PSY311 Exam 3 Study Guide
PSY311 Exam 3 Study Guide PSY311
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Exam 3 Text Study Questions PSY 311 Chapters 14 6 and 8 Chapter 14 1 Which facial expression attracted the most attention and higher cortical arousal in the Schupp et al 2004 study Anger 2 Which types of pictures were remembered best in the Bradley et al 1992 study What do the ndings tell us about the relationship between emotion and memory formation People were more likely to remember pictures that they rated arousing than pictures they rated as calming regardless of whether the pictures were pleasant or unpleasant A year later people were still more likely to remember the intense arousalproducing pictures than the mundane ones This shows that we may be able to strengthen or weaken memory encoding by increasing or decreasing physiological arousal of the kind seen in strong emotion 3 Explain the results of the Bradley et al 1992 study in terms of epinephrine cortisol the vagus nerve and the amygdala Cahill amp McGaugh 1998 Emotional arousal leads to increased release of the hormones epinephrine adrenalin amp cortisol from the adrenal gland A direct injection of epinephrine or cortisol strengthens the memory of an event that was just experienced Epinephrine amp cortisol stimulate the vagus nerve which in turn excites the amygdala Direct simulation of this strengthens memory storage 4 Describe the results of the Cahill et al 1994 study in which they assessed the role of emotional arousal in memory by giving some of the subjects in the study a betablocker Why did they use a betablocker Betablocker drug that temporarily disables some aspects of sympathetic arousal People who had hear the neutral version of the story had mediocre scores of the test a week later For participants in the arousal version memory depended on whether they had taken the betablocker pill or the placebo Participants who had the betablocker performed the same as those in the neutral condition Participants who had the placebo did much better This suggests that the effects of emotions on memory depend at least partly on the physiological changes observed with strong emotion They used a betablocker because it would stop the participants from feeling a racing heart or similar symptoms even when recognizing that the story was upsetting 5 What is the impact of amygdala damage on the strength of the memory declarative memory of an emotionally arousing stimulus studies by Canli et al 2000 LaBar and Phelps 6 1998 The greater degree of amygdala activation the more accurately participants remember images People with damage in this area can still form memories but the strength of their memory formation is no longer affected by emotion Amygdaladamaged people wouldn39t remember emotion arousing events any more than nonemotion arousing ones What is the effect of mood on the retrieval of memories declarative memories 7 When you are in a good mood you are more likely to remember previous events that happened when you were in a good mood When you are sad you are more likely than usual to recall prior events when you were sad Similarly when you are frightened amp angry You are most likely to strengthen one set of memories or another if your mood is strong amp stable over a fairly long time amp if you participate actively in events as opposed to taking the passive role imposed in many lab studies Describe the results of the Keltner et al 1993 of the in uence of mood on the interpretation of ambiguous events an invited guest of the opposite seX who brings a date People who imagined themselves in an anger prducing situation are more likely to blame the roommates whereas people who imagined themselves in a sad situation are more likely to blame it on bad luck Angry people blame most bad events on other people rather than chance circumstances whereas the reverse is true for sad people 8 Describe the results of the Lerner et al 2003 in which subjects were asked to write about their angry sad or fearful feelings after the September 11 attacks Describe the relevance of the appraisal tendency theory presented in lecture but not the book to these ndings Do the ndings provide support for the theory Those who wrote about fear estimated greater probabilities of danger for both themselves amp the country These ndings support the appraisal tendency theory 9 What is the difference between systematic cognition and heuristic cognition Systematic cognition thorough amp deliberate analysis of the available information Heuristic cognition making decisions on the basis of simple quotrules of thumbquot 10 Describe the difference between the central route to persuasion and the peripheral route to persuasion Which type of persuasive message is most effective when someone is in a happy mood versus a sad mood Central route to persuasion providing facts amp logic Peripheral route to persuasion superficial factors such as frequent repetition of a slogan or endorsements by celebrities When people are happy they are more susceptible to peripheral route in uences amp less susceptible to the central route Happy people are more apt to jump to conclusions without critically examining the evidence Sad people pay more attention to the quality of evidence 11 Describe the results of the Park amp Banaji 2000 study in which subjects were