317 - Study Guide 1
317 - Study Guide 1 317
Popular in Sensation and Perception
Tricia Mae Fortuna
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tricia Mae Fortuna on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 317 at Towson University taught by M. Paz Galupo in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Sensation and Perception in Psychology (PSYC) at Towson University.
Reviews for 317 - Study Guide 1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/22/16
Study Guide for Exam 1: Sensation and Perception 9/27/2016 Dr. Galupo *Highlighted Words are the Keywords MAJOR CONCEPTS Define sensation and perception: know the difference between the two Sensation: How we are collecting physical energy from outside stimuli converting it to neural energy o Relatively FIXED Process dependent on our Anatomy o Same stimuli for each person Perception: Interpretation of Neural Energy o Relatively FLEXIBLE process informed by our past experience o Depends on each person Know the 3 stages outlined in class for sensation and perception both *** (Be able to discuss on a general level as well as relating them specifically to vision) 3 Stages of Sensation o Modification of incoming stimuli by accessory structures An Accessory structure modifies the stimuli (Cornea, Lens, Pupil, & Iris) o Transduction: actual conversion of one energy to another Physical Energy to Neural Energy Receptors = transducers (Retina – Fovea, Rods & Cones, Horizontal, Bipolar, Amocrine, & Ganglion) o Sensory Nerves: Pathway that sends Neural Signal to the Brain so it can be processed (Optic Nerve) 3 Stages of Perception o Selection: Many things are going on, Select on where to pay attention (alters how we interpret the world) Automatic Process: always have an impression and interpretation Learned Process: choose where to pay attention o Organization: Organize information o Interpretation: Interpreting the information Know the 3 principles of sensation and the 7 principles of perception 3 Principles of Sensation o Thresholds: Giving us information of how much energy we need to have the information Absolute Threshold: Minimum amount of Physical Energy necessary to cause a sensation Difference Threshold: Minimum amount difference necessary between two stimuli for us to notice the difference o Sensation is biased: by our anatomy – biased receptor levels Sensory Receptors: specialized neurons designed to react or respond to physical stimuli and in respond generate electrical signal o Sensory Adaptation: Given constant levels of stimulation decreases our sensitivity 7 Principles of Perception o Knowledge based: Interpreting information based on what you know or past experiences (constructing what we’re seeing) o Inferential: Filling in the blanks that have not been taken by our sense and making sense of it (learned concept) o Categorical: Organizing information in categories o Relational: Interpret objects in relation to what we know and to other objects o Operates Automatically: Happening automatically which tails into our survival o Adaptive: The way we interpret things are important for our survival as species o Discrete: Favor one interpretation of an object at any given time (decide what to do about it) Know the parts of a neuron and the functional role each plays Dendrites: Receiving information Cell Body/Soma: Decision is made in Cell Firing Axon: Sending information Know about the 3 types of electrical potentials we discussed in class (RP, AP, PSP) Resting Potential (RP): No movement of Charge – Cell is at rest Action Potential (AP): Movement of Charge – “Firing” of Cell (communication) – All or None Potential Post-Synaptic Potentials (PSP): Change of potential in the Post-synaptic neuron in the synapse o Excitatory PSP (EPSP) – depolarize cell/more likely to fire o Inhibitory PSP (IPSP) – hyperpolarize cell/less likely to fire Be able to describe how the distribution of ions across a (semi-permeable) membrane can explain these potentials Resting Potential (RP): o Na+ are concentrated outside of cell o K+ are concentrated inside of cell o Resting Potential = -70mV (millivolts) Stable Potential o Inside is more negative than outside o Membrane’s permeability is low – but allows some ions to move through Action Potential (AP): o Threshold has to met - “triggered” o Membrane’s permeability shifts towards Na+ (Na+ channels open) o Na+ influx – inside the cell o Membrane’s permeability shifts towards K+ (K+ channels open) o K+ efflux – leave the cell o Na+/K+ pump – to reset the cell back to RP Know the 2 forces that allow ion movement Diffusion: tendency of ions to move from higher to lower concentration gradient (Na+: independent) Electrostatic Pressure/Electrical Gradient: Like charges repel and opposite charges attract (Na+ attracted to negative charge of cell – K+ repelled by Na+ charge inside the cell then in comes out) Understand the events that take place to allow chemical transmission across a synapse 1. [Electrical] AP reaches axon terminal (AT) of pre-synaptic Cell – (Electrical Pre-synaptic) 2. [Chemical] Synaptic Vesicles containing neurotransmitters (NT) to migrate to the pre-synaptic membrane 3. [Chemical] Vesicles fuse with pre-synaptic membrane which causes a release of NT into Synaptic Cleft 4. [Chemical] NT diffuse across cleft, bind with receptor sites on the post-synaptic membrane 5. [Electrical] Ion channels open – Electrical Event = POST-SYNAPTIC POTENTIALS (PSP) Know (and be able to distinguish among) the different types of sensory codes Place Theory or Place Code: suggests that the interpretation of APs involves where the activity is Frequency Code: suggests that a neuron’s firing rate (# of pulses per second). Different meanings can be communicated by different firing rates Pattern of Action Potentials (within a single cell): Each pattern