PSYC 3083 Exam 1 Study Guide
PSYC 3083 Exam 1 Study Guide PSYC 3083
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madeline Meyer on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3083 at Louisiana State University taught by Copeland in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Psychological Counseling in Psychology at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Introduction: Reading: Chapter 1 Occupations Clinical psychology: integrates science, theory, and practice in order to understand, predict, and treat mental disorders, maladjustment, disabilities, and discomfort in order to promote human adaptation, adjustment, and personal development o Education/Training: can get Master’s or Psy.D. (Doctorate) If one gets a doctorate, must complete at least one year of internship o Expertise: Intervention, assessment, research, medication o Work setting: private, outpatient, clinics, academia o Models used: Scientist-practitioner/Boulder model: (common in universities) requires academic research and applied helping skills Vail/Professional model: same as Boulder but eliminates academic research o Licensing/Certification: License: professionals must demonstrate competence in field (varies among states) Certification: state certifies that the professional has obtained license and training requirements Registration: professionals must register their practice with the state Counseling psychology: requires doctoral degree in counseling psychology or counselor education by stressing certain theories of therapy o Education/training: Master’s or doctorate o Expertise: assess and counsel individuals’ life problems o Work setting: private, outpatient, clinics, academia o Types: Career: investigate personalities and skills in order to match person to career, work in educational settings Marriage and Family: helps with the issues that come with close relationships, often have master’s School psychology: o Education/training: vary from state to state, usually requires master’s o Expertise: evaluate and intervene with pupils, teacher, administrators, and school systems o Work setting: often in schools Paraprofessional: o Education/training: varies from no training to an associate’s o Expertise: personal experience o Work setting: substance abuse clinics, hospitals Psychiatric nurse o Education/training: associate (BA) or nursing degree (RN) o Expertise: biologically based, must have understanding of psychotic medications o Work settings: hospitals, outpatient clinics Psychiatry o Education/training: must have a MD, go through residency, and become licensed o Expertise: has biological basis of mental illness; diagnoses, treats, and prescribes medication o Work settings: hospitals, private Psychiatric technician o Education/training: 2 years o Expertise: custodial duties, protection o Work setting: hospitals MFCC o Education/training: master’s degree, sometimes doctorate o Expertise: engage in marriage, family, and child counseling and therapy o Work setting: private, hospital Social work o Education/training: BA or MA (2 year license) o Expertise: uses a community/systematic approach o Work setting: government welfare, hospitals, private Psychoanalysts Common Factors of Counselors and Therapists (Frank) Commitment to help clients Inspire hope/faith Advocate for clients by being a mediator Listen emphatically Help client understand their suffering Actively engage in change process Others (Gottman & Markman) Trained professionals Have knowedge base and proven techniques Don’t reply on folk wisdom or intuition Are aware of current developments American Psychological Associate (APA) Professional organization that represents psychologists in the US Process vs. Content in Therapy Process: how we are communicating something Content: what the actual message is Psychotherapy vs. Counseling Counseling: preventative, not focused on emotions/social, focuses on education/development, less intensive, short term, more supportive, looks more into current situations, emphasis on “normal” Psychotherapy: intervention/reparative, focus on emotions and overcoming problems, long term, more analytical, looks in past, emphasis on “dysfunction” Doctorate Degrees Psychology (Psy.D.): takes four to six years after bachelor’s Philosophy (Ph.D.): a year of internship, three years of course related work, and a research dissertation Medical Doctor: diagnoses and can now prescribe medicine; requires MD, followed by internship and three years of residency Education (Ed.D.): research, assessment, and improving methods relevant to education process (assessment, learning and motivation, cognition, child development) Basic Counseling Skills Reading: Parrot (1997) Neukrug's characteristics of the effective counselor 1. Be empathetic Empathy builds rapport, elicits information, helps client feel accepted, and empirically related to positive client outcomes 2. Be genuine Mixed review on whether related to positive outcomes 3. Be accepting Giving unconditional positive regard is related to positive client outcomes 4. Be open-minded and nondogmatic 5. Be mentally healthy Research has showed being mentally healthy is related to positive client outcomes 6. Be competent Has shown to be a crucial element to positive therapy outcomes Is an ethical and legal responsibility Discussion of the "therapy environment” 1. How therapist present him/herself: all qualities above, dress professional and recommend not using profanity 2. Office: quiet, comfortable, and confidential; No pictures of personal life or other patients, books where people have strong opinions on like religion and politics should not be there 3. Nonverbal behavior: communication nonverbally Personal warmth: conveys acceptance to client through smiling, using a soft and audible voice, are relaxed and alert, gives good eye contact, has open and warming gestures, intonation (not monotone), shows interest and is attentive Coldness: frowning, loud or monotone, is stiff, avoiding eye contact or staring, minimal gestures, distant from patient Ethical guidelines regarding competence; legal stipulations regarding competence Ethical: Legal: Kleinke's types of questions: lineal, circular, strategic, and reflective Lineal: attempts to discover cause and effect o When did that start for you? What happened around that time? Circular: direct and continual as it attempts to