Test 1 Study guide
Test 1 Study guide ANTH 103
Virginia Commonwealth University
Popular in Introduction to Anthropology
Popular in ANTH
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Vania Notetaker on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 103 at Virginia Commonwealth University taught by Dr. Matthew Pawlowicz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 146 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in ANTH at Virginia Commonwealth University.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Anthropology Basics Terms/Ideas Holism/holistic- pieces of a whole are dependent on each other, and can’t exist independently. Scientific Method- problem solving technique in science Culture- the beliefs, art etc. of a society Food Production- taking raw material and making it into food products Biocultural Approach- the scientific exploration of the relationships between human biology and culture. Enculturation- the process of learning ones own culture through watching experiencing and teaching. Symbols- a thing representing something else Agency- the concept that individuals within a culture have free will to choose his/her actions and beliefs Ethnocentrism- judging another culture using the values and standards of one's own culture Cultural Relativism – respecting other cultures and viewing them the same as ours Cultural Anthropology- pertaining to human cultures such as language, law politics, religion, and art. Ethnography- describes human societies scientifically. Archaeological Anthropology- study of human activity using recovery objects Biological Anthropology- deals with the evolution of humans Linguistic Anthropology- study of how language impacts social life Sociolinguistics- study of how language works in a society **Universals vs Generalities vs Particularities** Subcultures- a smaller culture group within a larger one Applied Anthropology- using theroies methods and enthographic findings to solve human problems Globalization- extending to other parts of the world Breeching Experiment- seeks to find out peoples reactions to violation of social norms Development Anthropology- using anthropology in developmental studies **Overinnovation/Underdifferentiation** Cultural Resource Management- helping the multitudinous but still taking into consideration cultural into consideration Forensic Anthropology- study of past human behavior and how it applies to law and crime Medical Anthropology- study of human health and diseases and bio cultural adaptations **Illness vs. Disease** Useful Knowledge Reverse Innovation- creation products in poor countries and selling them in rich countries Essentialism- certain traditional concepts should be taught methodically to all students Questions What are the 4 subfields of anthropology? What evidence does each study? +Archaeology; recovered materials(fossils, tools, buildings) +Linguistics; language +Cultural; societies +Biological; inherited characteristics Anthropology is described as a humanistic science. How is anthropology a science? How is it a humanity? It is about humans. Sciences are used. What are some examples of anthropology research projects that you have read about or that we have discussed in class? What do they illustrate about how anthropological research works? What are some implications of the idea that culture is a human right? The fact that culture can be changed through changing language, dressing rtc. How do cultures change? Devopment in techno., political and religiou beliefs. What are some of the characteristics of culture? How do they describe how culture works? What aspects of culture do we share with other primates? What aspects of culture are unique? --We have families --Fighting --Nurturing + Clothing Can you list fields of applied anthropology for each of the 4 subfields? ** How do cultures change? Their ideas change depending on the new things they learn. What are some of the ways anthropology can contribute to the modern world? It can help us learn from ancestors making society better. Also helps develop technology. Human Variation & Adaptation Study of Human diversity 1) Racial classification 2) Understanding specific diff. Problems with racial classification --Variations of neighboring groups happen over a long period of time; known as clines --Not compatible with discrete races --Earlier scholars used phenotype (organisms seen traits) for RC Race ---A geographically isolated subspecies ---Breed (dogs or roses) ---Reflect shared genetic components Genetic Markers Don’t Correlate with Phenotype --94% of variation in genes happens inside “races” (African, India European etc) --6% variation between different groups --Phonotypical likeness or differences don’t completely or, have to do with genetic relations at all --Environmental change can change phenotypes characteristics w/ genetic change Explaining Skin Color --Natural selection plays a key role --Influenced by many genes, primarily Melanin; a chemical substances made in the outer skin layer --The darker the skin, the more melanin, in greater amounts, the cells are making --Melanin: blocks out ultraviolet rays, protecting cells against sunburn and sun cancer th --Before 16 century dark-skinned people lived in the tropics: 23° N and S of the equator --Darkest population of Africans lived in sunny open grassland --The further away from tropics the lighter skin color --Tropical people in America aren’t dark-skinned because they settled there not to long ago (20,000yrs) W.F. Loomis (1967) – study the role of UV radiation in the synthesis of Vitamin D Shortage of vitamin D stops the absorption of calcium in the intestines causing rickets a nutritional disease that softens and destroys bones Africans & African Americans rarely get folate deficiency; folate plays a role in the making of sperms **Cultural alternatives have made it so people of all color can live anywhere** Facial features --Thomson’s nose – relation of nose shape & temp. (Longer noses in cold areas) Size & Body Build --Bergmann’s rule – relation of body weight & temp. (Smaller bodies shed heat better) -- Different body types have adaptive advantages for their specific environment --Allen’s rule – protruding body parts are greater in size in warm areas Gene and Disease +Larger populations and cultivations make diseases more prominent +Maladaptive alleles can lo Type A & AB bloods are more likely to get smallpox because substances in the smallpox virus can mimic the type A substance O allele is more common than A (common in Europe) and B (common in Asia) combined Natural selection didn’t remove the A allele completely because other disease target those with other blood types Haplogroup – branch of a genetic tree indicating one or more genetic mutations Lactose Tolerance - Biological traits showing human adaptation partially determined by genetics - And stressors come across during growth - This is Phenotypical adaptation; adaptive change that happens during an individuals lifetime - Its possible because of our bodies ability to change depending on environmental changes we come across as we grow. Biological Anthropology Terms/Ideas Biological Anthropology Evolution Natural Selection Gregor Mendel Modern Synthesis Genotype vs Phenotype Bergmann’s Rule and Allen’s Rule Lactase Persistance Race Ethnicity Nation Ascribed status Hominin vs. Hominid Bipedalism Human Evolution/Paleoanthropology Primatology Skeletal Biology Primate Neanderthal Mousterian Tools Denisovans Oldowan Stone Tools Sahelanthropus tchadensis Ardipithecus ramidus Australopithecus afarensis Robust Australopithecines Home ergaster/erectus Homo sapiens Behavioral Modernity Clovis points Lapita Pottery Hypodescent Multiculturalism Plural Society Assimilation Medical Anthro. Disease as, scientific, physical element Looking into classification, treatment, understanding of causation Figuring out how to craft your interventions so it works with the local knowledge Biological Anthro. Study of human biology as a product of evolution Humans have evolved Explains cultural features BEWARE: adaptive trap Evolution is a blend of Darwin & Mendel’s ideas. Adapting to Environ. - Can live all over the world - Living at altitudes - Bergmann’s rule - Allen’s Rule - Not all biological diversity is adaptive Race and Culture What goes into racial classifications? - Skin color - Hair texture - Clothing - Eye color *Phenotype *Culture *Environment/ Ancestry *Vernacular Race in Brazil - Multiple categories (40 in a village of 750 people) - Reference phenotypes as well as clothing language and custom -Not harmony, do have discrimination, leading to more fixed self identifications, push towards “black pride”.
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