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Study Guide for First HIST 114 Exam

by: Lauren Siegesmund

Study Guide for First HIST 114 Exam HIST 114-001

Lauren Siegesmund

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This study guide should prepare you for our first exam coming up. It has key terms, ideas, along with matching questions to help you lock down that information.
American History Up Unitl 1877
Dr. Ott
Study Guide
history, Indians
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Siegesmund on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 114-001 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Dr. Ott in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 254 views. For similar materials see American History Up Unitl 1877 in American History at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.

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Date Created: 09/22/16
A New World Key Terms: Beringia – land bridge created by the frozen tundra of the ice age that people migrated across into the Americas Neolithic Revolution – when people shifted from hunting and gathering to settling down, major turning point in history Cahokia – largest city in America of about 20,000 that had a complex society with hierarchy and known for its big burial mounds Matrilineal – the woman rules the family Patrilineal – the man rules the family Three Sisters Agriculture – corn, beans, and squash that all benefitted from each other’s presence in the garden Caravel – long boats that made long-distance travel easier and more accurate Great Chain of Being – God > kings > people > animals, etc. People couldn’t change their position because God gave it to them Conquistadors – Spanish who traveled to the new world to find gold and conquer people Sistemas de Castas – 16 different defined levels at which the Spanish and Natives interracially mixed The Black Legend – Bartolomé de la Casas wrote a letter asking to stop enslaving and destroying Native Americans. He also stated that Christianity is not being served this way. Key Ideas: Mounds like the ones at Cahokia were found all up and down the Mississippi River because of the warm weather. The ground was also fertile for farming. Therefore, many settlements broke out along the river. All the early settlements developed their own culture and were all very diverse. When Europeans arrive, they do not perceive them this way. Portuguese decided to go to Asia due to religious tensions between them and the Muslims. They wanted to find a new people to trade with other than the Muslims. This led to Christopher Columbus discovering America, though he thought it was India. Perceptions that the Europeans had of the Native Americans: o N.A. belief system was backwards (they didn’t believe in Christianity) o N.A. gender norms “backwards “  Women were in charge  Men moved in with wife  Women could marry and divorce as much as they wanted  Women owned house, tools, etc. o Land ownership  N.A. had no sense of possession, shared land, common resource  In Europe, every man had his own land o Viewed Native Americans as a garden, they could take what they want o Native Americans’ shamans and healers were witches, they were unchristian and “devils” worshipping “false gods” The Spanish enslaved and conquered Native Americans, but the French built great relationships with the Native Americans through trade (fur trade). Beginnings of English America Key Terms: Henry VIII – King of England in the 16 century. He started his own church (Church of England) after breaking from the Catholic Church after they refused to annul his marriage. Elizabeth I – Queen of England beginning 1558 who focused on repairing the country. She supported mercantilism and privateering and also restored the Anglican Church. Privateering – paying pirates to go after enemies Mercantilism – commercialism/trade to generate wealth Richard Hakluyt – writes “Disclosure on Western Planting” which listed 23 reasons why Elizabeth I should support establishment of the colonies in America. He listed also that England needs to save the Native Americans from Spain. Enclosure Movement – Wealthy bought land from small farmers to make profit Masterless Men – Feudal system dies so men were in charge of themselves Both these terms had to do with the need for more land and the urge to settle in the new world across the ocean. Indentured Servants – contracted to work for a certain amount of years in return for passage to the new world Jamestown – founded in 1607 to find gold. Founded on a swamp and amidst 10,000 Indians. The Starving Time – Winter comes to the 400 settlers of Jamestown and they begin to starve. Only 60 survive. Tobacco Outbreak – John Rolfe steals seeds to plant tobacco that Englishmen would smoke. It turns into a cash crop and within 40 years, millions of pounds are sold. Headright System – Gives 50 acres of land per head that settles in America (including all indentured servants that you bring). House of Burgesses – Had an elected government that made decisions for the colony. You