ISS 220 Exam 1 Study Guide
ISS 220 Exam 1 Study Guide ISS 220
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jess Helsel on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ISS 220 at Michigan State University taught by G. Wrobel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see in ISS at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
ISS 220 Exam 1 Review Terminology: (Suggested by Professor to understand terms and be able to explain them) Evolution – A change in the genetic structure of a population from one generation to the next Adaptation – Functional responses of organisms or populations to the environment. Results from evolutionary change (natural selection) Microevolution – Small genetic changes that occur in a species Macroevolution – Changes that occur only after many generations, such as the appearance of a new species (speciation) Homozygous – Same allele at the same location on both members of a pair of chromosomes (Ex: AA) Heterozygous – Different alleles at the same location point on both members of a pair of chromosomes Genotype – Underlying genetic makeup of an individual (controls how your genes look) Phenotype – the observable or detectable physical characteristics of an organism (hair color, eye color, etc.) Fst – measure of variation in and between species Concepts: (Suggested by professor to understand before exam) Biological Diversity A. Evolution B. Adaptation C. Example: Pinkie fingers changing due to cell phone usage Natural Selection A. Brought by Charles Darwin B. Organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring Fixity of Species A. Notion that species, once created, can’t change B. This idea opposes theories of evolution Linnaeus’ Classification System A. Similar to an image of a food chain, but instead of predators and prey, its animals and their classification B. Each level of this classification system is included in the level above it C. Levels go from kingdom to species 1. Ex: Animalia Kingdom, Primate Species Uniformitarianism A. Theory proposed by James Hutton, but elaborated by Charles Lyell B. Theory earths features are the result of long term natural processes (Grand Canyon) which continue to operate in the present as they had in the past Catastrophism A. Proposed by Gorges Cuvier B. Explained fossil record as a result of a succession of catastrophes followed by new creation events Principle of Segregation A. Discrete units, or genes/alleles, occur in pairs b/c chromosomes occur in pairs B. During gamete production members of each gene pair separate so each gene gamete contains one member of a pair C. During fertilization, the full number of chromosomes is restored and members of a gene or allele pairs are reunited Punnett Squares A. Demonstrates how alleles can be combined B. Ex: A a A A sample question that would a AA Aa go with a Punnett Square would be for you to list the aa Aa chances that the offspring of Mendelian this match would have the Traits recessive allele. The answer A. Characteristics which are influenced by alleles at only one genetic locus75% chance. B. Ex: blood types (A positive, B) C. Many genetic disorders are considered Mendelian traits like sickle cell anemia HardyWeinberg Equilibrium A. Allows to predict the distribution of alleles in a population B. p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1 C. p = frequency of AA q = frequency of aa 2pq = frequency of Aa Homeostasis A. Condition of stability B. Stress is the body’s response to any genetic factor Race: Trait Definition: races defined by groups of people who share the same traits Why this is wrong: discordance (nonagreeance), different traits have different distributions Population Definition: geographically circumcised populations showing sharp genetic differentiation Why this is wrong: Focuses on groups and not traits Evolutionary Lineage Definition: distinct evolutionary lineages within a species, incipient species (incipient = beginning) Why this is wrong: Humans breed with those closest to them, human variation is much a function to distance ****Adaptation, mutations, environmental pressure, and evolution causes populations to change over time when separated**** Racial groups are the result of social and historical events, including migrations Race doesn’t exist even though racism does
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