Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide Religion 1101
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brianna on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Religion 1101 at Georgia Highlands College taught by Dr. Tenzin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Midterm Study Guide Highlight: important words Highlight: keywords Highlight: definitions for keywords Hinduism Origins of Hinduism Hinduism is not a single belief, but a family of beliefs Hinduism is the third largest religion and is polytheistic Traces of the religion can be found in the Harappa culture o Harappa evolved into Aryans after several invasions (believe in Vedism – they mixed with Harappa culture creating new Hindu traditions) Earliest Stage of Indian Religion Before the Harappa culture, archaeologists found an ancient city full of amazing discoveries o One of the things they found was an image of a male meditating with horns on his head, they believe this to be may be the deity Shiva The Religion of the Vedic Period Scholars noticed that Sanskrit was related to Greek and Latin; they also noticed that many of the gods mentioned in the Vedas were the same gods the Greeks and Romans worshipped Later, a theory called the Aryan invasion theory was created o It stated that the Aryans moved into two directions, into Europe and into India, Scholars believe the Aryans violently pushed their religion and language on the other culture – they believe the Vedas are religious writings of the invaders The Vedas The Vedas are the earliest scared books of Hinduism o The name means “knowledge” or “scared lore” 1. Rig Veda is the oldest and most important o It is a vast collection of religious poetry and hymns Midterm Study Guide Highlight: important words Highlight: keywords Highlight: definitions for keywords 2. Yajur Veda o includes prayers and invocations of the ancient faith 3. Sama Veda o full of scared chants 4. Atharva Veda o full of magical blessings, curses, and incantations Hindus believe the Vedas were revealed to be of divine origin and not by man believe the Vedas were revealed to rishis (holy men of distant past) the Vedas typically refer to these four, but could also include Brahmana and Aranyakas o Brahmanas are named for priests and gave details about proper time and place for ceremonies o Aranyakas are “forest books” that allow rituals to be understating and practices in symbolic ways The four Vedas end with the Upanishads (a collection of texts that express philosophical and religious ideas) The Vedas are written in Sanskrit (the ancient language of the Indus Valley and Indo Aryans) The Upanishads and the Axis Age At this time, Indian civilization experienced widespread change Vedic religious beliefs were being questioned, long and deep meditation was being experimented with, and some were using psychedelic plants and living in dark caves The Origins of the Upanishads The name, Upanishads have been commonly thought to mean “sitting near” referring to disciples sitting near a master and learning techniques for achieving religious experiences Midterm Study Guide Highlight: important words Highlight: keywords Highlight: definitions for keywords Important Concepts of the Upanishads These concepts are still important in Hindu 1. Brahman Means divine reality The single being that pervaded the universe and found within the individual (atman) 2. Atman Deepest self and spiritual self It is more than just a person 3. Maya Illusion or magic It is the illusionary quality of the world 4. Karma The moral law of consequence Hindus believe that actions will determine a person’s fate in the next life 5. Samsara The cycle of birth, death, and rebirth Strongly suggests the world is full of change and suffering This leads to the ultimate goal of Hindus (moksha) 6. Moksha It means freedom It is the break of Samsara, through yoga, that leads to freedom Midterm Study Guide Highlight: important words Highlight: keywords Highlight: definitions for keywords In the Upanishads this is the ultimate goal It is the union of the individual soul (atman) and the universal soul (brahman) Hindu Caste System Caste is a division of society into classes You are born into your class and it cannot change It is divided into four groups 1. Brahmins Priests Preforms rituals and acts as a counselor 2. Kshatriyas Warriornoble Protects society It is their dharma (duty) 3. Vaishyas Merchants Landowners, artisans, and moneylenders 4. Shudra Peasants Servants who do manual labor Outside of the caste system are achhoots o Also called Dalits or the untouchables Midterm Study Guide Highlight: important words Highlight: keywords Highlight: definitions for keywords They did the lowest work o Reformist Mohandas Gandhi renamed the Dalits to Harijan (another name for Dailts) and urged their inclusion in society Stages of Life Brahmacharin o Student – between the ages of 8 and 20 o Studies religious works and celibacy is crucial Grihastha o Householder – around age 20 o Raises children Vanaprastha o Retirement – occurs when grandchildren arrive o Goes to the forest and live away from society Sannyasin o Renunciation – after retirement and optional o Completely flee family, be celibate, and wander free begging for food o They live in ashrams (religious communities) The Yogas o The word “yoga” comes from “Yug” meaning to join and unite all aspects of the body with the mind Jhana Yoga o Knowledge yoga o Involves learning the Upanishads and learning from teachers Midterm Study Guide Highlight: important words Highlight: keywords Highlight: definitions for keywords Karma Yoga o Action yoga o All useful work and selfless actions can lead to perfection; it involves doing good to others Bhakti Yoga o Devotion yoga o Path of emotion, devotion, and love Raja Yoga o Royal yoga o Promotes meditation Hatha Yoga o Force yoga o Physical exercises of yoga o Stretching, balancing, breathing, etc. Kundalini Yoga o Combining Raja and Hatha Yoga o Teaches there are seven psychic centers, called chakras that exist on the spinal cord above one another All cause insight and joy (seven psychic centers that cause insight and joy) Devotional Hinduism The majority of Hindus have followed the path of devotion (bhakti) to god/gods Midterm Study Guide Highlight: important words Highlight: keywords Highlight: definitions for keywords Puja is a ritual at an alter Hindus believe all reality is unified under one divine entity (brahman) making people think Hinduism is monotheistic This divine entity is divided into three main gods (Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva) known as Trimurti o Brahma Creator God that created the universe Depicted with four heads and eight arms Companion animal is white goose Hindus believe he created the Vedas o Vishnu Preserves the creation and restores order in chaos In Vedas he is associated with the sun Forms an avatar to fit the present need The two most famous Vishnu avatars are Krishna and Rama o Krishna was an object of fertility worship o Rama was a historical figure who later took on mythic proportions Shaktis are energies male gods use to be active Vaishnatives are followers of Vishnu o Shiva Destroyer of imperfections Destroys bad things to make room for good things in the world Midterm Study Guide Highlight: important words Highlight: keywords Highlight: definitions for keywords Shaivites are followers of Shiva Fertility is emphasized by Shiva’s companion animal Nandi, the bull and by Ganesha, the elephant headed son of Shiva Hinduism strongly recognizes female aspects of divinity The great mother, Devi, is worshipped throughout India The divine feminine takes shape as several goddesses o The two most popular are Durga and Kali Durga is “awe inspiring” she is represented with eight arms used to destroy evil Kali (“dark”) is fearsome and is shown wearing human skulls and her teeth are bloody She is the wife of Shiva Buddhism Beginnings of Buddhism Buddhism has spread though Asia, but it all started in India People began experimenting with meditation which led to new philosophy and the Buddha was born Life of Buddha Born 563 BCE originally known as Siddhartha (Buddha’s original name) He was the son of a wealthy chief who tried to protect him from the world Claimed to be born from miraculous conception Siddhartha left the royal grounds (after being locked inside all his life) and was shocked by what he saw. o This is known as the 4 passing sights He saw an old man, a sick man, a corpse being dragged away, and a sannyasin Midterm Study Guide Highlight: important words Highlight: keywords Highlight: definitions for keywords Shocked by what he saw, at age 29 he renounced his life of wealth to become a wandering ascetic, a monk He adopted a path of moderation, or a middle way between selfindulgence and asceticism (abstinence from worldly pleasures) He went to the Bodhi tree and there he entered into a deep meditation and reached an understanding called his Awakening, or Bodhi, (an understanding of the true nature of things) and the highest degree of divine consciousness, nirvana o Nirvana is the release of suffering and the ultimate goal for Buddhists In his meditation he earned the name Buddha aka “The Awakened One” Three Marks of Reality Reality manifests three characteristics known as the three marks of reality o Anitya – change nothing is fixed, everything is constantly changing o Anatman – no permanent identity Buddha urged people to abandon egotism and denied the existence of permanent identity For people, this is called “no permanent soul” or “no self” o Dukkha – suffering Also called dissatisfaction Life can never be fully satisfying because of inescapable change Four Noble Truths The four noble truths are a linked chain of truths about life 1. To live is to suffer – truth of suffering Living causes inevitable pain and suffering 2. Suffering comes from desire – cause of suffering Buddha saw that suffering comes from wanting what we can’t have and never being satisfied with what we currently have 3. To end suffering, end desire – cessation of suffering Recommended to peacefully accept whatever happens Aim less for happiness and more for inner peace 4. Release from suffering can be attained from noble eightfold path – cause of cessation The goal of Buddhism is nirvana, the release of suffering, which can be achieved through the noble eightfold path Noble Eightfold Path The eight steps of the noble eightfold path will lead to liberation of suffering These steps are meant to be done all at the same time