could only vote if you owned your own land. Uprising of 1622 – There was no common ground between Europeans and Native Americans. English wanted to kick Native Americans out and Native Americans fought back and killed ¼ of Jamestown in one day. Jamestown becomes a royal colony afterwards. Maryland – Given to Cecilius Calvert in 1632 and was tolerant to either Catholics or Protestants Puritans – Practiced the teachings of Calvin because they believed the Church of England was too much like the Catholic Church. This included the belief that anyone could go to Heaven. Pilgrims – The first Puritans in MA in 1620. Land is already plowed for them due to the widespread death of Native Americans by disease. Massachusetts Bay Company – founds the MA Bay Colony which sparks the Great Migration Localized Government – land is granted to the colonists by the government Rhode Island – Roger Williams founds it after being banished. Believes in a religiously tolerant society where church is also separate from the state. Pequot War in 1637 – Englishman kills a Pequot Indian and English react. They surround village and burn it to the ground killing hundreds of Pequot. Pequot then are “written out of history.” Rights of Englishmen – Rights derived from the Magna Carta that the English believe are being violated by the government. This leads to the civil war in England. Oliver Cromwell – Executes the king during the civil war and takes over. He also passes the Navigation Acts. Powhatan Indians – The Indians who aligned with the English at Jamestown. Key Ideas: Masterless Men and the Enclosure Movement both resulted in many people looking for land. This was solved when the Americas were discovered. Suddenly these people could get a lot of land for the cost of traveling over the ocean. Some became indentured servants to pay their way as well. Jamestown was built on a swamp with thousands of Indians. Due to this mistake, many English become weak from diseases. The Indians then can easily trade with the English. A mistrust between the two groups leads to the Starving Time. The Land is already plowed and managed by the time the puritans arrive in MA. This is because of the death of many Indians due to diseases brought by the English. The English are getting worried about Native American culture and influence, and the believe that they are God’s people who deserve the land the Indians are on. Therefore, they think that the Native Americans and the Europeans must be separate. Creating Anglo-America Key Terms: Mercantilist Government – government should regulate the economy to benefit from commerce Navigation Acts – Stated that certain goods had to be sold to England first and the ships that sent goods to the colonies had to be British New York – NY is a massive post, so it is the center of all trade including slave trade Sir Edmund Andros - Appointed Governor of NY and the first governor to create an alliance with the Iroquois Indians Covenant Chain – The Iroquois is the leader of all tribes (“on top”) and support English in all wars Charter of Liberties – The colonial constitution granting religious tolerance and giving male property owners the right to vote Carolinas – They boom from the rice plantation economy and have a generous headright system of 150 acres. Pennsylvania – founded by William Penn as a sanctuary for religious persecution. Built on Quaker principles, it rejects the idea of an elect (everyone can go to Heaven). It was the “best poor man’s country.” Slavery – The “fix” to the demand for labor (Look at key ideas). West Indies and Sugar – No one wants to farm sugar because it is intensive and physical. Yet as the biggest commodity in the Western world, sugar had to be produced by slaves Bacon’s Rebellion – led by Nathaniel Bacon, it was an indentured servants army massacring Indians and burning Jamestown in revolt against Governor William Berkeley. British warships arrive to fix and then there is more open land (increase in slavery). Governor William Berkeley – Offers land first to insiders, maintains peace and trade with N.A., and the colonists do not like him because they feel cheated out of land. King Phillip’s War - Native Americans rise against colonists who are pressuring them for land, but armed with the alliance of the Covenant chain, British cleans out the Native Americans. James II – Catholic who is overrun by William of Orange because the government doesn’t want a Catholic in charge. He also created the Domain of New England. Domain of New England – All colonies are combined into this and it has no government/assembly, just one governor (Andros). Glorious Revolution – William of Orange takes the crown, Bill of Rights is created, the colonies are once again separate, and Andros is put in jail. William of Orange – Protestant who overthrows James II. World of Wonder – Few scientific explanations for what happens in the world, so it is believed that spiritual forces control the world. Salem Witch Trials – the strain on religious forces controlling the world leads to the mass hysteria of this. Many people