GEO 322 Test 1 Study Guide
GEO 322 Test 1 Study Guide GEOG 322
Popular in Louisiana Geography
Popular in Geography
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by meatwad718 on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 322 at Southeastern Louisiana University taught by Molly McGraw in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Louisiana Geography in Geography at Southeastern Louisiana University.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Introduction Geography: describing Earth physical geography: natural aspects (landforms, climate, soil, vegetation, etc.) cultural geography: human interrelationships (economic, agricultural, settlement, etc.) Latitude: imaginary lines running east to west that measure the angular distance north to south Longitude: imaginary lines running north to south that measure the angular distance east to west Map: 2dimensional representation of Earth’s surface A good map contains: direction distance location legend Louisiana birthday: April 18, 1812 1803: Louisiana Purchase for $15 million Did not contain west Louisiana or Northshore since it was not part of Mississippi River Basin 1819: purchased by Spain along with West Florida Parishes 400 miles of coastline Location and Boundaries Part of the Gulf Coastal Plain Physiographic Province (low relief) More than half of Louisiana is under 100 feet of sea level highest point: Mount Driskill (Bienville Parish) at 535 feet Northern/Southern boundary: 29° – 33°N Eastern/Western boundary: 94° – 89°W Ranked 31 in size Southern boundary: Gulf of Mexico (3 miles out) Eastern boundary: Mississippi River, Pearl River Western boundary: Sabine River, 94°W Northern boundary: 31° and 33°N Louisiana Parishes Parishes base on religious divisions Initially referred to as Territory of Orleans 1805: Territory of Orleans divided into 12 parishes Acadia, Attakapas, Concordia, German Coast, Iberville, Lafourche, Natchitoches, Opelousas, Orleans, Ouachita, Pointe Coupee, Rapides 1845: parishes became official designation 1820: 25 parishes 1860: 48 parishes (West Florida Parishes) 1912: 64 parishes (Allen, Beauregard, Jefferson Davis) Parish names reflect early history and culture Roman Catholic, Native American, early explorers, American figures, Louisiana figures Settlement subdivided larger parishes into smaller ones The Mississippi River Responsible for creating twothirds of Louisiana sediments from the river have created Louisiana’s unique wetlands Most important feature of Louisiana (physical and cultural) agricultural, industrial, commercial development Principal trade route and transportation for settlers Attracted Native Americans, French settlers, Spanish settlers represented control of the central United States heavily influential on settlement patterns New Orleans built to control the Mississippi River Fertile soil, mild climate Created distributaries throughout Louisiana and the United States Made New Orleans and Louisiana very wealthy “Misi Sipi” = Great River (Algonquin Indians) Statistics 4.6 million people living in Louisiana White: 64% AfricanAmerican: 32% Hispanic: 5% Asian: 2% Native American: > 1% High school diploma: 83% Bachelor degree: 21.8% Major Regions Uplands: hill region, coastal terraces (loess), salt domes Lowlands: Chenier Plain, Deltaic Plain, Alluvial Plain Climate “Climate is what you expect; weather is what you get.” Mark Twain Classified as humid subtropical climate Adjacent location to the Gulf of Mexico provides a flow of warm, humid air into Louisiana Mild winters; hot, wet summers Climatic Controls LATITUDE: determines the height of the Sun above the horizon and length of daylight/darkness summer: high sun angles winter: low sun angles CONTINENTAL/MARINE INFLUENCE: due to the Gulf of Mexico, continental north Louisiana and maritime south Louisiana vary North Louisiana summer: land heats up faster and hotter than oceans winter: land cools off faster and colder than oceans South Louisiana relatively mild seasons and smaller temperature ranges OCEAN CURRENTS: large circular oceans currents are called gyres Gulf Stream: warm current along eastern United States moving poleward air over the Gulf Stream is heated and rises creating low pressure and unstable air masses that can create rain TOPOGRAPHY: arrangement of physical features on a landform flat terrain provides unhindered zone for interaction of air masses air becomes drier as it comes from western to eastern United States accounts for large number of cyclonic storms and variable weather conditions AIR MASSES: bring characteristics from their source regions to other locations Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea are most important source regions maritime tropical: warm temperatures, high humidity, low pressure Bermuda High (STHP): area of high pressure that helps to determine the root PREVAILING WINDS: Louisiana is situated along the average southern edge of westerly wind summer: easterly trade winds winter: westerly trade winds sea breeze in southern Louisiana daytime (onshore): land warm air rises, ocean cool air rushes in Temperature North Louisiana: January: 32 – 53°F July: 70 – 94°F South Louisiana: January: 48 – 63°F July: 74 – 90°F Glacial period: glacier and ice sheets grow Interglacial period: glacier and ice sheets recede Gulf of Mexico rising sea levels 2000: 3 mm/yr 2100: .4 m drop Hadley Model: predicts drier climate Canadian Model: predicts wetter climate both predict more amounts and stronger tropical storms Growing Season North Louisiana: 230 days First/last freeze: late October/late March South Louisiana: 300 days First/last freeze: early December/midFebruary Plaquemines Parish has longest growing season Precipitation Decreases moving northern North Louisiana: 50 in./yr South Louisiana: 64 in./yr Tornadoes Rank 10 in gross number of tornadoes Northwest Louisiana is part of Tornado Alley Often part of thunder/rain storms Spawned in thunderstorms when warm air rising in a cumulonimbus cloud is struck at an angle by upper level winds causing air to swirl landfalling hurricanes passage of cold fronts summer afternoon thunderstorms Spring and fall bring most tornadoes due to cold fronts peak in April and May due to cold air and hot sea breeze Hurricanes Large intense spirals of low pressure released by latent heat (winds +74 mph) West Indian word “hurakan” = evil winds Formed in north Atlantic Ocean and eastern Pacific Ocean by a kink in easterly waves winds spin counterclockwise with heavy rainfall warm (+80°F), deep water (200 ft.) trade winds push storm west coriolis: creates storm’s counterclockwise spin Bermuda High enlarges: pushes hurricanes toward Gulf Coast Coastal impacts: storm surge: low pressure raises the water effect (doming effect) occur on the right side of the storm tides: exacerbate storm surge impacts wind speed: impacts wave height, storm surge, and pushes water inland coastal morphology: funnel effect in St. Bernard and Plaquemines Parish storm track: NW corner typically generates worst damage Tropical depression: 23 – 38 mph Tropical storm: 39 – 74 mph Hurricane season: June 1 – November 30 (peak: September 10) Hurricane Audry (1957): Cameron Parish lack of communication led to unaware residents Hurricane Lili (2002): Morgan City dry air deteriorated storm Hurricane Katrina (2005): New Orleans, Mississippi Gulf Coast 60,000 homes destroyed; 800,000 homeless rising ocean temperatures (1°F) Wetlands Accordion marsh Displaced marsh Inverted marsh Wrack El Niño and La Niña Natural events link to sea surface temperature in southern/equatorial Pacific Ocean Humbled current: flows northward along west coast of South America El Niño: period when the sea surface along equator in the eastern Pacific Ocean becomes warm and equatorial winds weaken wet winters and springs fewer Atlantic hurricanes (shears tops) La Niña: occurs on average every 3 – 5 years dry winters and springs more Atlantic hurricanes
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