instead of in sequence Midterm Study Guide Highlight: important words Highlight: keywords Highlight: definitions for keywords 1. Right understanding (view) Recognize the impermanence of life, desire, and suffering 2. Right intention Thoughts and motives are pure and not tainted with emotions and desires 3. Right speech I will speak honestly and kind 4. Right action My actions do not hurt others and will not bring harm 5. Right work (livelihood) My job does not cause harm to others 6. Right effort With moderation, I strive to improve 7. Right meditation (mindfulness) I use disciplines of meditation to contemplate the nature of reality 8. Right contemplation (concentration) I cultivate states of blissful inner peace Ahisma “do not harm” Ahisma discourages causing pain to anything This is hard to achieve, but a person must do everything possible to avoid causing suffering The Soul and Karma Buddha rejected the idea of a soul, but believes in rebirth Parts of a person’s personality, instead of their soul, comes together to be reborn Karma affects the elements in a person’s personality so it can be reborn in the end Nirvana The world of change is called samsara, but the release of samsara is called nirvana Nirvana is associated with a psychological state of peace and joy Once nirvana is reached rebirth is finished Early Development of Buddhism Ashoka was a king that wanted to expand his ruling through India o In a certain battle he witnessed something so horrific he converted to a life of nonviolence and took use of Buddhist values o He wanted to spread nonviolence throughout India so he built pillars inscribed with Buddhist principles Midterm Study Guide Highlight: important words Highlight: keywords Highlight: definitions for keywords In response to several disagreements over Buddhist teachings, many Buddhist schools arose – Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana Theravada Buddhism The name Theravada came from wanting to pass on Buddhist teachings unchanged o It means “the way of the elders” The heart of Theravada Buddhism is a community of monks They do not believe laypeople (nonordained member of a church) can reach nirvana – the believe the ideal arhat “perfect being” (a person with detached wisdom and unworldly living) It spread from India to Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar, and Laos Theravada Teachings The Theravada collection of teachings is the Pali Canon aka Tripitaka meaning “three baskets” The first collection is Vinaya Pitaka o It outlines the rules of monastic life The second collection is Sutra Pitaka o It lists Buddhist sayings in sermons or dialogues The third collection is Abhidharma Pitaka meaning “the works that go beyond elementary teachings” o It systemized the doctrine in sutras Theravada Art and Architecture Before artists used images to represent Buddha they used symbols – one symbol is an eightspoked wheel o The rim represents mindfulness o The hub – moral discipline o The eight spokes – eightfold path Stupas are large mounds for relics and meditation that formed around remains of monks and important Buddhist sights Mahayana Buddhism Translated to “big vehicle” It tends to fit everyone’s religious needs New Ideals: Compassion and Bodhisattva Wisdom remained and important goal, but compassion became a central teaching The term for compassion is Karuna, meaning “empathy” or “kindness” Midterm Study Guide Highlight: important words Highlight: keywords Highlight: definitions for keywords The ideal of Mahayana is Bodhisattva which is a person of deep compassion “enlightenment being” o Because Bodhisattva’s embody compassion they typically refuse to reach nirvana o Some take a “bodhisattva vow” to be constantly reborn until all are enlightened Mahayana recognizes that people differ and find themselves at different stages of spiritual development Mahayana Thought and Worldview Buddha nature can express itself in three ways, called trikaya or trikaya doctrine The historical Buddha came to be considered a manifestation of divine reality o this is called Dharmakaya “the cosmic body” the cosmic Buddha nature permeates all things even though it is invisible Siddhartha Gautama’s (Buddha) physical body is called Nirmanakay “transformation body” Both branches of Buddhism believe another historical Buddha, Maitreya will come to earth in the future Cosmic Buddha nature has also taken bodily shape in supernatural Buddhas that live in constant happiness in the heavens o They are sambhogakaya “perfect bliss body” Shunyata “emptiness” o One Mahayana doctrine asserts that all reality is shunyata o An outgrowth of basic Buddhist reality that everything is constantly shifting and changing Spread of Mahayana Mahayana spread out of India to central Asia and China o It had virtues that greatly appealed to the Chinese Buddhism and its literature moved into Korea o It was widely adopted because of its powers to protect the three kingdoms From Korea it moved to Japan in the 6 century o Zen Buddhism was highly accepted th the military It was named after the 7 step of the noble eightfold, dhyana, and created a counterbalance toward simplification The enlightenment experience, kensho/satori, brings awareness of the unity of oneself and the universe The most fundamental