EBIO 1030-001,002:Biology-Human Approach 1, study guide 1
EBIO 1030-001,002:Biology-Human Approach 1, study guide 1 EBIO 1030-002
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jenna Notetaker on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EBIO 1030-002 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Caitlin Kelly in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 195 views. For similar materials see Biology-Human Approach 1 in Biology at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
EBiology Study Guide 1 Key terms Ecology the scientific study of interactions between organics and their environment (biotic and abiotic) Biotic living organisms (bio=life) Abiotic not living chemical and physical (a=not, bio=life) Global Landscape Ecosystem Community Population Organism Ecosystems organisms and environment interacting through a oneway flow of energy and a cycling of nutrients and sustained by ongoing inputs of energy and nutrients Energy flows oneway: Light Energy Primary Producers Consumers It’s a oneway energy flow because the energy cannot be recycled (heat energy is lost) Nutrients are cycled: Producers Consumers Decomposers Food Chains and Trophic Levels Trophic levels the level in the food chain Primary producers (autotrophs): kelp Obtain energy from nonliving sources (sunlight) Build organic compounds from CO an2 water Consumers (heterotrophs): dolphin Get energy and carbon from organic sources Detritivores: crabs Eat small particles of organic matter Decomposers: bacteria Feed on organic wastes and remains and break them down into inorganic building blocks Food webs multiple interconnecting food chains (both grazing and detrital) Grazing food webs Most energy stored in producers flows to herbivores, which tend to be large animals Common aquatic systems Detrital food chains Most energy stored in producers flows to decomposers and detritivores, which tend to be small Common in terrestrial ecosystems Primary production rate at which producers capture and store energy Gross primary productivity amount captured Net primary production amount used in growth Biomass pyramid dry weight of organisms at each trophic level in an ecosystem Largest tier is usually producers For some aquatic systems, pyramid inverted Energy pyramid how energy diminishes as transferred up trophic levels Always bottom heavy ~10% of energy available in next trophic level The lost 90% is metabolism, waste, heat 1% of solar energy is collected by producers Biomagnification substances become more connected as more up trophic levels Biochemical cycle an essential element moves from nonliving environmental reservoirs, into living organisms, then back to the reservoirs Water cycle moves water from the world ocean, through the atmosphere, onto land, then back into the ocean Watershed area from which all precipitation drains into a water way Groundwater soil water and water aquifers Runoff water that flows over saturated ground into streams Flowing water carries nutrients from place to place Water on Earth: saline water 97% and fresh water 3% There is very little fresh water on Earth Salt water intrusion when all the fresh the fresh water is taken from an aquifer it is replace with salt water The Carbon Cycle CO 2rom the atmosphere is taken up by plants through photosynthesis CO 2s released back into the atmosphere through respiration (volcanoes also contribute) Diffusion between atmosphere and ocean Marine organisms get CO fro2 dissolved carbon in the ocean Marine organisms degrade into sediment which goes into the earth’s crust Earth’s crust is used to create energy but expels fossil fuels Most of the annul cycling of carbon occurs between the ocean and atmosphere Bicarbonate is the main inorganic carbon in seawater Photosynthesis, aerobic respiration, decomposition, and sediment contribute to the marine carbon cycle The largest reservoir is sedimentary rock (moves in and out over long time periods) Seawater is the largest biologically available reservoir Land carbon stored in soil, arctic regions and bogs Climatethe average weather conditions over time Regional climates differ because of variations in factors that influence winds and ocean currents Global Warming Increasing levels of greenhouse gasses in atmosphere will lead to changes in global climate Global atmospheric CO is rising 2 Greenhouse gasses carbon dioxide, water, nitrous oxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) Greenhouse effect radiate energy from the sun is absorbed by the earth surface and radiated back into space as heat, gasses in the upper atmosphere trap the heat then reflect it down to the surface Last 2 decades of the 20 century have been the hottest in the last 400 years Atmospheric methane has also been increasing All tropical glaciers are receding CO 2ir bubbles in ice cores retain atmospheric gasses present when the ice was formed (used to determine levels of CO b2fore the levels were regularly recorded) Both natural and human factors are needed to explain climate change but human factors are