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Study Guide for Exam 1

by: Cydney Tinsley

Study Guide for Exam 1 HIST 3121

Cydney Tinsley
CU Denver
GPA 3.2

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These notes cover all dates, major events, battles, the Russian Revolution, the Paris Peace Conference, the Sykes-Picot agreement, the Balfour Declaration, and the Husayn-McMahon correspondence. In...
World at War 1914-1945
Michael Kozakowski
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cydney Tinsley on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 3121 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Michael Kozakowski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see World at War 1914-1945 in History at University of Colorado Denver.


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Date Created: 09/22/16
Cydney Tinsley World at War Study Guide for Exam 1 Exam 1 Study Guide Countries before the War 1. Germany a. Militaristic b. Traditional. c. High respect for men in uniform. d. Governed by a Parliament, a Chancellor, and a Kaiser. e. Top in scientists, technologists, scholars, soldiers, steel, and coal. f. Prided themselves on their balance or barbarism and democracy. 2. Austria-Hungary: a. Had control of the Balkan country Bosnia. b. Not friends with Serbia. c. Dual monarchy. d. Admired the British. 3. Russia a. Pan-Slavin. Trying to unite a large group of people. b. Not very technologically advanced. c. Had the largest army, but no way to deploy soldiers. d. Exercised Absolutism. e. Mainly focused on territorial expansion. 4. Britain a. Ultra-strong Navy. b. Wealthiest of the Powers. c. Heavily dependent on other countries for trade and food imports. 5. France a. Lagged far behind other Powers in economic development. b. Culturally dominant. c. Volatile domestic politics. Conflicts and Tensions before the War 1. Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand. 2. Nationalism. 3. Militarism. 4. Land: The debate between France and Germany over Alsace-Lorraine. The debate between Serbia and Russia for Bosnia. Sudtia and Trantino 5. Political systems. 6. International Relations 7. Naval rivalries between Britain and Germany. 8. Colonial claims between Britain and France. 9. Economic issues. Causes of WWI 1. All of the countries involved, as they all felt justified in starting a war. 2. Long standing issues, such as colonial claims and naval wars. 3. All of the tensions/conflicts that were present. Cydney Tinsley World at War Study Guide for Exam 1 Alliances 1. Germany and Austria-Hungary. 2. France and Russia. 3. France and Britain. 4. Britain and the USA. 5. Britain and Japan. Schlieffen Plan 1. Germany’s plan to go through Belgium and attack France from behind. Women in the War 1. Women entered the workforce. 2. Women started earning wages. 3. Women gained the right to vote. Why USA Entered the War 1. SS Lusitania: A British ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat. There were 1,000 casualties, including 100 Americans. 2. German re-started unrestricted submarine warfare. 3. The Zimmerman Telegraph: A letter sent by the Germans to the Mexicans saying that if Mexico fought against the USA, they would be rewarded with land. USA intercepted this letter. Fall of Germany 1. Germans engaged in 5 offensives. 2. American reinforcements came to help take down German U-Boats and submarines. 3. Food shortages caused riots and rations in the cities. Arms Race 1. Europeans were ‘competing’ in the modernization of their armed forces. 2. All countries studied the Russo-Japanese War, especially the Germans, who first realized the importance of entrenchments and the advantage of modern heavy artillery. 3. All armies abandoned their previously bright uniforms and opted instead for mud-based colors, except for the French, who paid dearly for their actions. 4. Wireless communication and inception was crucial, especially in naval warfare. 5. Germany was only able to surprise other countries by using mobile heavy artillery. The Decision for War Cydney Tinsley World at War Study Guide for Exam 1 a. Austrians delivered their ultimatum in 1914. They wanted to completely destroy Serbia and they trusted the Germans to keep Russian in check during this time. b. The Germans trusted the Austria-Hungarians to help them. c. Serbia trusted Russia to defend them from the Germans. d. Russia trusted France to back them up. i. Essentially… Serbia-RussiaFrance Austria-HungaryGermany GermanyAustria- Hungary e. Germany knew that helping Austria-Hungary would very likely start a war. They had most things figured out, but was still curious about Britain, who had previously been neutral. f. Britain, although Germany’s number-one enemy, was ignore in German planning. Germany expected their own navy, (which was still being brought up; it had not yet quite reached the size of the British Royal Navy), to take care of the Brits that came by sea, and figured any land troops Britain might send would be so insignificant that it might as well not even count. g. Germany