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PHIL 1030, midterm notes

by: Ronnie Moorefield

PHIL 1030, midterm notes 1030

Marketplace > East Tennessee State University > 1030 > PHIL 1030 midterm notes
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About this Document

Brief summary of teachings and philosophers that will in the midterm exam.
Intro to Philosophy
Teresa Allen
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ronnie Moorefield on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1030 at East Tennessee State University taught by Teresa Allen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views.


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Date Created: 09/22/16
PHIL 1030–201 Intro to Philosophy Teresa Allen Midterm study guide Made by Ronnie Moorefield Beliefs and philosophies of Plato and Aristotle  Plato is considered to be one of the founders of Western philosophy. His primary arguments  were that the physical world is an illusion to be rejected and that one should aspire to a higher  plane, that of the intelligible realm. Plato believed that the Forms were the pinnacle of this realm; eternal, unchanging and the highest good. All of reality is a lesser imitation of the Forms; even a  physical aspect of something that appeared flawless such as a beautiful vase could not match the  Forms which exist beyond any sort of physical space. Aristotle studied the works of Plato though he rejected many of their core ideas. Aristotle’s  stance was that, rather than achieving the ultimate good through rejection of the physical world,  one must embrace the tangible in order to flourish.  He believed that all things, humans, animals, plants, progressed towards this end and every  change moved them closer to it. However, very few managed to achieve “Eudaimonia,” often  translated as “happiness” or “flourishing”. Aristotle argued for the importance of the physical  world as a means to an end, rather than a means in itself. Various aspects of the physical could  potentially help one achieve Eudaimonia; for example, being born the heir of a wealthy family  ensured that one would not need to work for a living and could instead devote their time to  studying philosophy and reaching their end. To reach the end, a person must develop a moral  nature and gain control of their baser desires and impulses.  One who has reached Eudaimonia will employ practical syllogism: desiring the right thing,  having the right deliberation, making the right choice and taking the right action. Such actions  alone are not enough, they must be done for their own sake; a person who performs a right action in hopes of receiving the admiration of their peers is not using practical syllogism. Those who  reached this end were known as moral exemplars or unqualified men; in this context, unqualified refers to a quality without a reference point. If the quality cannot be compared to something else  in its category, then it is, by default, the best item in its category.  While Aristotle believed that most people would never reach Eudaimonia, he argued that  everyone had their place in society. The lower members of a community such as farm laborers  and shopkeepers existed to support the moral exemplars and provide them with the leisure time  necessary to study and guide society as a whole to its end. For a society to reach its end it must  have the correct type of government, run by the right type of men. Aristotle studied over 150  constitutions from various cultures and concluded that the best form of government was an  aristocracy: a community run by a small group of moral exemplars who would make decisions  on behalf of the populace. “Private” matters such as who to marry, when to do so and what sort  of job one should have would not be permitted to be private. Most people were incapable of  making the correct decisions and must instead follow the direction of “unqualified” men. Those  in power were expected to form the proper establishments, laws, schools and amenities to move  society to its end. 


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