more important in explaining the recent rapid changing climate Scientists consider the models sufficient to say that it is very likely (>90%) that the climate change observed in the last 50 years is not a result of natural effects alone Biosphere all regions where organisms live Hydrosphere aquatic Lithosphere rocks and sediments Lower portions of the atmosphere Biomes an area of land characterized by their climate and predominate type of vegetation (deserts, grasslands, scrublands, broadleaf forests, coniferous forests, tundra, aquatic) Seasons caused by the earth’s tilt More rain on windward side and less on the leeward side Population group of individuals of the same species in the area and breed with one another Size the number of individuals Density the number of individuals per given area Distribution the pattern in which individuals are dispersed in their habitat Structure number of individuals in each age group (immature, reproductive, postreproductive) Population distributions clumped, uniform, random Per capita growth rate= birth rate – death rate (r = bd) Population growth= per capita growth rate * population size (G = r*N) Exponential growth rate occurs as long as r is constant and greater than 0 (doubling) Exponential growth rate cannot be sustained for long Carrying capacity (K) the maximum population size the environment can support Limited growth (logistic growth) population growth starts slowly and eventually levels out Density dependent factors related to crowding and competition, regulated by the density of the population (disease) Density independent factors unrelated t crowding, affects all populations in similar ways regardless to the population size (natural disasters) Cohort those of a species born around the same time Survivorship curve how many members of a cohort remain alive over time Type 1 death rate higher with later ages Type 2 death throughput the age groups Type 3 death rate high early in age Life history patterns how an organism allocates its resources between growth, maintenance, and reproduction Rselected species adapt to conditions that change rapidly and unpredictably (favors traits that maximize the number of offspring) Kselected species adapted to life in a stable environment Community ecology examines how interactions between species affect community structure Community structure the composition of the community, including species diversity and is influenced by: abiotic factors, gradients of topography, species interactions Species diversity species richness (the number of species), species evenness (abundance of each species) Symbiosis longterm, direct interactions between two or more species Commensalism helps one species but doesn’t affect the other (neither species harms or benefits the other) Mutualism both species benefit Facultative helpful but not vital Obligatory must participate in association Coevolution evolving together Two species may protect one another Parasite live in or on another organism from which it gets nutrition (weakens but doesn’t kill) Brood parasitism one egglaying species benefits by having another species raise its young Parasitoids insects that lay eggs in another animal (life cycle requires the death of the animal) Competitive interactions interspecies competition hurts both species (competition among individuals of the same species is more intense than interspecific competition) Interference competition species reduce the amount of a resource available to the other by using that resource Niche each species requires specific resources and environmental conditions that we refer to its ecological niche Competitive exclusion two species cannot coexist if they have identical niches Realized niche the observed niche in nature, where they actually live Fundamental niche potential niche in nature, where they could live Resource partitioning natural selection drives competition species into sharing a resource in ways that minimize competition Predation predator organism obtains energy and nutrients from other organisms As predators get better at hunting, prey gets better at evading which makes predators get better again… Prey Physical defense increase the handling time means less benefit for the predator Camouflage hide in the open Mimicry resemble another dangerous animal Chemical defense warning coloration Predator Increase efficiency of prey capture Camouflage Cooperation behavior Coevolution with herbivores and plants withstand and recover quickly from loss, physical deterrents or chemical deterrents Ecological succession a process in which one array of species replaces another over time Primary succession begins when pioneer species colonize a barren habitat with no soil (pioneer species are opportunistic colonizers of vacated habitats and help to build the soil layer) Secondary succession occurs in a disturbed region in which a community previously existed (soil is already present) Pioneer stage ➡? intermediate stage ➡? climax stage (successional stages) Intermediate disturbance hypothesis species richness