decided that their best course of action would be to overwhelm a country before that countries’ allies had time to intervene. h. Germany therefore decided on France. To attack, the Germans decided to outflank through neutral country Belgium with a force powerful enough as to switch forces east to stop the expected Russian onslaught. i. Serbia rejected the Austrian ultimatum. Austria declared war on July 28 .h j. Russian Czar Nicholas II ordered the mobilization of Russian troops (mainly to try to stay ahead in the war) on July 30 . th st k. On August 1 , Germany mobilized. They demanded free passage through Belgium, who refused. l. Germans crossed the Belgium frontier on August 3 . rd m. Britain, (who had declared the Low Countries like Belgium to never fall th into hostile hands), declared war on Germany on August 4 . Results of the Paris Peace Conference and the Treaty of Versaille 1. Led by ‘The Big Four’: Clemenceau, Orlando, George, and Wilson. 2. Territories were all rearranged, especially in Germany and Austria-Hungary. 3. Minorites were given rights. 4. League of Nations was created to help prevent future wars by allowing territorial and monetary disputes to be discussed. The League of Nations also created Mandates, where countries were mainly independent but still were under the control of another country. 5. Germany’s army was restricted to 100,000 with no General Staff. They were restricted in ammunition, tanks, gasses, etc, and were also forced to owe 33 billion. Cydney Tinsley World at War Study Guide for Exam 1 The Kronstadt Sailors 1. Well trained, well disciplined soldiers. 2. Harsh tactics of the commanding officers caused tension between the sailors and their officers. 3. Sailors found out about the Revolts in Russia and killed any officer that didn’t agree to join their cause. 4. They followed Lenin for a while and even helped get the Bolsheviks into power, although later they regretted their alliances. How the Bolsheviks Came to Power in Russia 1. Led by Lenin and with the support of the Kronsdadt Sailors, the Bolsheviks drove out any hope of a ‘Universal Democracy’ and removed the Temporary Government that had been in place. Dates: (Only need to know years) 1912 1. A Balkan war breaks out and draws the Ottoman Empire out of Europe, then fights amongst themselves. 1914 1. June 28 : Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand. 2. July 23 : Austria-Hungary sends their ultimatum to Serbia. th th 3. July 24 -25 : Russia/Serbia mobilizes. Serbia only partially accepts the ultimatum. th 4. July 28 thustria-Hungary declares war on Serbia; various parties mobilize. 5. July 30 : Russia mobilizes against Germany. 6. August 2 : Germany attacks Luxemburg. rd 7. August 3 : Germany declares war on France. Germany crosses the Belgian frontier. 8. August 4 : Germany declares war on Belgium. Britain declares war on Germany. 9. August 15 : The first army moved in on Germany, who retreated. 10.August 17 : Belgium surrendered. th th 11.August 27 -30 : Battle of Tannenburg. 12.August 30 : Germany took troops south-east of Paris, against their orders. 13.September 4 : the French attacked the Germans. th 14.October 6 : Bthgium had to retreat. 15.October 30 : Germany attacked Ypres with an army of untrained, underage soldiers. 16.Austria issued a ‘Blank Cheque’ to Germany. 1915 1. Richard Kipling’s poem, “My Boy Jack” was published. This poem was written as a tribute to his son, who went missing in the war. 1916 Cydney Tinsley World at War Study Guide for Exam 1 1. July-August: Battle of Somme. 1917 1. French Army group goes on strike. French military leader, Petain, manages to corral the strike, but the French essentially decide to take a ‘time-out’ from the war. 2. Britain starts fending off submarines with the aid of US Naval ships. 1918 1. September 29 : German Second-in-Command of the military, Ludenorff, tells the Kaiser the hard truth: They aren’t going to win the war. 2. November 10 : German Kaiser Whilehlm II crossed the German-Dutch border and went into exile. 3. Germany engaged in five of their own offensives. 4. American reinforcements finally arrive and assist the British in taking down German U-Boats and submarines. 5. A massive food shortage in Germany limited supplies in cities. Food was rationed and the people revolted. 6. The German military blamed their loss on the people, starting the ‘Back-Stab Legend’. People: 1. Mark Sykes: A man representing Britain in the Sykes-Picot Agreement. 2. Francois George Picot: A man representing France in the Sykes-Picot Agreement. 3. Sergei Sazanoff: Foreign Minister. 4. Husayn: Sharif of Mecca. Representative of the Arabian Nations in the Husayn-McMahon Correspondence. 5. Henry McMahon: British High Commissioner in Egypt. Representative of Britain in the Husayn-McMahon Correspondence. 6. Lord Arthur James Balfour: Foreign Secretary. Part of the Balfour Declaration. 7. Archduke Ferdinand: Austrian-Hungarian. Assassinated by a Serbian nationalist. 8. Lord Kitchener: Britain leader. Called a conscription army of civilians. 