Anth 240 Exam 1 Study Guide
Anth 240 Exam 1 Study Guide Anth 240
Minnesota State University, Mankato
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hallie Notetaker on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Anth 240 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Dr. Chelsea Mead in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Language and Culture in Anthropology at Minnesota State University - Mankato.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
ANTH 240 Exam 1 Study Guide Key Terms: Anthropology – the study of all people, at all Phonetics – sound producing system; lungs, times, in all places; what it means to be human larynx, pharynx, oral cavity, nasal cavity LinguisticAnthropology – study of language Voiced – when the larynx is pulled close and language use in cultural and social contexts together, but not closed, air causes the vocal Linguistics – study of how language works folds to vibrate and produce sounds mechanically; reduces language to sets of Voiceless – when the larynx is pulled apart air formal rules passes easily Ethnocentrism – refusing to recognize other Consonants – can be voiced or voiceless; made cultures on their own terms; believing one’s by complete closure or narrowing of vocal culture is better or more right than others tract; airflow is blocked momentarily or Cultural Relativism – differences exist among restricted to make noise culture systems; they make as much sense as Vowels – produced with little restriction of any other and are just as valid airflow; usually voiced; more sonorous or “Indigenous” – first peoples in a geographical perceived louder and longer lasting space with earliest known connections to that Glides – shows properties of both consonants land; shared experiences of marginalization, and vowels; rapidly articulated vowels negative impact of resource extraction, cultural IPA– International PhoneticAlphabet; each homogenization, economic modernization sound is represented by a symbol Colonization – invasion of place by outsiders Places ofArticulation – bilabials, labiodentals, “Indigenous” language – from a linguistically interdental, dental distinct community that has been settled in the Manners ofArticulation – oral vs. nasal area for many generations phones; stops made with complete closure of Language Death – affects speech communities oral cavity or glottis; fricatives where the level of linguistic competence that Morphology – the study of the internal speakers possess of a given language variety is structures of words decreased, eventually resulting in no native or Lexicon – speaker’s mental dictionary fluent speakers Word – smallest free form found in language; Speaker Bases does not require a fixed position with other What’s lost when a language dies? – human elements knowledge about medicines, relationships with Morpheme – smallest unit of language that land and place and ecological knowledge; carries information about meaning or function cultural heritage through stories, histories and Syntax – the study of the structure of arts; human cognition through the diversity of sentences; internal structure of sentences and languages and human capabilities sentence elements; construction of phrases, Language Change clauses and order of words Linguistic Competence – knowledge that lets Affixes – always bound morphemes; prefix and you produce unlimited combinations, but also suffix recognize what does not belong Derivation – affixational process where a word Phonology – study of sound in language; study is formed with a meaning or category distinct of phonetics and phonemics of a language and from its base; verb becomes a noun – sell to of the sound changes over time in a language seller or languages Compounding – the combination of two Qualitative – not counting; in-depth analysis of already existent words usually resulting in a behavior noun, verb or an adjective – spoonfeed Quantitative – data that can be counted Trees – structural diagrams used to dissect LingAnthro Research Methods – participant morphemes observation, interviews, surveys and Semantics – the study of meaning in human questionnaires, naturally occurring language; words and phrases and their conversations relationships Ethics of Research – Free morpheme – words on their own; ex. LinguisticAnthropology ethical issues – Dinosaur unequal power between researcher and people Bound morpheme – must be attached to being studied; combated with IRB and another element; ex. –s informed consent Simple words – words made by single Hocket’s Design Features of Human Language morpheme – displacement, productivity, cultural Complex words – two or more morphemes to transmission, duality, reflexiveness, learnability make a word Expressions shared amongst humans and other Historical Linguistics – systematic changes in primates language; causes of language change Communication – one organism receives a Pragmatics – study of language use; how signal that originated with another meanings merge in actual social contexts Language – set of discrete vocal sounds, Multifunctionality – we “do” things with words meaningless by themselves, that can be strung and language together to produce higher-order units endowed Jackobson’s Model – expressive (speakers with conventional but arbitrary meanings feelings or opinions), conative (command where uses can generate an unlimited number towards receiver or question), referential of unprecedented comments about events (making observations from third context), removed in time and space poetic (calls attention to sounds/patterns, play Lieberman 1960s – human vocal tract, on words), phatic (maintains social/physical specifically the larynx is lower in humans than connection), metalinguistic (asking questions in other primates which enables humans to about language) produce more vowels and more creativity in Language ideologies – attitudes, beliefs, sounds theories about language; serves specific Examples ofAnimal Communication –Ants: interests of specific group communicate via tactile and auditory channels, Practice theory – language, culture and society also through chemical signals shared by each are pre-existing but also shaped and produced member; Bees: use pheromones from the by human words and actions honeybee Queen, distance to nectar from the Indexicality – features that point to their hive is indicated by a dance; Wolves: posture, meaning or context of the speech sounds look, physical contact, auditory signals Indexicals Displays – birdsongs, croaking, chirping, Semiotics – the study of signs changing colors or ruffling feathers, chest Pierce’s Approach – signs (what stands for beating, etc. something else; ex. Word “water”), objects Channels of Communication – acoustic, (what a sign stands for; ex. Actual water), optical, tactile, olfactory interpretants (what a sign creates by standing Viki – adopted by Keith J. Hayes and Catherine for an object; ex. Thirst quenching) Hayes and raised her as a human child in their home; after six years could only produce four words, but was successfully taught to produce Culture of monoglot standardization some vocalizations in a home setting Agency – the capacity of individuals to act Washoe – first major attempt to teach a independently and to make their own free chimpanzee sign language in a lab setting; by choices the end of her life, knew about 250 distinct Hegemony – leadership or dominance, signs; taught adopted son sign language especially by one country or social group over without explicit human direction others Koko – gorilla who was taughtASL at Stanford Power – the capacity or ability to direct or and it is claimed she understands upwards of influence the behavior of others or the course 1000 signs along with a significant amount of of events spoken words Habitus – a system of embodied dispositions, Kanzi – bonobo who uses symbols through a tendencies that organize the ways in which lexigram board; understands good amount of individuals perceive the social world around spoken English; also seems to have grasped them and react to it some structural aspects of language Doxa – common belief or popular opinion Self-lowering and child-raising Heterodoxy – not conforming with accepted or Universal Grammar – all languages have orthodox standards or beliefs grammar Orthodoxy – authorized or generally accepted Grammar – all grammars are equal, share theory, doctrine or practice basics, change and evolve, are subconscious; Capital – wealth in the form of money or other mental systems that form and interpret sounds, assets owned by a person or organization or words and sentences; phonetics, phonology, available or contributed for a particular purpose morphology, syntax, semantics such as starting a company or investing Continuity – speech must have ultimately Symbolic dominance developed from “primitive” forms of Iconization, Fractal recursivity, Erasure communication used by lower animals; Performance language evolved in a straight line over time; Icon, Index, Symbol human language and animal language differ Folk Taxonomies and Naming practices only in complexity Vocal Channel Discontinuity – human language must be Phonetic symbols recognized as unique, without evolutionary Phone – smallest perceptible discrete segment antecedents; all humans possess the biological of speech potential for acquisition of language, the Accent capacity must have characterized the common Prosodic features ancestors of all humans before populations Transformation adapted to different environments and Inflections – do not change the grammatical physically diversified category or type of meaning Safe languages – significant amount of Prelanguage – earliest hominids likely used speakers; no risk of disappearing signals Endangered languages – some risk of Hominids – apes and humans; generally more disappearing due to the number of speakers complex behaviorally; increased period of reducing as a result of no one learning the infant development and dependency language Protolanguage – a hypothetical undocumented Moribund languages – near death; likely parent language from which actual languages become extinct without intervention are derived Extinct languages – no longer has any speakers Monogenesis – the hypothetical origination of Polygenesis – the hypothetical origination of language or of a surname from a single source language or of a surname from a number of at a particular place and time independent sources in different places at different times Essay Questions: On the exam, you will be given two of these questions and will have to write on one of them. 1. When conducting linguistic anthropological research with Indigenous languages, what considerations must one take in regards to methods, history, writing, and power? 2. Communication in the animal world (including humans) often functions in similar ways. How and in what way is human communication similar to other animal communication? (form, function, purpose, origins) How and in what way(s) is human communication unique or different? a. Similar to insects: a.i. Organized communities, hierarchical structures, divisions of labor b. Similar to other mammals: b.i. Social relationships often highly developed: b.i.1. Learning, habit formation, heredity, biological differences c. Other similarities with animals c.i. Communicate – one organism receives a signal that originated with another c.ii. Purpose – survival, social, emotional, etc. c.iii. Means – multiple channels that humans and animals use c.iv. Displays – birdsongs, croaking, chirping, changing colors, or ruffling feathers, chest beating, etc. d. Uniquely human d.i. Displacement – humans can talk about something that is far removed in time or space from the sitting the communication occurs d.ii. Reflexiveness – humans can use language to talk about language, or communication in general d.iii. Learnability – any human speaker can potentially learn any human language 3. Linguists and LinguisticAnthropologists share a common interest in language and language theory. How are the fields of linguistics and linguistic anthropology similar and different? Support your claims with examples. a. Linguistics – reduces language to sets of formal rules; study of how language works mechanically b. Linguistic anthropology – language is social and must be understood as such; language in use and practice
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