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Experimental Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Erin Kaufman

Experimental Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide PSY

Marketplace > Mississippi State University > 3314 > PSY > Experimental Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide
Erin Kaufman

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About this Document

This is a collection of notes taken from the book and from class, including some about Chi square
Experimental Psychology
Dr. Bradshaw
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erin Kaufman on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Bradshaw in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 136 views. For similar materials see Experimental Psychology in 3314 at Mississippi State University.


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Date Created: 09/22/16
Experimental Psychology Test 1 Study Guide Class Motto: Trust No one! Chapter 1: Ways of Knowing The first goal of science is to describe behavior. The second is to predict behavior. Third is to determine the cause of behavior. Last is to explain behavior. How can you tell if a claim is pseudoscientific? -Untestable claims that cannot be refuted. -Claims rely on imprecise, biased, or vague language -Evidence is based on anecdotes and testimonials rather than scientific data -Evidence is from experts with only vague qualifications who provide support for the claim without sound scientific evidence -Only confirmatory evidence is presented; conflicting evidence is ignored. -References to scientific evidence lack information on the methods that would allow independent verification What are the differences between temporal precedence and covariation of cause and effect? -temporal precedence: The cause MUST precede the effect. Example: You have to flip the light switch (cause) to turn the lights on and off (effect) -covariation of cause and effect: Do the independent variable and dependent variable vary together? Example: If the light switch is in the “on” position, are the lights on? If the switch is in the “off” position, do the lights turn off?  Temporal precedence must occur for the covariation of cause and effect to also occur. Basic vs. Applied research -Basic research: Tries to answer questions about the nature of behavior, theoretical. Not looking directly at problems in the world. -Applied research: conducted to address issues where there are practical problems and potential solutions. Chapter 4: Fundamental Research Issues Validity: refers to truth or accuracy -Construct validity: whether our methods of studying variables are accurate. Adequacy of the operational definitions of variables -Internal validity: the accuracy of conclusions about cause and effect within the experiment -Effect validity: whether we can generalize the findings of a study to other populations and settings. -Face validity: On the surface, does it seem like it measures what it’s supposed to measure? -content validity: measure relates to theoretical construct. Content of questions matches content of concept Operationalize: process of strictly defining variables into defining factors. Reliability: consistency of a measure within an experiment. An experiment has high reliability if it consistently measures the same thing. Basic research design: Sample-> groups of treatment or no treatment -> Measure both (observe result) Random assignment into groups But groups are not the same Essence of an experiment: If you have a question, you make a change in your environment and observe the change. Example: There is a light switch, and you want to know if it turns the lights on and off. Then, you flip the switch and watch what happens. Chapter 6: Observational Methods Science always starts with observation. You cannot experiment on something if you have not observed it first. Qualitative Observation: focuses on people behaving in natural settings and describing their world in their own words Quantitative Observation: tends to focus on specific behaviors that can be easily quantified (counted) Naturalistic Observation: the researcher makes observations of individuals in their natural environments. May examine a narrower range of behaviors. Systematic observation: Refers to the careful observation of one more specific behaviors in a particular setting. Much less global than naturalistic observation Concealed observation: subjects don’t know a researcher is there. The researcher doesn’t interfere but is just there. Case Study: an observational method that provides a description of an individual, either a person or a place. Does not necessarily involve a naturalistic observation Archival research: involves using previously compiled information to answer research questions. The researcher does not actually collect the original data. Instead, the researcher analyzes existing data. Content Analysis: systematic analysis of existing documents Chapter 7: Survey Research Survey: Finding the truth. To ask many people a question or series of questions in order to gather information. If done poorly, surveys are worse than useless. You need to have good language skills to conduct or participate in surveys. Problems with surveys: -Social desirability bias: People don’t want to possibly look bad. They “fake good” and answer in the most socially acceptable way. -Loaded questions: written to lead people to respond in one way. These include emotionally charged words and can influence people. -Double-barreled questions: Two questions in one. -Negative wording: includes “not”. Agreement with this kind of question means disagreement with the proposal. -Yea-saying and nay-saying: Some people just say yes or no to things. Or, a respondent will disagree or agree with all of the questions. Responses to questions: -Open-ended vs. closed-ended questions  Open-ended: a question that you can answer however you want. In a qualitative measure, how many people answer one way? Used early in research  Closed-ended: respondent picks the answer from a selection. A more structured approach, and it’s easier to code. -Rating scales: Common in research. These ask people to provide “how much” judgments on any number of dimensions (Likert Scale (5-9 items)) -Graphic rating scale: requires a mark along a continuous line with descriptions at each end. -Semantic differential scale: Respondents are asked to rate any concept on a series of bipolar adjectives using seven-point scales. Administering surveys: -Written questionnaires:  Personal  Mail/internet  Focus group -Telephone surveys Sampling techniques: -Sampling frame: the window a researcher takes on a population. Every survey will unintentionally have a frame. -Probability sampling: Everyone has an equal chance of being sampled. This is really hard to do. (Example: Surveying all of the students of Mississippi State University)  Simple: Every member has equal chance of being surveyed. Random  Stratified: Making sure the sample is equally represented in subgroups. Different layers. Makes sure each “strata” is representatively sampled. (Strata: freshmen, sophomores, juniors and seniors.)  Cluster sampling: Taken in clusters of geographic units. Sample from everyone within the clusters. -Nonprobability sampling: Some people have more chance of being sampled for a survey than others. Chi Squares: Χ = “chi”: Nominal scale data, counting things up. Used for observing frequencies -It is an inferential statistic and does not try to interpret data. Hypotheses: H 0 The null hypothesis. Precise. Example: There is no difference between men and women in hand dominance H A The alternative hypothesis. Purposefully vague. Example: There is a difference in the distribution. We can’t prove the alternative hypothesis because it is so vague, but we can support it.


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