of firing of the same cell has a different meaning Know the anatomy of the eye and the functional role for each structure STAGE 1: Accessory Structure o Cornea: 80% Focusing Light – fixed curvature – protective layer – bent light o Lens: 20% bending light (fine tune) – behind the pupil – responsive curvature Accommodation: changes its shape in order to bring objects of difference distances into focus o Pupil: Hole – work together with Iris o Iris: Pigmented muscle – modify amount of light that gets in the eye constricting pupil STAGE 2: Receptors o Fovea: Center of Retina o Retina: Receptors – slice of brain at the back of the eye – made up 5 different cells Stage 2 – Transduction: Receptors: Rod & Cones Horizontal Cells Bipolar Cells Amocrine Cells Ganglion Cells – axons make up optic nerve o Rods – Visual Pigment: Black and White; Only in Peripheral Retina, Rod shaped; Low Illumination; 120 million receptors o Cones – Visual Pigment: Color; Concentrated in the Fovea; Cone shaped; High Illumination; 6 million receptors STAGE 3 o Optic Nerve: Ganglion cell axons Know the anatomy of the retina (functional role) Retina: Receptors – slice of brain at the back of the eye – made up 5 different cells Know how transduction occurs for vision Visual Transduction = Pigment Bleaching: Contain visual pigment: 11-cis-retinal – binds to an opsin molecule (rhodopsin – Rods & Idopsin – Cones) o 11-cis-retinal + opsin (bond is stable in dark) o Add light (bond becomes unstable) 11-cis-retinal converts to all-trans-retinal & opsin breaks off o Chemical Conversion creates Energy o Energy used to open ion channels! – electrical event! o Retinal & Opsin Recombine (reset) – Pigment Regeneration Know potential focusing problems in visual processing discussed in class Myopia – Nearsightedness: Parallel lines of light intersect before hitting the retina/Eyeball is too big Hyperopia – Farsightedness: Parallel lines of light intersect after hitting the retina/Eyeball is too small Presbyopia “old eye” – problems with focusing because of age Astigmatism – cornea is misshapen or there’s a wrinkle on it Be able to describe what happens to light as it is being processed through visual structures (i.e. lens: bends lights, what characteristics of light do receptors respond to?) Cornea: 80% Focusing Light with fixed curvature Lens: 20% bending light (fine tune), Accommodates by changing its shape to focus objects in different distances Pupil: Hole – lets light in Iris: Modifies amount of light that comes in by constricting the Pupil VOCABULARY Neuron A cell that transmits nerve impulses (Dendrites, Cell Body, & Axon) - communication Axon Terminal At the end of the Axon, club-shaped, makes synaptic contact with post-synaptic neuron, contains neurotransmitters Synapse Where the diffusion of neurotransmitters happen, involves the axon terminal of the pre-synaptic neuron (sending of message) and the dendritic spine of the post-synaptic neuron (receiving of message) Ion Molecule with an electric charge (K+ - Potassium or Na+ Sodium) Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies The way that the brain detects differences across sensory information is by the location of the activity Electro-chemical Gradient Electrochemical potential allows an ion to come in and out of the membrane. Chemical and Electrical Gradient Semi-Permeable Membrane The membrane only allows specific ions to come in and out of the cell (i.e.. only K+ and Na+) Dendritic Spine At the end of the Dendrites, makes synaptic contact with pre-synaptic neuron, receives neurotransmitters Neurotransmitter A chemical released in the Axon Terminal, triggers nerve impulse/action potential Synaptic Cleft The gap in the synapse between the axon terminal of the pre-synaptic neuron and the dendritic spine of the post- synaptic neuron. Where neurotransmitters are released and received All-or-None Potential Action Potential, it’s either it will “fire” causing Na+ to be concentrated inside and K+ outside, or not Graded Potential Changes in membrane potential: either hyperpolarizing or depolarizing Sodium-Potassium Pump In the Semi-permeable membrane, only allows certain amount of Na+ or K+ in and out of the neuron Pre-synaptic / Post-synaptic Cell Pre-synaptic Cell sends the message (from axon terminal) to the Post-synaptic Cell that receives the message (dendritic spine) which then becomes a Pre-synaptic cell when it sends the message to another neuron that will become a post-synaptic cell Peripheral Retina The sides of the Retina bordering the Fovea. Contains Rods Blindspot OPTIC DISK – Optic Nerve leaves the eye (no receptors) – Hole in our perception because perception is inferential ESSAYS: 3: Describe in as much detail as you can the concept of Action Potential. You will want to include 1) how the decision for an individual neuron to Afire@ is made 2) once the decision is made, what changes occur in the membrane of the neuron? 3) what changes occur with regard to specific ions? 4) how does this related to information transfer between neurons (briefly), and; 5) what is the overall significance of the action potential (why should I care) and how does that relate to Psych 317: Sensation and Perception? All or None Action Potential Communication from Pre-Synaptic Neuron on Synapse IPSP or EPSP RP: Na+ outside & K+ inside AP: Na+ inside & K+ outside Diffusion – high to low concentration Sodium Potassium Pump – resetting the neuron to RP Semi-Permeable Membrane – letting certain ions in and out Change: -70mV to +40mV Firing causes the communication from the Dendrites to the Axon to be sent from the pre-synaptic neuron to the post-synaptic neuron Important in sensation, perception, and cognition – allows message to be sent, communication, allows to have a thought
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'