were accused of being witches because they couldn’t explain what was happening in town. Afterwards, 19 “witches” were dead. Colonial Growth – As Native Americans are pushed west, the settlements become more diverse, there is a religious tolerance, and sent over are 50,000 convicts to work as indentured servants. However, England discourages this growth because they want to settle. Atlantic World – Goods are traded all over the Atlantic and port cities become important. Cousinocracy – Power was so close in the family that they were able to keep the power and control cities Anglicization – Elites did not think of themselves as citizens of America, but as English. They followed British trends and culture. South Carolina Aristocracy – Wealthiest colony which had slavery very early on. *Remember, the rice plantations made it easy for the masters to make money off the slaves’ work.* Middle Ranks – the majority of the people. They wanted land ownership because it meant freedom and then their children could have land. Household Economy – Father has priority and control over the family and he must protect the farm. Key Ideas: England believed that trade should benefit England more than the colonies. The colonies had to produce raw good and then England produces material goods. After Andros makes an alliance with the Iroquois (Covenant Chain), they support the English in all their wars including King Phillip’s War. Pennsylvania was cheap land so many people who were working elsewhere left to buy land there. This led to an increase in demand for labor, therefore, leading to slavery. Slavery begins because of the demand for labor. Africans are chosen because they cannot claim to be English, they are immune to many of the diseases, and they cannot run away in a country across the ocean from their home. The first slaves are in Virginia where they were given a few rights. After Bacon’s Rebellion, there was again a need for slavery to work the land that has opened up after killing Native Americans. Port cities become very important. People move to the cities to be around the trade of goods. They can buy more goods there and also sell their own. The ports also open up opportunities for smuggling. Slavery, Freedom, and the Struggle for Empire Key Terms: Atlantic Triangle Trade – Manufactured goods traveled from England to the colonies and Africa, and from Africa traveled slaves to the colonies. Middle Passage – The trip from Africa to the colonies, S. America, or the Indies. Only 5% went to the colonies and 1 in 5 would die on the trip. Olaudah Equinao - 11-year-old who was kidnapped into slavery and went on Middle Passage. He wrote a book about it years later and it was the first account of slavery published and the best account of the Middle Passage. Tobacco Plantations – Didn’t benefit from a large-scale investment, so there was close proximity between slaves and white masters. Slaves also developed their own culture because all different Africans were thrown together. Also, the slavery was also around the home on tobacco plantations. Rice Plantations – Did benefit from large-scale plantations and built on swamps. Masters became rich fast. Slaves are also taskmasters themselves. Gullah – African languages mingled with spiritual beliefs James Oglethorpe – founded Georgia in 1733 as a place without alcohol or slavery Stono Rebellion – 100 slaves from the Congo stole guns and traveled to Florida chanting “liberty.” In the end, 200 slaves were dead but they only killed 23 whites. Empire of Freedom – No society more free than the British, and no one is above the law, not even monarchs or popes. Republican Liberty – If you held an appointed office, you are prone to corruption because you are representing the person who appointed you. Only the wealthy should be appointed because they have more “virtue.” Liberalism – Government is not a patriarchy, all men engage as equals. Natural rights can never be taken from them (Life, liberty, property). Public Sphere – Public life where groups of people would have conversations debating society, philosophical ideas, and pressing issues. John Zenger – Criticizes NY government in weekly journal and is arrested for slander. He is found not guilty and there is an idea of freedom of expression. American Enlightenment – rising importance of scientific meaning Arminianism – science alone should establish religion Deism – God withdrew after creation and then science took over Great Awakening – religious revival after being afraid of the Enlightenment where religion of the individual was more important than the religion of the minister. Middle Ground – The center area between all the Europeans’ land where the Native Americans were. They were able to keep this land by aligning themselves with the enemy of the country that would be fighting. Seven Years War – There was more interest in the Middle Ground. The French and the Indians aligned together, but France surrendered leaving the Indians to fight alone. In the end, there is no accommodation for the Native Americans. Peace of Paris (1763) – Land is given to Spain and England after the war. Proclamation line of 1763 – Can’t go west of the line because they cannot finance anymore wars. Paxton Boys – After thinking that their ally Indians had sold guns to enemies, the boys slaughtered the tribe. They believed that Native Americans and the English are incompatible. Key Ideas: In a Tobacco Plantation, there was close proximity between white masters and slaves. This led to slaves picking up English and culture. However, in a Rice Plantation, slaves were their own taskmasters. This helped the white masters make more money. There was no freedom of speech when public spheres were occurring. Therefore, they had to watch what they said. That is why John Zenger was able to be arrested; however, after his trial, the idea of freedom of expression emerged. Also, after the Great Awakening, there was a sense of individual awareness. th Empires in the 18 Century:  English rose through successful wars o Center banking and trade, more money o Profits through trade and not plunder o Raises debt, taxes, and tension  Spain has little concentrated power of people o They are centered around missions  French is pushing West and gaining land quickly o They have good relationships with N.A.  Fur trading o Challenges British Westward Expansion Seven Years War Timeline:  More interest in gaining the Middle Ground  Most NA ally with the French o British are pushed back in first 2 years o Indians are doing most of the fighting o British forces are financed more and the Navy is built up  There is an increase in the national debt  Finances allies to hold off French in France while hitting them hard in the colony o In 1760, the French surrender leaving the N.A. to fight alone  Pontiac’s Rebellion  They knew that whites and Indians are incompatible  They needed to fight  Falls apart when they realize that the French are not coming back  There is no accommodation made with the N.A. o 1763 Peace of Paris  Land is given to Spain and England o Proclamation line of 1763  Can’t go west of line because they cannot finance anymore wars After the war, there was colonial unity because they had to come together to fight. The consequence of the war was that the crown will make the colonists pay for the war which sparks ideas for the American Revolution. Richter Key Ideas Constructing history is an “imaginative creation” because most of the time it is constructed off of stories. These stories may or not be true because they are only passed down through generations. Therefore, it can be “imaginative.” The first Americans may have thought of de Soto as an opportunity to take out enemy tribes. De Soto was set on conquering as many tribes as he could. Whichever Native American tribe aligned with him could help take out their own enemies. Cartier, on the other hand, came to trade. The Native Americans may have seen this as an opportunity to change their world. They could also use it as a way to acquire technology. Europeans brought with them new livestock and crops. This gave Native Americans new ways of getting food rather than relying on hunting. Europeans also brought technology such as guns that made it easier for them to damage their enemies at war. The Europeans could fight the Native Americans, but their diseases killed off more than warfare did. Disease could have been considered their warfare. The story of Pocahontas is one of romance. However, Richter tells us that the real story isn’t really a story at all. Pocahontas was just one of twenty daughters who might actually have been a part of a plot to save John Smith. Then, like many other Native Americans, she was caught up in relations between British and the tribes. The traditional stories of Metacom’s War all varied. The last story involved King Phillip owning pigs. This represented his willingness to cooperate and work with the Europeans. Many Native Americans tried to adjust (by buying trade goods, adapting to Christianity, etc.). However, many Europeans still made them appear as “savages.” Whether or not this was true with King Phillip is unclear because no one has the “right” story and nothing of the event is written as historical evidence. Richter wants to show the intent behind Monequassum’s confession, so he dissects it. He first describes it as not having much of an Indian voice. This shows that Native Americans were adapting to European ways. It also shows how it is hard to interpret their side of the story when it is not in their voice. Monequassum adapts to their religion and professes his sins so he can be accepted and perhaps not killed. In the end, he believes that such a proclamation is due to the fact that Europeans find natives’ lives very sinful and Mosequassum wants to confess to show that he can be Christian. Native Americans became more involved with Europeans through taking their religion. Also, the Covenant Chain made Iroquois allies with Great Britain. They came to an end when tension built between colonists and Great Britain. During the Consumer Revolution, Indians would supply fur for trading. However, they