asked to identify which names in a list were famous basketball players famous politicians or infamous criminals when the subjects were experiencing a sad happy or neutral mood People who watched a sad or neutral movie make few errors classifying the names as famous infamous or neither People who have just watched a funny movie make significantly more errors identifying many of the black names as either basketball players or criminals amp more of the white names as politicians Happy people are more likely than others to apply stereotypes Sadness seems to discourage reliance on stereotypes when judging new targets 12 What is the effect of mood on the use of scripts of what usually happens or what seems likely to happen compared to retrieved memories in the Bliss et al 1996 study When you39re in a happy mood you39re more likely than others to make the mistake of quotrememberingquot typical sentences that were not in the story These people relied more on their quotscriptquot of what usually happens or what seems likely instead of the info they had actually heard 13 What is the effect of mood on how careful an individual examines evidence In what mood state is an individual most likely to base judgments on first impressions or on stereotypes and make impulsive judgments Sad people tend to examine evidence more carefully whereas happy people answer more impulsively follow rst impressions rely on stereotypes etc 14 Describe the study conducted by Tiedens amp Linton 2001 in which they assessed the effect of uncertainty on how careful an individual evaluates evidence According to their interpretation the decisive factor is certainty vs uncertainty In their study participants were assigned to write about an experience that made them feel content surprised worried or angry They then had to read an essay amp say if they agreed with its conclusions the students in the lowcertainty moods surprisedworried evaluated the logic of the argument itself amp didn39t regard it based on the prestige of its author The students in the highcertainty moods contentedangry were more persuaded if they thought that a professor wrote the essay They were more vulnerable to quotperipheral routequot persuasion 15 Describe the Stone et al 2001 study and the McKendreeSmith amp Scogin 2000 study and indicate the implications of the results of the two studies with respect to the idea that depressed individuals compared to nondepressed people are more accurate in their judgments this is referred to as depressive realism Chapter 6 Depressive realism people who are mildly depressed are more realistic than happy optimistic people They39re more likely to perceive themselves amp the situation accurately When people had no control over the light at all non depressed students estimated having 40 control whereas depressed students estimate 15 The depressed students more correctly recognized their lack of control lDef1ne situationfocused strategies cognitionfocused strategies and responsefocused strategies Give an example of each strategy a Situationfocused strategies used to control the situation either by choosing to be in one situation rather than another or by changing the situation somehow Ex if you39re worried about a test you spend most of your time studying so you have less reason for anxiety b Cognitivefocused strategies we pay attention to certain aspects of the situation in order to encourage some emotions andor deter others Responsefocused strategies alter the effects of emotions once they have already started Person39s already experiencing a motion and they want some aspect of that emotion to change Ex getting it out of your system 2 Distinguish situation selection from situation modification Give an example of each What is the disadvantage of situation selection avoidant coping Use the ndings from Holahan et al 2005 Murberg et al 2003 and Wolf amp Mori 2009 studies to support your point Situation selection decide whether or not to enter a situation that39s likely to elicit a particular emotion completely avoiding unpleasant situations is not always a realistic option Extreme use limits people39s opportunities amp relationships A study found that people who reported more avoidancebased coping in the first year of assessment experienced a greater number of life stressors over the next 4 years which in turn predicted increased depressive symptoms Another said patients with heart disease reported highly avoid ant coping styles were more likely to die of heart failure over next 6 years A third found kidney disease patients with these were more likely to die over the next 9 years Situation modi cation enter the situation but take steps to change it 2Why does having a sense of prediction and control help an individual to actively cope with a stressor a Even if something unpleasant is unavoidable it will feel less disturbing if you take steps to control some aspect of the situation or if you can at least predict what is going to happen amp prepare for it b When you have some sense of prediction amp control anxiety is much less severe 3Selfhelp books often encourage a person to visual success What do the authors of the text say you should visualize Use the study by Brown et al 2002 to show how cognitive rehearsal can be a bene cial coping mechanism The Brown et al study examined the effects of cognitive