is greatest in communities where disturbances are moderate in intensity and frequency (enough time for new colonists to arrive and become established but not enough time for competitive exclusion to cause extinctions) Keystone species has a disproportionately large effect in a community relative to its abundance (experts strong controls over the abundance or distribution of other species) Indicator species especially sensitive to disturbances to the environment Exotic species dispersed from its home range and becomes permanently established in a new area (invasive species) Biogeography the specific study of how species are distributed in the natural world (species richness is the highest at the equator and lowest at the poles) Behavior reaction to a stimulus Proximate cause the immediate stimulus it mechanism (the genetic, developmental, and physiological mechanisms that make a behavior possible) Ultimate cause adaptive significance and evolutionary history (evolutionary significance: survival and intimately reproduction) Behavioral genetics much variation in behavior results from inherited differences Oxytocin pleasure (the more there is, the higher the chance of mating for life) Human behavior traits are polygenic and influenced by the environment Instinctive behavior genetic and performed without any prior experience Learning the modification of behavior Imprinting a form of learning that occurs debuting a genetically determined period Habituation learns not to respond to a stimulus that neither has positive or negative effects Behavioral plasticity their behavior traits are altered by environmental factors Communications signals transmit information between members of the same species Sexual selection one sex is the limiting factor for the others reproduction (intersexual selection mate choice, intrasexual selection mate competition) Anisogamy asymmetrical gamete investment (females invest lots of energy per egg, makes invest little energy in sperm) Whoever invests more in the children is choosier on the mate Precopulatory choice can shunt the sperm of preferred to her eggs and reject the sperm of other males Make ensuring fertilization mate guarding, copulatory plugs, Soren scoops, repeated matings, increased sperm count Population growth rate changes over time as a country becomes economically developed (preindustrial ➡? transitional ➡ industrial ➡ postindustrial) Extinction is a natural process but humans are accelerating it Mass extinction a large portion of earths organisms become extinct in a relatively short period of geologic time 5 great mass extinctions (marked by global catastrophes) We are currently in the midst of a mass extinction caused by human activities (hunting, habitat destruction, animal introduction) Endangered species a species that has population levels so low it faces extinction in all or part of its range Threatened species a species whose populations are declining, that is likely to become endangered in the near future Over harvesting has caused the collapse or extinction of many commercially valuable species Endemic species confined to the limited area in which it evolved, often by resource requirements (more vulnerable to extinction) Most endangered species are affected by multiple threats The decline in one species usually leads to the decline in another We focus on vertebrates (cute and fussy) and haven't focused on invertebrates and plants as much Desertification conversion of productive grassland or woodland into a desertlike region in which little grows (result of poor agricultural practices or overgrazing) Pollutants natural or manmade substances released into soil, air, or water in greater than natural amounts 3 levels of biodiversity genetic, species, and ecosystem diversity Ecoregions larger areas characterized by physical factors and species composition, representing all of earths biomes 6 main biological molecules C, H, O, N, S, and P Organic primarily composed of carbon 4 classes of macromolecules that structure all living matter: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids Monomer small subunits used to build larger molecules Polymer built by linking monomers Metabolism cells acquire and use energy Condensation (dehydration synthesis) formation of large molecules by the removal of water (monomers are joined to form polymers) Hydrolysis breakdown of large molecules by the addition of water (polymers are broken down into monomers) Carbohydrates molecules composed of C, H, and O (empirical formula: (CH2O)n) Because CH bonds have a lot of energy 3 types of carbohydrates in all living organisms: monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides Monosaccharides one sugar unit, the simplest carbohydrates, most are 6carbon sugars Oligosaccharides short chains of monosaccharides Polysaccharides long chains of monosaccharides Lipids fatty, oily, or waxy compounds that are not soluble in water Triglycerides one glycerol and three fatty acids Saturated fatty acids (animal fats) no double bonds between carbons, solid at room