Study Guide 1
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ghost21 on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GOVT 132 at George Mason University taught by Eric Shiraev in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Govt 132—Introduction to International Policy Dr. Eric Shiraev International Relations Test 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 + 2 [Chapter 1] *Basic rights, freedom, marital status, employment, prosperity, religion, and dignity often determined by boarders* United Nations Security Council -created in 1945 by victors of WW2 Permeant members => Five: USA Russia France United Kingdom China Field of International Relations -field of science where scholars discuss their ideas, arguments, and theories -seeks to understand realities of modern world and to suggest solutions to world’s problems Violence and War ~Causes~ -instability acts as a source of new conflicts and wars -military dictatorships likely to act violently against neighboring states and own people -failing governments unable to exercise basic functions prone to use radical and violent measures to defend themselves -unsettled ethnic conflicts -small radical groups not directly affiliated with any country; wanting to achieve their political goals by violence or threats against authorities or civilian population *1648, Peace of Westphalia—series of peace treaties, handful of Christian kingdoms and principalities in Europe agree that only they (and not the Roman Catholic Church) should determine religious identity of their subjects* [Chapter 2] Logic of Realism Anarchy natural state of affairs among statesSovereign states trying to survive in anarchy, act in self- interest to maximize own powerAvoid war of all against all, states balance off one another, use diplomacy and build alliances and coalitionsInternational order emerges from state’s self-interested actionsWithin order, states seek greater security for themselves Realism -approach to international relations focuses on countries, their interests, balance of power, and structure of international relations -(according to realism) only states can be players in international relations -defend interests, protect their resources, create alliances, react to outside threats, and impose will on others (Walt 1987) -realists believe international relations explained by balance of power -no international order is perfect and lasts forever Ideas: The Realist Tradition -Embodiments of power: military strength geographic locations economic resources population size economic might financial strength national solidarity effective diplomacy symbols International Order -Nonrealistic approach—power distributed among states exist in three types: unipolar bipolar multipolar Unipolar -only one center of power or influence -after collapse of Soviet Union (1991) Russia became unipolar; could not challenge the US military Bipolar -two center of power or influence -after WW2 US and Soviet Union dominated Multipolar -multiple centers of power or influence -until end of WW2 most of world was multipolar Realpolitik -actions of states based on power-related consideration labeled ‘power politics’ Rules of Engagement -sovereign’s geographical location, history, ideology, political regime, or economic condition -two rules: chances of success significantly higher when state has substantial military and economic advantage state should not make too many commitments that constrain freedom of action Types of Responses to the Use of Force -Forceful: threat to balance of power is obvious, and can be removed -Ambivalent: threat is serious, but outcome of war uncertain -indifferent: war does not affect directly the state’s interests and stake of involvement may be high Probability of War -Defensive realists: argue anarchy breeds uncertainty, encourages states to stay away from violence and demonstrate self-restraint -Offensive realists: same situation of anarchy; uncertainty forces stronger states to maximize their power at all times Nonmilitary Responses -economic incentives -direct economic help -sanctions (typically used as punishment from one state to another) [Key Terms] State-governed entity with settled population occupying permanent area with recognized borders EX: Sudan and South Sudan Sovereignty-authority exercised by state over its population and its territory EX: Christiania Internal affairs-matters that individual states consider beyond reach of international law or influence of other states Nation-large group of people sharing common, cultural, religious, and linguistic features and distinguishing themselves from other large social groups Separatism-advocate of or attempt to establish separate national within another sovereign state State Government-institution with the authority to formulate and enforce its decisions within a country’s borders Foreign policy-complex system of actions involving official decisions or communications related to other nation states, international institutions or international developments Diplomacy-practice of managing international relations by negotiations Intergovernmental organizations-(IGO) association of several nation-states or nongovernmental organizations for the purpose of international cooperation Nongovernmental organizations-(NGO) public or private group unaffiliated formally with government and attempting to influence foreign policy in order to raise international concerns about a domestic problem or domestic concerns about global issue, and to offer solutions Weapons of Mass Destruction-nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons that can quickly and indiscriminately kill millions of people Nuclear proliferation-spread of nuclear weapons, material, information, and technologies to create nuclear weapons Eyewitness accounts-descriptions of events by individuals who observed them directly Content analysis-research method that systematically organizes and summarizes both what was actually said or written and its hidden meanings Intelligence-information about interests, intentions, capabilities, and actions of foreign countries; this includes government officials, political parties, the functioning of their economies, activities of NGOs and behavior of private individuals Survey-investigative method in which groups of people answer questions on certain topic Focus group-survey method involving small discussion groups used intensively in foreign policy planning, conflict resolutions analysis and academic research Experiment-research method that puts participants in controlled testing conditions. When varying the conditions researchers can examine behavior or responses of participants Analysis-breaking down complex hole into smaller parts to understand its essential features and their relationships Theory-general concept or scheme that one applies to facts in order to analyze them Parochialism-worldview limited to the small piece of land on which we live or to the narrow experience we have Globalization-growing interdependence of countries and their economics, the growing importance of international exchanges of goods and ideas and increased openness to innovation Anti-globalization- resistance to globalization or active return to traditional communities, customs, and religion Realism—approach to international relations focusing on states and their interests, balance of power; structure of international relations Power—state’s ability to protect own security and impose will on other states Anarchy—(realist’s perspective) absence of authority International system—checks and balances among state when they exercise their power to promote their interests Realpolitik—policy based on realist assumptions that foundation of a nation’s security is power and the threat of its use Gross domestic product(GDP)—total market value of all goods and services produced within borders of a national during specified period Hegemony—state’s overwhelming power in relation to other states Cold War (1946-89)—state of tension and competition between the Soviet Union and its allies on one side and the Western world on other Neorealism (structural realism)—theory that each state seeks secure place in international system according to the distribution of power Multipolar order—world of multiple centers of power or influence Bipolar order—world organization based on two centers of power or influence Unipolar order—world only one center of power or influence Predator state—state conducting policies with disregard for international rules and turning violent actions in international arena
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