rehearsal on coping with stress in pregnant women a Success b Firsttime pregnant womb were asked to imagine amp describe going through labor amp those whose descriptions were rated as the most accurate amp most detailed showed the least worry about the upcoming delivery 4What is psychological inoculation Give an example a Expose yourself to mild versions of the stressful events in order to gain a sense of control and becomes quotimmunizedquot b For example armies make soldiers practice combat skills under realistic but nonlife threatening conditions 51n what way are the responses of people with anxiety disorders to threat words in the dotprobe task different from those of healthy controls a Most people respond more quickly when the dot replaces a neutral stimulus indicating that their attention tends to orient toward threat b People with anxiety disorders show especially slow reaction times if the dot replaces neutral stimulus when a threat stimulus was also present suggesting they have a difficult time pulling their attention away from the threat 7 Describe the studies conducted by Ozlem et al 2002 and by Reijntnes et al 2006 and indicate the significance of these experiments with respect to the effectiveness of attentional control and distraction in emotion regulation The Ozlem et al 2002 study asked subjects to ViVidly remember an experience in which someone had rejected them Half of the subjects were asked to focus their attention on their emotions and physiological sensations during the rejection and half of the subjects were told to focus their attention on the room in which the rejection took place In the Reijntnes et al 2006 study children played a game based on the Survivor television show Children were then asked after being eliminated from the game to focus on reading comic books or listening to music Those asked to focus on the characteristics of the room in their memories identified hostilityfelted words more slowly reporter fewer angry feelings amp wrote less about feeling angry amp hurt in essays than participants instructed to focus on their feelings amp physiology In the second study the more time they spent on the distraction the more their mood improved as well as their ability to focus on the second task 8 What is the major disadvantage of attentional control as a mood regulation strategy 0 It takes a lot of cognitive energy amp as a result people can run out of ability to control their attention f1 they are fatigued or have been controlling their thoughts for too long 9 What is cognitive restructuring Describe the therapy example given in the book 0 Cognitive restructuring when people change the way they think about a larger emotional issue or frequently occurring situation 0 it39s a frequent goal in therapies for mood disorders like depression amp anxiety 10 In what way does cognitive reappraisal affect activity in the amygdala Ochsner et al 2002 What is the relationship between cognitive reappraisal and dispositional positive affect Cognitive reappraisal reduces amygdala activation to upsetting photos People who report using cognitive reappraisal more often also report higher dispositional positive affect 11 Give an example of positive reappraisal bene t nding If every graduate school you applied to rejected you you might say quotOh well I learned a lot from applying the first time amp next time I39ll do betterquot 12 De ne resilient What is the relationship between positive reappraisal and resilience o Resilient those who recover relatively easily from negative events 0 People who are resilient report thinking about the potential positive effects of negative events more often than less resilient people 13 According to the findings of the Gamefski et al 2002 study what cognitive coping strategy that is used most frequently among emotionally healthy individuals In this study subjects were asked to indicate the cognitive strategy e g selfblame other blame rumination that they typically used 0 Positive reappraisal 14 According to the findings of the Moskowitz et al 2009 study what was the most effective cognitive strategy used by AIDS patients 0 Positive reappraisal 15 What do the results of the Jerome amp Liss 2005 study the Kraemer amp Hastrup 1988 study and the Fincham 2003 study tell us about the effectiveness of venting emotions Freud s idea of catharsis as a way to regulate emotions decrease the intensity of negative emotions such as anger 0 People who deal with their negative emotions by venting them tend to have more anxiety than average in their interpersonal relationships 0 When people are encouraged to cry during sad movies they end up feelings worse not better than people who tried to restrain their tears o Distressed couples who vent all their anger against each other are taking a major step toward divorce not reconciliation l6 De ne rumination and indicate its role in clinical depression Is this a good cognitive coping method 0 Rumination thinking continuously about a problem for a long time focusing on negative aspects of the situation instead of possible solutions 0 Not a good cognitive coping method 17 Does writing about a traumatic event effective as a coping technique Describe the study conducted by Pennebaker 1997 and indicate its relevance to using writing as a coping technique ls writing helpful because the individual