9. Richard Kipling: WWI propagandist and poet. 10.Enver Pasha: With the Balkan countries. Convinced the Balkans to side with Germany. 11. Ludenorff: Second in Command of the Military of Germany. 12.Kaiser Wilhelm II: Kaiser of Germany. 13.Sheidmann: Leader of the Social Democrat Party. 14.Ebert: Leader of the Social Democrat Party. 15.Erzberger: Leader of the Catholic Center Party. 16.Tsar Nicholas II: Tsar of Russia. 17.George Clemenceau: French representative at the Paris Peace Conference. One of the ‘Big Four’. 18.Vittorio Emanuele Orlando: Italian representative at the Paris Peace Conference. One of the ‘Big Four’. Cydney Tinsley World at War Study Guide for Exam 1 19.David Lloyd George: British representative at the Paris Peace Conference. One of the ‘Big Four’. 20.Woodrow Wilson: United States representative at the Paris Peace Conference. President of the United States. Created ‘Wilson’s 14 Points’. One of the ‘Big Four’. Battles/Major Events 1. Battle of the Marne a. Between Germany and France. b. Caused by Germany and France constantly trying to outflank each other. c. Lead to a stalemate on the Western front. d. Germany attacked south-east of Paris. e. The French attacked the Germans. f. Germany went to meet the French, opening a gap in their forces that the French and British were able to infiltrate. g. Germany retreated. 2. Battle of Ypres a. Germany tried to outflank the Allies in the North. b. Britain went to help Belgium. c. Germany was attacked but lost heavily to the British. d. Ypres saw: i. The end of the old British army. ii. The end of mobile war on the Western Front. 3. Battle of Tannenburg a. Russia split their army to be able to help both Serbia and France. b. 50,000 Russian troops were killed and 90,000 were taken prisoner when Germany intercepted Russian plans. c. In Austria, the Russians lost 350,000 men after having to fall back due to bad tactics. 4. Battle of Verdun: a. Took place at the French territory of Verdun. b. Between French and Germans. c. Germany targeted Verdun because of its sentimental value to the French. d. Germany backed out when they lost just as many men as their French enemy. 5. Battle of Somme. a. Took place in July and August of 1916. b. Between France and Germany. c. Involved first use of tanks. d. Seen as a ‘big waste’. One million people died in only six miles of territory, with no break on the front. 6. Sykes-Picot Agreement and Husayn-McMahon Correspondence. a. Between Mark Sykes of Britain and Francois George Picot of France to discuss the division of what was left of the Middle Eastern Countries. Final arrangements involved Husayn and McMahon. b. Ended in an agreement between France and Britain where: Cydney Tinsley World at War Study Guide for Exam 1 i. Britain agrees to make all states other than Mersina, Alexandretta, and western Syria independent nations. ii. Britain will guarantee Holy Places ‘safe ground’. iii. Britain—and only Britain—will advise the Arab Nations. iv. British will be in Bagdad and Barsa in order to be able to secure them from foreign invaders. 7. Armenian Genocide a. War starts because people thought the Armenians were partnered with Russia (many of them were). So the Armenians were rounded up, relocated, or, in most cases, killed. 8. The Balkan Wars a. The first was took place to expel the Turks, which the Balkans successfully did. b. The second war took place between the victorious Balkan countries for the spoils of the previous war. c. These two wars took place in a span of 12 months. 9. The Balkan Crises a. Balkan states were all owned by other countries, namely Austria. They didn’t like this, so they formed a ‘Balkan League’, which was made up of Greece, Bulgaria, and Montenegro. It’s goal was to expel Turks from it’s land. b. In addition to the Balkan League, the terrorist wing ‘Black Hand’ was created, supported by the Serbian Army. c. The Balkan Wars then took place. d. The wars caused the Serbian territories to double, making Vienna scared of a Serbian march. e. Archduke Ferdinand was assassinated by a Serbian Black Hand member. 10.The Balfour Declaration a. Transcripts of war council meetings. Essentially, Britain promised to help the Zionists establish a Jewish homeland in Arab Palestine in 1917. However, because of the Sykes-Picot Agreement, Palestine was governed by an international mandate. Additionally, from the Husayn- McMahon Correspondence, Palestine was expected to be fully owned by the Arabs. However, the scales tipped and the War Cabinet authorized Arthur Balfour to support the creation of Jewish homeland in Palestine. 11.Russian Revolutions of February and October a. The February revolution ended up with Russia getting rid of their Tsar and putting in a temporary government. b. The October revolution ended with the Bolsheviks coming to power. 12.Paris Peace Conference a. Took place in 1919-1920. b. France, Britain, USA, Japan, and Italy got together to discuss war blame, war costs, territorial divisions, and, especially, what to do about Germany.


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