Exam 3 Study Guide - Nutrition 101
Exam 3 Study Guide - Nutrition 101 Nutrition 101
Popular in Nutrition 101-001 Intro Human Nutrition
Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kennedy Patterson on Sunday March 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Nutrition 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Lori Greene in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 398 views. For similar materials see Nutrition 101-001 Intro Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
Reviews for Exam 3 Study Guide - Nutrition 101
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/29/15
Exam 3 Study Guide 4115 Vita vital need for life Amin amino acids nitrogen component to vitamins Single unitstructure contains carbon can be destroyed Needed in small amounts Inorganic elements cannot be destroyed can be lost Variable bioavailability Major Minerals greater amounts in body need to consume more Trace Minerals what you find in the body small amounts Vitamins A D E and K Needed to maintain good health Will not be lost when the foods that contain them are cooked Megadoses of these vitamins can be toxic and lead to health problems B Vitamins help with energy metabolism process many have nerve transmission amp Vitamin C Water Insoluble Vitamins Vitamin A D E K Do not yield energy when metabolized Many of them assist the enzymes that participate in the release of energy from carbohydrates fats and proteins Put together in orderly arrays in such structures as bones and teeth found in fluids of the body which influences fluid balance and distribution Do not yield energy Vitamin 35 RDA 13 mgday Folate RDA 400 mcgday Vitamin B12 RDA 24 mcgday Vitamin C o RDA for men 90 mgday o RDA for women 75 mgday o RDA for smokers 35 mgday 0 Upper limit 2000 mgday Vitamin D o RDA 15 mcgday o RDA if over 70 years old 20 mcgday 0 Upper Limit 20 mcgday Vitamin E RDA 15 mgday Sodium 0 AI for 1950 year olds 1500 mgday 0 Upper limit 2300 mgday Exam 3 Study Guide 4115 Potassium AI 4700 mgday Calcium 0 RDA for adults and older men 5170 1000 mgday o RDA for adolescents 1300 mgday Iron 0 RDA for men 8 mgday o RDA for women of child bearing age 18 mgday Thiamin Vitamin Bl 0 Food Sources rains pork products 0 Deficiency Beriberi damage to nervous system heart and muscle weakness Alcohol impairs thiamin absorption and enhances excretion o Toxicity none noted Riboflavin Vitamin B2 0 Food Sources milk and milk products grains green leafy vegetables 0 Deficiency causes inflammation of mouth eyes skin and GI tract 0 Toxicity none noted Niacin Vitamin B3 0 Food Sources meat poultry fish grains legumes vegetables mushrooms potatoes and tomatoes 0 Deficiency Pellagra Four D s diarrhea dermatitis dementia death 0 Toxicity Niacin Flush large dose of nicotinic acid dilates capillaries and causes a tingling sensation Biotin coenzyme 0 Food Sources grains soybeans egg yolks o Deficiency unlikely high consumption of raw egg whites 2 dozen or more per day may cause deficiency symptoms depression lethargy red scaly rash hair loss 0 Toxicity none noted Pantothenic Acid 0 Food Sources meat poultry liver egg yolk grains vegetables potatoes tomatoes broccoli o Deficiency rare fatigue GI distress neurological disturbances o Toxicity none noted Vitamin 35 0 Food Sources meat poultry fish soy products fortified cereals legumes Noncitrus fruits vegetables potatoes amp other starchy vegetables 0 Deficiency diminished synthesis of key neurotransmitters and accumulation of abnormal compounds in the brain symptoms depression and confusion alcohol intake can destroy Vitamin B6 low levels associated with cancers and CVD o Toxicity none noted Folate Folic Acid or Folacin 0 Food Sources legumes fruits vegetables dark green leafy vegetables fortified grain products 0 Deficiency replacement of RBC and GI tract fails abnormal compounds accumulate in the brain fortification as reduced deficiency symptoms anemia and GI tract deterioration neural tube defects brain and spinal cord develop from the neural tube Exam 3 Study Guide 4115 0 Toxicity can mask a Vitamin 312 deficiency Vitamin B12 0 Food Sources milk fish other animalderived foods fortified grains or soy products for vegans o Deficiency due to inadequate absorption vs intake symptoms anemia and impairs cognition o Toxicity none noted Choline essential nutrient 0 Food Sources milk eggs peanuts o Deficiency none noted 0 Toxicity none noted Vitamin C 0 Food Sources fruits citrus fruits strawberries vegetables broccoli o Deficiency Scurvy bleeding gums pinpoint hemorrhages muscles degenerate skin rashes wounds fail to heal teeth fall out due to weakening cartilage o Toxicity GI distress diarrhea Vitamin A 0 Food Sources milk and milk products eggs liver beta carotene dark green leafy vegetables deep orange fruits and vegetables 0 Deficiency uncommon in US symptoms would not appear for 12 years in adult after minimal intake in the diet 0 Toxicity typically only happens with high doses from supplements suppresses bone building activity cause birth defects by causing abnormal cell death in the spinal cord Vitamin D 0 Food Sources fortified milk margarine and butter beef and liver fatty fish herring salmon and sardines egg