is venting his emotions See the study by Pennebaker amp Graybeal 2001 0 Yes 0 Students spent 30 mins a day writing about their deepest thoughts amp feelings concerning some intensely upsetting experience or an unemotional topic Nearly all said it was a valuable experience amp those in the treatment group were less ill drank less alcohol amp got better grades than control group 18 Is writing about positive experiences benef1cial see Burton amp King 2004 0 Yes they experience improved mood amp health over the next several months 19 When is crying most likely to lead to improved feelings see Bylsma et al 2008 o Crying is more likely to lead to improved feelings when it evoked social support from others speci cally in the form of comforting words or touch or other friendly behaviors 20 What are the benefits of exercise with respect to emotional health see Leppamaki et al 2002 Salmon 2001 0 consistent exercise prevents depression amp anxiety 21 What is the role of distraction in the effectiveness of exercise in coping What are the benefits of exercise with respect to responses to stress see Crews amp Landers 1987 What is the role of endorphins in the effects of exercise 0 Exercise is a distraction from the source of stress 0 Exercise improves overall health amp people in good health show less tension amp sympathetic arousal n response to stressful events 0 Any stress readies the body for fight or ight even if it doesn39t call for physical activity Once the body has engaged in physical activity after stress it tends to relax o Neurotransmitters called endorphins become more active during physical exercise These chemicals are a natural painkiller which is sociated with improvement of mood 22 What are the benefits of meditation in emotion regulation see Sheppard et al 1997 0 People who practice meditation report feeling less stress They have a decrease in anxiety amp depression 23 Is suppressing emotional expression helpful in emotion regulation 0 It39s important in some situations however as with some other emotion regulation strategies suppressing emotions indiscriminately is problematic It39s costly in terms of cognitive resources amp has negative implications 24 Describe the fMRI study by Tisserand et al 2004 What changes in activity in the amygdala hypothalamus and prefrontal cortex took place when subjects were inhibiting their arousal to pornographic lms Chapter 8 0 young men watched a series of porn Some were allowed to be aroused amp other had to inhibit it While they were sexually aroused activity increased in the hypothalamus right amygdala amp part of the right temporal cortex sexuality amp emotion While they were inhibiting activity was lower in the amygdala amp hypothalamus but increased in the prefrontal cortex cognitive control lln what way do Rozin and Haidt de ne of anger disgust and contempt Describe the study conducted by Rozin et al 2005 that provides evidence for these de nitions a Anger the emotional state associated with feeling injured or offended with a desire to threaten or hurt the person who offended you Contempt A response to Violation of community standards Ex you might feel contempt toward someone who cheated on a test Disgust quotrevulsion at the prospect of oral incorporation of offensive objectsquot Entails a desire to stay away from something especially to keep it out of your mouth but it is also a rejection of the mere thought of touching the object Researchers made a list of actions that seemed to Violate autonomy community standards or divinitypurity Then they asked college students in the US amp Japan to label their reaction to each one as anger contempt or disgust and to choose the proper facial expression from choices Although participants often confused these expressions when giVing them verbal labels they typically chose angry facial expressions for the autonomy Violations a disgust expression for the divinitypurity Violations amp a contemptuous expressions for community Violations 2What do the findings of the studies by Ohbuchi et al 2004 and by Kuppens et al 2003 tell us about prototypical situations that elicit anger a The core relational theme eliciting anger is a quotdemeaning offense against me amp minequot Many studies nd that anger arises against someone who has caused harm intentionally amp carelessly b In this study American European amp Asian students all reported anger most strongly when someone treated them unfairly c In another study people reported recent events in which things went badly for them They reported feeling anger only when they had someone to blame for their misfortune 3What does the study by Ellsworth amp Tong 2006 tell us about the differences between anger felt toward someone else and selfanger a We typically become angry about another person39s actions but selfanger is different from otheranger When you are angry toward someone else you might seek revenge in some way You don39t attack yourself Selfanger is usually mixed with sadness amp guilt or embarrassment 4What do the findings of the study by Kuppens et al 2008 tell us about the role of blame in anger a In general when students perceived a situation as blameworthy they said they would feel angry The students who tended to feel angry most often in everyday life were also most likely to interpret unpleasant situations as ones ins which