temperature Unsaturated fatty acids (vegetable oil) one or more double bonds, liquid at room temperature Trans fats produced industrially Omega 3 converted to hormones that slow down cell division and dampen inflammation Omega 6 converted to hormones that speed up cell division and trigger inflammation Healthy ratio of omega 6 to omega 3 fatty acids is 2:1 Estimated modern American diet is 20:1 Phospholipids bilayer hydrophilic heads point outward, hydrophobic tails point inward toward each other Proteins polymers, composed of one or more unbranched, long chains called polypeptides Aino acid composed of an amine group, a carboxyl group, and the “R group” which is different for each kind of amino acid A protein’s shape determines its function When a protein loses its shape it also loses its function 4 levels of protein structure 1. Primary protein structure sequence of a chain of amino acids 2. Secondary protein structure hydrogen boding of the peptide backbone causes the amino acids to fold into a repeating pattern 3. Tertiary protein structure threedimensional folding pattern of a protein due to side chain interactions 4. Quaternary protein structure protein consisting of more than one amino acid chain Prion diseases are caused by misfolded proteins Nucleic acids to polymers Nucleotide to monomers Sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen base DNA sugar is deoxyribose Nitrogenous bases: C, G, A, T, and U DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) double helix, two polynucleotide strands connected by hydrogen bonds Base pairing rules: A with T (or U in RNA) and C with G RNA (ribonucleic acid) single helix, sugar is ribose, contains uracil (U) instead of thymine (T) Cell theory a foundation of modern biology, states that cells are the fundamental units of life Cell the smallest unit that sows the properties of life Plasma membrane controls substances passing in and out of the cell Nucleus eukaryotic cells Nucleoid prokaryotic cells Cytoplasm goo inside that surrounds everything Prokaryotes bacteria and archaea Eukaryotes fungi, plants, and animals Organelle a structure that carries out a specialized function within a cell Components of a eukaryotic cell Organelles with membranes Nucleus protecting, controlling access to DNA Endoplasmic reticulum routing, modifying new polypeptide chains; synthesizing lipids Golgi body modifying new polypeptide chains: starting, shipping proteins and lipids Mitochondrion making ATP by glucose breakdown Chloroplast photosynthesis in plants, some protists Vacuole storage Organelles without membranes Ribosomes assembling polypeptide chains Other components Cytoskeleton contributes to cell shape, internal organization, and movement Central dogma: replication (DNA), transcription (DNA to RNA), translation (RNA to Protein) Gene expression make proteins according to “instructions” from a gene (includes transcription and translation) Transcription enzymes use the nucleotide sequence of a gene to produce a complementary strand of RNA Messenger RNA (mRNA) contains information transcribed from DNA Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) main component of ribosomes, where polypeptide chains are built Transfer RNA (tRNA) delivers amino acids to ribosomes Promoter a specific binding site in DNA close to the start of a gene RNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the transcript (A, U, C, G) DNA to RNA In the nucleus RNA polymerase Helix is opened, RNA polymerase forms a chain of RNA units complementary to DNA template Results (mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA) Introns nucleotide sequences that are removed from a new RNA Exons sequences that stay in the RNA Alternative splicing allows one gene to encode different proteins (some exons are removed from RNA and others are splices together in various combinations) after this a head and tail are added to the chain Translation mRNA is translated into a protein Codon a sequence of three mRNA nucleotides that code for a specific amino acid (the order of codons determines the order of amino acids in a polypeptide chain tRNA has an anticodon complementary to an mRNA codon Genetic code consists of 64 mRNA codons (twenty kinds of amino acids are found in proteins; some amino acids can be coded by more than one codon) RNA to Protein Cytoplasm Ribosome (rRNA and proteins) Ribosome reads mRNA, tRNA’s bring in corresponding amino acids, forming an amino acid chain, chain spontaneously folds on itself Result: makes proteins Mutations smallscale changes in the nucleotide sequence of a cell’s DNA that alters the genetic code Basepairsubstitution may result in a premature stop codon or a different amino acid in a protein product (sicklecell anemia) Deletion or insertion can cause the reading frame of mRNA codons to shift, changing the genetic message Hemoglobin is a protein that binds oxygen in the lungs and carries it to cells throughout the body Frame shift the reading frame of the mRNA codons shifts
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