Zen technique is Zazen, or seated mediation Another technique is Koan, it is a riddle that needs deep thought because it is not easy to answer Midterm Study Guide Highlight: important words Highlight: keywords Highlight: definitions for keywords Vajrayana Buddhism Mahayana Buddhism developed practices and beliefs that are esoteric (hidden) o When these traditions entered Tibet (Indian Mahayana Buddhism mixed with Tibetan Shamanism) Vajrayana Buddhism formed Vajrayana means “diamond vehicle” Tantric Buddhism, got its named for its scriptures (tantras), challenged Tibetan religion o Tantras taught that the body and all its energies could be used to reach enlightenment o A Tibetan spiritual teacher is called a lama (guru) and is a title of honor to monks o A reform movement gave Tibet with political leadership The executive head is called Dalai Lama A debate is important in many Tibetan monasteries. In debates, monks learn to sharpen skills and their ability to teach others Ritual and the Arts In Vajrayana a mantra, chanted sayings, is chanted to bring power and wisdom through repetition Symbolic hand gestures, mudras, on statues of Buddha are common through all Buddhism A Vajra is a metal object representing a bolt of lightning A painting on a cloth is called a thangka which can have a large variety of different designs on it Jainism Shared Origins India is the home to two religions, Jainism and Sikhism, that are becoming better known in the west Both religions have connections with Hinduism Jainism rejects the belief in a creator God and sees the universe as natural forces in motion Sikhism embraces monotheism and accepts eating meat and using military defense, whereas Jainism emphasizes nonattachment and nonharm (Ahisma) Midterm Study Guide Highlight: important words Highlight: keywords Highlight: definitions for keywords Both religions stress the individuals struggle to purify the self, act morally, and to do good to others Jainism Sikhism Similarities No creator God Creator God ~ monotheism Both stress individual Nonattachment Eats meat struggle to purify and act No harm Uses military morally Background As Vedic religion expanded there was a lot of opposition and from that opposition, Jainism and Buddhism grew o Jainism was the less popular of the two Both religions were influenced by Hindu ideas and ascetic traditions Studying Jainism gives a better understanding of Hinduism and Buddhism Mahavira and the Origins of Jainism Jains believe 24 people throughout history have reached perfection and remain role models and guides showing the way to others o These are called Tirthankara (the 24 people in Jainism history that have reached perfection and liberation) Most of the Tirthankara’s existences cannot be proven, but the most recent, Nataputta Vardhamana, is considered to be the best of the 24 o His life story resembles Buddha He was born into an aristocratic family and left home around age 30 to become a wandering holy man o After 12 years of meditation and wandering, at age 42 he reached liberation Because of his liberation he is called a Jina meaning “conqueror” (someone who has conquered liberation through self discipline) Midterm Study Guide Highlight: important words Highlight: keywords Highlight: definitions for keywords Jina is where Jainism gets its name Worldview Jains do not believe in a creator God and they believe it is foolish to do so o They believe the universe has no beginning and it is eternal o Jainism teaches that the universe goes through good and bad cycles of creating life and ending life Everything is full of life and everything can suffer Jains teach that all parts of the universe are made of two kinds of reality o Spirit (senses and feels) This is called Jiva “soul” “life” (a living being) o Matter (not alive or no consciousness) This is called Ajiva “no soul” (a nonliving being) Jainism sees two opposing sides of humans o The material side and the spiritual side Karma and rebirth are important to Jains just as the other religions o In Jainism, karma has a physical quality like a powder or grime that clings onto a person’s personality In Jainism, the goal is to reach complete liberation o The spirits that have reached this live in the highest realm with the Tirthankara Midterm Study Guide Highlight: important words Highlight: keywords Highlight: definitions for keywords Jain Ethics Nonviolence (Ahisma) (causing no harm) o Foundation of Jainism ethics and they are best known for their actions in this regard Monks and nuns use brushes to wipe away insects that could be harmed They are known to buy caged animals to set them free Strict vegetarians Nonlying o Jains discourage any telling of falsehoods or exaggerations because it may cause pain to others o Absolute truth is taught to be impossible because things are seen from different points of view Nonstealing o Jains may not take from others what is not given to them Chastity (celibacy is required for monks and Jains are only allowed to mate with their partner if married) o Complete celibacy is required for monks and nuns o If someone is married they must only participate sexually with their partner Nonattachment (attachments must be limited and for monks/nuns no attachments are allowed) o This suggests generosity