someone was to blame So does having someone to blame lead to anger Or does being angry make you look for someone to blame It might go in both directions 5What does the Cognitive Neoassociationistic Model of Anger Generation CNA say is the cause of anger According to this theory is an attribution of blame a necessary condition for the generation of anger a Anger sometimes arises directly from an unpleasant uncomfortable sensation without any appraisal of blame b According to CNA any unpleasant event or sensation facilitates anger amp aggression The unpleasant thing might be frustration but could also be pain an aversive odor etc EX the probability of aggression increases when it39s hot c Therefore an attribution of blame is not necessary for the generation of anger 6 If you are in danger and have no control the emotion ear trumps the emotion anger 7Sometimes people choose to be angry Use the research of Tamir et al 2008 and van kleef et al 2004 to describe the circumstances that will lead to this choice a A quick mild quotconstructivequot display of anger on your part tells your friend or romantic partner quotHey that hurt Don39t do it againquot The person will detect your irritation apologize understand you better amp avoid similar acts int he future b People who express mild anger in situations tend to get more of what they want Anger lets people know your limits amp demands c If you expect to get into a con ict with someone it will probably help you to be angry In one study participants assigned to play the aggressive game were more likely to choose angry memories to recall while preparing for the game when compared with those preparing for a nonaggresive game Moreover those who recalled angry experiences amp felt angry as a result performed better on the aggressive video game but not the non aggressive game d We may choose to feel angry when preparing for a confrontational situation amp it may help us get our way 8What is the difference between hostile aggression and instrumental aggression a Hostile aggression motivated by anger with the speci c intent to hurt someone b Instrumental aggression harmful or threatening behavior used purely as a way to obtain something or achieve some end EX bullying theft warfare amp killing prey Much of human aggression is instrumental 9 What do the implicit measures the themed dotprobe and the visual search task tell about the relationship between attention to aggressive words and people who are prone to anger and violence Not all behavioral measures of anger require overt aggression Implicit measures can be used to detect the emotion in a more subtle way In once study on average men included more aggression in their endings than women amp people who described themselves as frequently angry tended to include more aggression than did people who reported less anger Themed dotprobe task 2 words ash brie y on the screen one above the other Then a dot appears in the same position as one word amp the person must press a key as quickly as possible to indicate where the dot appeared A violent word will distract attention amp slow the response depending on where the dot appears People with a history of violence are more affected by aggressionrelated words in this task Visual search task a target word appears brie y in the center of the screen surrounded by three other words Then the target word amp three new words appear amp the task is to identify the location of the target word When the target word is surrounded by violent words people with a history of violence tend to respond more slowly in nding the target word on the second screen Aggressive words capture attention more thoroughly for people who are prone to anger amp violence than for other people 9What does research on people with damage to the prefrontal cortex tell us about the consequences of damage to this structure a Damage to the prefrontal cortex is one basis for impulsivity People with this damage are impaired at suppressing their emotional expressions after such instructions as quottry not to act startled after the sudden sound you39re about to hearquot They are also more likely to lose money by making bad gambling decisions amp to choose smaller reward now over a larger reward later 10 Why do people experience a lower level of anger in response to an insult when lying on their back during an MRI HarmonJ ones amp Peterson 2009 a Emotions are quotembodiedquot in the sense that total body activity is central to the emotional experience When you are angry you get ready to attack or threaten If you39re lying on your back in an MRI device amp have to remain motionless people experience much less anger 11 What is the relationship between the level of serotonin in the brain and aggression a Rats amp mice with low levels of serotonin release are more likely to ght with one another b In monkeys low serotonin seemed to be linked to a high risk highpayoff strategy c In humans low levels of serotonin have been found in people convicted of arson amp other violent crimes Inmates let out of prison with low serotonin levels are most likely to be convicted of additional violent crimes within the next few years 13 What is the effect of suddenly lowering serotonin in the brain on the following individuals 1 people with a previous history of violence 2 people with a history of depression 