would receive cheap and lightweight products in return. This changed over time when fur didn’t become such a commodity in England. Both Pontiac’s War and the Paxton Boys were driven by the idea that Native Americans and Europeans are incompatible. Therefore, both attempted to take out the other. British proclamations and treaties regarding Native Americans were ignored in the American Revolution. They were not considered in the signing of new treaties after the war, either. Up to 1812 following the American Revolution, Native Americans were not liked or respected by the government. Andrew Jackson began processes to remove all the Native Americans. William Apess’ Eulogy at the end is a very good way to end the book. This is mostly because it is a first-hand account of the feelings and emotions of Native Americans when this whole book until this point had been at a point-of-view of a person not from that time. Although he is only looking back at the events as well, his take on them is much more reliable than the author’s. This also allows the readers to hear about Apess’ struggles as being a Native American at that time. It essentially sums up all the feelings that the Native Americans have been having along with facts about Apess’ life that give the reader an insight to that time period. Richter’s main point of the novel is that Native American history is not taught or recorded. He attempts to teach it through interpreting other documents. However, we won’t truly ever know for sure how true his interpretations even are. Nonetheless, Native Americans were in the Americas long before Europeans were and their vast disappearance and basic endangerment wasn’t “right” or warranted. They were singled out and killed even when the founding fathers created this country where “men are equal.” Matching – People A. Andrew Jackson B. Pocahontas C. Cartier D. Olaudah Equinao E. Monequassum F. de Soto G. John Zenger H. William of Orange I. King Phillip/Metacom J. Daniel K. Richter K. James Oglethorpe L. James II M. Governor William Berkeley N. Nathaniel Bacon O. William Penn P. Sir Edmund Andros Q. Roger Williams R. Oliver Cromwell S. Cecilius Calvert T. Henry VII U. John Rolfe V. Elizabeth I W. Richard Harkluyt X. Bartolomé de la Casas Y. Christopher Columbus Z. John Locke 1. ____ Wrote letter asking to stop enslaving and destroying Native Americans 2. ____ Started Church of England 3. ____ Spaniard who conquered Native Americans 4. ____ Writes “Disclosure on Western Planting.” 5. ____ Offers land to insiders and triggers Bacon’s Rebellion 6. ____ Native American who confesses his sins. 7. ____ Major war between Native Americans and Europeans. Led and plotted by this man. 8. ____ Discovers America 9. ____ Arrested for criticizing NY government, but found not guilty. 10. ____ Found Rhode Island 11. ____ Believes every man has inalienable rights 12. ____ Protestant who overthrows James II 13. ____ Executes the king and passes Navigation Acts. 14. ____ Native American “Princess” who was just another native pawn in the conflict in America. Marries to make an alliance with British. 15. ____ Frenchman who traded with Native Americans. 16. ____ Supporter of mercantilism and privateering while also restoring the Anglican Church in England 17. ____ Wrote “Facing East from Indian Country” 18. ____ Founds Maryland 19. ____ Appointed governor of New York 20. ____ Leads Bacon’s Rebellion and dies from disease. 21. ____ Wants to remove all Native Americans 22. ____ Catholic who creates the Domain of New England. 23. ____ Founds Georgia 24. ____ African American who published a book about his trip through the Middle Passage. 25. ____ Steals tobacco seeds. 26. ____ Founds Pennsylvania Matching – People A. Middle Ground B. Georgia C. Middle Passage D. Domain of New England E. West Indies F. Pennsylvania G. Carolinas H. New York I. Rhode Island J. Massachusetts K. Maryland L. Jamestown M. Cahokia N. Beringia 1. ____ Founded as a sanctuary for religious persecution and had the “best poor man’s country.” 2. ____ A city that had complex burial grounds and a hierarchy. 3. ____ For two years, the colonies were combined into this. 4. ____ Founded in 1632 by Cecilius Calvert and was tolerant to either Catholic or Protestant. 5. ____ Massive port that became the center of the slave trade. 6. ____ Founded as a tolerant society where church is separate from the state. 7. ____ The land in the center of all three Europeans powers where the Native Americans lived. 8. ____ With a generous headright system, the rice plantations boomed here. 9. ____ The land bridge that people were able to migrate across in 12,000BCE. 10. ____ The sugar trade boomed here with the help of slavery. 11. ____ Founded on a swamp with the goal to find gold. Later becomes a royal colony. 12. ____ The trip from Africa to the colonies, S. America, or the Indies. 13. ____ Founded as an alcohol and salve free colony. 14. ____ The first Puritans landed here and the land was already plowed and managed for them.


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