yolks o Deficiency creates calcium deficiency would not be absorbed in the GI tract without Vitamin D Adults Osteopenia Osteoporosis Older adults Common in the elderly Skin liver and kidneys lose their ability to activate Vitamin D Older adults typically drink less milk Spend a lot of time inside Children and adolescents Adolescents Vitamin D deficient adolescent do not reach peak bone mass Children Rickets Inadequate bone mineralization that causes bowed legs Not common in US but common worldwide AAP recommends supplementation for all children who do not receive enough Vitamin D o Toxicity raises the concentration of blood calcium high amounts of blood calcium can cause kidney stones Vitamin E 0 Food Sources vegetable oils margarine and salad dressings o Deficiency Rare usually associated with diseases with fat malabsorption causes neuromuscular dysfunction 0 Toxicity may interfere with blood clotting action of Vitamin K Vitamin K 0 Food Sources liver dark green leafy vegetables vegetable oils Exam 3 Study Guide 4115 0 Deficiency problems with fat absorption may cause deficiency antibiotics kill the bacteria in the intestine newborns are born with a sterile GI tract and thus their body cannot make Vitamin K given a single dose at birth Sodium 0 Food Sources processed foods table salt occurs naturally in some foods 0 Deficiency Rare Blood sodium may drop with vomiting diarrhea or heavy sweating Symptoms are muscle cramps and confusion o Toxicity common cause edema and high blood pressure Chloride 0 Food Sources abundant in foods as part of NaCl oo tsp of NaCl meets needs for both Na and Cl 0 Deficiency none 0 Toxicity none Potassium 0 Food Sources whole foods meats milk fruits vegetables grains legumes o Deficiency High blood pressure Salt sensitivity Kidney stones High burn turnover 0 Toxicity over consumption of potassium supplements kidneys accelerate excretion Calcium 0 Food Sources milk and milk produces vegetables greens broccoli spinach tofu almonds o Deficiency Limits peak bone mass or weakens bones Peak bone mass is reached by 30yo Bone loss typically occurs between 3040 Excess bone loss can cause fractures due to osteopenia or osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a silent disease 0 Toxicity none noted Phosphorus 0 Food Sources animal foods meat fish poultry eggs and milk 0 Deficiency unlikely o Toxicity none noted Magnesium 0 Food Sources nuts and legumes whole grains dark green vegetables seafood chocolate and cocoa o Deficiency May affect bone metabolism Inflammation leading to heart disease hypertension and DM May contribute to high blood pressure 0 Toxicity none Iron 0 Food Sources Heme iron 25 o absorbed red meats fish poultry eggs legumes nuts seeds dried fruits iron fortified foods Nonheme iron 17 o absorbed plants and animal sources 0 Deficiency Most common nutrient deficiency Primarily preschoolers adolescent girls and pregnant women Women more prone to deficiency due to menses Iron deficiency depleted iron stores Iron deficiency anemia severe depletion that results in low Hgb Symptoms include Exam 3 Study Guide 4115 fatigue weakness headaches Iron supplementation of ferrous sulfate Pica o Toxicity none Zinc 0 Food Sources red meats poultry and shellfish whole grains 0 Deficiency causes growth retardation impairs immune response damages central nervous system slows wound healing o Toxicity none Iodine 0 Food Sources iodized salt seafood bread dairy products 0 Deficiency cause goiter can eventually lead to brain damage 0 Toxicity none Fluoride 0 Food Sources drinking water fluoridated tea seafood 0 Deficiency none 0 Toxicity fluorosis Selenium 0 Food Sources associated with protein in foods seafood meat whole foods fruits and vegetables influenced by soil content 0 Deficiency Keshan disease heart disease that is prevalent in China where foods and soil lack selenium o Toxicity none Copper 0 Food Sources seafood nuts grains seeds legumes o Deficiency anemia bone abnormalities 0 Toxicity liver disease Manganese 0 Food Sources nuts whole grains leafy vegetables tea 0 Deficiency none 0 Toxicity none Chromium 0 Food Sources unrefined foods are best whole grains 0 Deficiency none 0 Toxicity none Amount of folate available to the body from naturally occurring sources fortified foods and supplements accounting for differences in the bioavailability from each source DFE food folate 17 X synthetic folate o 100 food folate 100 supplement 100 X 17 o 100 170 270 DFE The body uses water in all its cells organs and tissues to help regulate its temperature and other bodily functions Because your body loses water through breathing sweating and digesting it s important to rehydrate by drinking fluids and eating foods that contain water Adequate intake for men is 13 cups 3 liters a day Exam 3 Study Guide 4115 Adequate intake for women is 9 cups 22 liters a day Salts that dissolve in water and dissociate into charged particles called ions Vitamin E defends body lipids BetaCarotene defends lipid membranes Vitamin C protects other tissues Created by oxygen reacting with body s compounds Other causes UV rays air pollution tobacco Damage fatty acids DNARNA and proteins
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'