3 people with a history of substance abuse The people with a previous history of violence became violent those with a history of depression became depressed and those with a history of substance abuse reported a sudden craving for drugs It is as if low serotonin release removes inhibitions against various impulses but different people have different impulses 14 According to the authors of the textbook the experience of anger per se is not the critical risk factor in heart disease What is their view regarding the relationship between anger and heart disease Some research suggests that how anger is expressed rather than the experience of anger itself predicts health problems Hostile people who express anger frequently amp explosively are more vulnerable to cardiovascular problems whereas people who experience it often but express it differently are at less risk People who express their anger verbally while trying to understand the other person39s point of view had lower resting blood pressure than people who were less articulate when angry 15 What do the studies conducted by Dodge amp Cole 1987 and Crick amp Dodge 1994 1996 tell us about biases in the appraisal biases in attribution process among aggressive boys More aggressive boys usually thought the offense was deliberate even when the facial expressions amp verbal cues indicated an accident Children who attribute hostile intentions to others are more likely than other children to start f1ghts especially in response to teasing They evidently regard the teasing as hostile amp react accordingly The most angerprone people are more likely than others to attribute malicious intent to the antagonists even in the ambiguous situations 16 Studies of juvenile and adult offenders among dizygotic twins and monozygotic twins Lyons et al 1995 show that the effect of heredity on antisocial behavior increases as people get older Explain There are greater similarities between monozygotic identical twins than dizygotic fraternal twins Adopted children tend to resemble their biological parents in these regards A possible explanation of the increase in heredity with age is that children have little choice of where or how they live Both member of a twin pair share mostly the same environment As adults they have more choices The effect of the genes depends on the environment 17 Is it true that men get angry more often and are more likely to show aggressive behavior than women When the cause is reasonable women get just as angry as men amp are less likely to she their anger in some way The difference is in what they do when they are angry Males engage in more physically aggressive behavior Women are more likely to attack indirectly refusing to communicate spreading unkind rumors or manipulating one person to hurt another Men amp women are just as likely to experience anger and they both act aggressively but men are more likely to act that could produce serious injury 18 By the time a child leaves elementary school he will have watched depictions of 82 000 murders on television 19 What do the findings of Robinson et al 2004 tell us about the truthfulness of the phrase Once bitten twice shy A brief areup of anger produces emotional scars that heal slowly People who feel frequent anger have few friends amp feel dissatisfied with their lives 20 Describe how exposure therapy would be used to treat people who show high levels of anger 0 Exposure therapy someone with a fear of something is gradually exposed to that object while remaining relaxed With anger the person is told to relax amp then is gradually exposed to the kinds of events or insults that would usually provoke anger the person practices remaining calm in the presence of these insults 21 Was bringing together a group of individuals who showed high levels of aggressive and delinquent behavior for group therapy over a 12 week period helpful in terms of regulation of future antisocial behavior Poulin et al 2001 No group therapy sometimes back res Bringing together a group of violent individuals sometimes aggravates the problem Sometimes it even makes the problems increase 22 According to Rozin and colleagues Rozen amp Fallon 1987 Rozin et al 1999 disgust is elicited by items and circumstances that remind us of our animal nature Give examples Most everything we nd disgusting is animal in nature We like to think of ourselves as noble clean amp pure amp the sights of intestines feces or blood reminds us of the most unclean aspects of our existence Animals in general evoke disgust when they urinate amp defecate in public have sex in public amp in other ways do the things that we like to hide about ourselves 23 fMRI studies indicate that neurons in the insular cortex become active in response to disgust and tear 24 What is the difference between core disgust and moral disgust Do people who are sensitive to the stimuli that elicit core disgust also sensitive to situations that elicit moral disgust Core disgust the idea of putting something into your mouth Moral disgust violations of right amp wrong Yes people who easily experience disgust including core disgust are more likely than other people to feel extreme antipathy toward criminal behavior They are more likely than average to vote quotguiltyquot if they are on a mock jury
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