and limited personal possessions to only what is necessary to survive o For monks and nuns, they must abandon all attachments including clothes and family Midterm Study Guide Highlight: important words Highlight: keywords Highlight: definitions for keywords Development and Branches o Jainism first developed in northeast India o Mahavira rebelled against Vedic religion o As Jainism spread branches were created Digambaras (conservative Jainism branch that requires nudity and does not allow women) o Means “clothed in sky” This refers to the monk ideal of complete nudity o The branch holds that everything must be renounced o Most members of this branch remain in southern India and are very conservative They do not allow nuns Shvetambaras (Jainism branch that allows women and monks/nuns both wear white robes) o Means “clothed in white” This refers to monks wearing white robes o This branch allows nuns and they also dress in white o Teaches that Mahavira was married but left to find liberation Jain Practices They do not stress devotional acts towards gods and deceased leaders Puja (ritual preformed in front of statues and alters) has been adopted by most Monks and nuns practice fasting and laypeople join in on the last days of the Jain year (late summer) Midterm Study Guide Highlight: important words Highlight: keywords Highlight: definitions for keywords o Parayusana is the period of fasting lasting 15 days for Digambaras and 8 days for Shvetambaras o Pilgrimage is important for Jain spirituality The village where Mahavira died is a pilgrimage center and they visit the great temple for the bathing of large statues Sikhism Background Started in Punjab (northwest India and eastern Pakistan) o The area tried to bond the conflict between Hindus and Muslims Sikhism shows elements of both religions Before Sikhism there were saints who practiced a spirituality with elements from both elements and sought to overcome divisions o A major component in the saints was a mystic, Kabir, whose poetry had a great influence, from this, Sikhism was born Nanak and Origins of Sikhism Nanak was the founder of Sikhism One day he has such a powerful experience he saw it as a revelation o He was bathing in a river and went into a forest for three days where he felt himself taken into a divine presence o He claims he was with God himself Midterm Study Guide Highlight: important words Highlight: keywords Highlight: definitions for keywords Nanak referred to the fundamental divine reality as true name meaning all names and labels applied to God are limited because the divine is beyond human conception He left home to wander and preached o This is what Sikh means (to be a disciple) Worldview and Nanak Teachings People see Sikhism as Hinduism and Islam combined but Sikh’s see it as unique o They say Nanak abandoned both religions and Sikhism came from a revelation o Nanak accepted rebirth and karma o He resisted love of ritual and polytheism o Nanak believed God had personal qualities (compassion, knowledge, etc.) that made him approachable by individuals o He believes God is the primary guru (spiritual teacher) and preached that God dwells inside the individual o He organized sanghats (religious groups) that offered worship to God and assistance to others Development of Sikhism In its earliest stage it was not defined as a religion, but a religious movement In the first stage, four gurus that wrote hymns and organized communities; they also developed a village headquarters at Amritsar (in India) (headquarters for Sikh religion) In the second stage Sikh’s were forced to adopt a militant stance toward the world The second stage began with guru Arjan who built the golden temple (a place of worship in the Amristar and the holiest temple) around Amritsar Arjan collected 3,000 hymns and created a scared book of the Sikhs, called the Adi Granth Midterm Study Guide Highlight: important words Highlight: keywords Highlight: definitions for keywords Arjan’s son Har Gobind pushed the Sikh’s in a more selfdefense direction and had an army protect him and his followers o He wore a sword abandoning Ahisma Gobind Rai idealized the sword and because of his military power he became Gobind Signh “Gobind the lion” o He created a special military order for men, Khalsa, involving sprinkling initiates with water stirred with the sword o Every male within Khalsa took the name Signh meaning “lion” Gobind Singh’s sons died so he had no successors, so he claimed Adi Granth to be his successor and the permanent guru o The scared book in Amritsar and in Sikh temples, guruwaras Five K’s Kesh: uncut hair and beard Khanga: hair comb to hold long hair Kach: special underwear to indicate alertness Kirpan: sword Kara: bracelet of steel Sikh Scriptures The primary book, Adi Granth, is divided into three parts 1. Japji It is a moderately long poem by Nanak that summarizes the religion Midterm Study Guide Highlight: important words Highlight: keywords Highlight: definitions for keywords 2. 39 rags (tunes) by gurus 3. Collection of varied works including hymns and poems At the golden temple, Adi Granth is brought out in the morning and read through the day by professional readers, and it is “put to sleep” at night
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