the most sex Couples who cohabitate have the most sex 0 Could be because it is still early in their relationship married couples have probably been together for a while could have lived together What percent of people have extramarital affairs 25 of men 15 of women 0 20 OF PEOPLE How does evolutionary theory explain extramarital affairs Men want to spread their seed Women need a plan B for support What type of polyamorypolygamy has been most common Polygamy 1 man several wives According to John Gottman39s research what is the ratio of positive to negative responses during intense discussions among happily married stable couples 41 51 In the context of communication and con ict resolution in romantic relationships what do criticism contempt defensiveness Complaining will turn into criticizing Contempt o simmering negative attitude toward each other Disgust is the best predictor of divorce Validate 0 let other person know you are listening uhhuh summarize ask clarifying questions Start softly 0 Begin with acknowledgement of shared beliefs on the issue amp good points in other s position 0 discuss concerns in terms of what I am bothered by and what I would like 0 Do not make demands amp avoid criticizing blaming accusing spouse 42 Recognize the usefulness of cooling down before having an intense discussion Cool Down 0 makes starting softly possible 43 What about honesty vulnerability and self disclosure Honesty don t tell lies Be gradual in self disclosure and intimacy be guarded at rst After relationship becomes serious and lasts some years push to continue self disclosure and increase intimacy Force yourself to be vulnerable 44 Recognize and be able to apply the guidelines for having a good marriage given in class Solve Problems Constructively Together 0 As a team together NOT as adversaries against each other I Take turns being the listener and the speaker I The rst speaker should cool down rst if at all possible U Plan ahead so you can Start Softly D Complain Talk directly and clearly about what truly bothers you but if it will never come up again amp you can forget it then forget it Don t criticize avoid labels amp generalizations especially negative ones D express emotions fully o The listener listens fully without judging I Tries to understand and appreciate the speaker s point of view I Validates the speaker by paraphrasing D In listener s own words summarize the speaker s message U Even in relaxed situations acknowledge what the other says 0 Be very certain you totally understand each other before seeking solutions 0 Recognize that some big problems will never be resolved Respect Each Other 0 Share decisionmaking Accept in uence from each other Support each other s dreams Keep promises Freely take responsibility for your own actions or lack thereof Give the bene t of the doubt Be polite to each other eg Say Please and Thank you OOOOOO Nurture the Relationship 0 Know important details about each other I Know favorite food how like coffee favorite band best friend ideal job greatest fears who voted for in last election and why etc always try to learn more 0 Express affection o Create novel arousing activities I One to a few times a year together do something totally new and different and if possible raises arousal level through physical activity some risk sex etc 0 Share daily life I Discuss together how each other s day went every day D be supportive when things did not go well for spouse D Capitalization be enthusiastic w spouse when things do go well for herhim I Do something together that you both enjoy on a regular basis I Go on dates regularly o Create rituals for just you as a couple as well as with the children I have pleasant customary way of daily greeting amp saying goodbye make a weekly date Have customary time for special toast do something for just the two of you on some regular basis and something for just you and your children all together on a regular basis 45 What is capitalization Capitalization be enthusiastic w spouse when things do go well for herhim Taverner text 10th ed Understand the important points of each of the essays assigned on the syllabus for this part of the course 32915 720 PM 32915 720 PM


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