zero in on a suspected problem area o How are things at work? Are you still having problems with ---? Do you have problems with your mom? Do you have problems with your boss? Is it because she may be a woman? Strategic: gently challenges client and may have hidden agenda o How much do you spend on cigarettes a day? How much is the cost of cigarette patches? Isn’t that the same? Reflective: encourages clients to go within, reflect, and consider new ways of being in the world o How do you feel when you were beat as a child? Do you beat your children? How do you think your children feel when you beat them? Tolerance of ambiguity Staying in uncertainty despite the discomfort of not know the answer, allows for new connections to form With therapy, not diagnosing immediately would be an example and waiting until you are fully certain Empathy, Empathic responses (reflecting & paraphrasing) When responding to clients, you should accurately convey the affect by providing reflection of the feeling and then follow it by paraphrasing the content Beginning therapist common pitfalls Not setting limits (giving personal # or not setting boundaries from your work and personal life) Interrogating (causes client to feel uncomfortable) Allowing people to go over the allotted time Listening skills; hindrances to listening Good listeners: Talk minimally Concentrate on what is being said Do not interrupt Do not give advice Able to communicate that other is being heard Asks clarifying questions Hindrances to Listening Preconceived notions about client Anticipating what client will say Thinking about what you’re going to say Personal issues that interfere with your ability to listen Strong emotional reaction to what client is saying Distractions Ethical and Legal Issues Reading: Chapter 16, Pope & Vetter (1992), and Informed Consent to Therapy handout Shared values of ethical guidelines for psychology, counseling, social work Protect consumers: have license, know ethical and legal guidelines Serve as “vehicle for professional identity”: when you are a professional, act professional in order to maintain respect for profession Guides profession towards behavior that reflects values of profession Offers framework in decision-making process Can be offered as defense if sued for malpractice APA’s ethical standards: General principles Principle A: Competence o If you are not competent, you can be found to be negligent and sued for malpractice Principle B: Integrity o If you follow ethical guidelines Principle C: Professional and Scientific Responsibility o Watching reactions to therapies and reporting it if it is not as positive reaction o Not telling the patient all the information Principle D: Respect for People’s Rights and Dignity Principle E: Concerns for Others’ Welfare o If a patient wants to hurt another person, report Principle F: Social Responsibility o Give back to the community Ethical standards for therapy 1. Structuring the relationship: give consent immediately and answer any questions the patient has 2. Informed consent to therapy (next section) 3. Couple and family relationships: When agreeing to counsel people who have relationships with each other, clarify which are clients and the relation psychologist will have with each 4. Providing mental health services to those served by others When deciding whether to offer other services to somebody already being treated, take into consideration the welfare of the client and discus it with the client to decrease confusion and conflict Keep in touch with producers for medicines/prescriptions 5. Sexual intimacies with current patients or clients: DON’T DO IT 6. Therapy with former sexual partners: do not take them into therapy 7. Sexual intimacies with former therapy patients: do not do it, but you legally can after two years 8. Interruption of services: make plans to facilitate care for client in your absence; always inform patient beforehand of medical or pregnancy leaves 9. Terminating the professional relationship: Don’t abandon clients ever Terminate the relationship only when patient is no longer benefiting from the treatment or being harmed by the services Discuss termination with patient, suggest alternatives, and take steps for transfer Can be tricky to notice when it is not benefitting, but try to notice the patient’s behavior/progression Informed consent for therapy If you obtain consent, you must: a) Has capacity to consent b) Has been informed of information concerning the procedure c) Has freely and without undue influence expressed consent d) Consent has been appropriately documented When legally incapable, get consent from legally authorized person Psychologist still need to try and explain to the legally incapable in a way they understand Check handout for informed consent to therapy on Moodle page Check out “Dual & Multiple Relationships in Therapy: Part E of Boundaries Series” video on YouTube Children have assent; adults have consent Privacy and Confidentiality Always inform limits of confidentiality, current and foreseeable Must report sexual and elder abuse, suicidal or homicidal thoughts, and physical abuse Licensing of professional psychologists Ensures that only ethical, competent people are able to offer psychological services in a state Requires: Varies throughout states Must acquire doctoral degree California: 2,000 hours of supervised clinical practice in 24 months, plus 3-4 national tests Common ethical dilemmas reported by psychologists in the Pope & Vetter article Not giving you this one, read the article! Laws affecting psychologists: Duty to warn: must warn if one is a harm to self or others Mandatory reporting: must report child and/or elder abuse or neglect Ethical decision-making models Corey, Corey, & Callanan (1997): pragmatic aspects of ethical decision- making 1. Identify problem 2. Identify potential issues 3. Review relevant ethical and legal guidelines 4. Obtain a consultation 5. Consider possible courses of action 6. Enumerate consequences of various decisions 7. Decide on what is the best course of action Kitchener (1984): moral aspects of ethical decision-making Promote: 1. Autonomy of client (independence) 2. Beneficence of society (good of others) 3. Nonmalificence of people (protection of others) 4. Justice/fairness to all (equal and fair treatment to all)
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