Early US History Test 1 Study Guide
Early US History Test 1 Study Guide HI 1063
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This 27 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Greer on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HI 1063 at Mississippi State University taught by Peter Messer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Early US History • Europe 1450 • very different from now • transformations 1. demographic • population decline through 1500 “little Ice Age” Bubonic Plague “The Black Death” (13501500) killed off 1/3 of European population effects of population decline peasants when you kill peasants, no one can work therefore, surviving peasants can make more money entrepreneurs basically same thing as peasants; moved from agriculture rooted in crops to agriculture rooted in ranching (sheep); began to move businesses abroad; started new businesses (trade, industry, etc) cities begin to see larger cities, became places of commerce; important for politics (kings, queens, lords, etc) kings spawned from the growth of cities 2. technological • agriculture crop rotation allows crops to be grown in surplus fields, plows, horse power allows you to use more of your land • military gun powder, pikes, steel, castles to forts to fight with pikes, you need large groups of people and a lot of money • technological changes gave rise to political changes 3. political • new governments Early US History centralized created a lot of entrepreneurs that need less help from the king decentralized • nation states nation a place ruled by a king but also share a culture kingdom a place ruled by a king Spain: Reconquista (7901492) A. a holy war; a crusade B. rigid Catholicism vs. Islam C. military process both sides are taking advantage of the new technological advances which in return helps the king; centralizes the government D. people try to “move up” by joining the army, therefore, they’re not farming, running businesses, etc. France: 100 Years War (13371453) E. France vs. England F. about land G. after Joan of Arc is burned at the stake, the French rally and boot out the English H. Charles VIII and Louis XII benefit the most raised money by selling nobility which created a surplus of nobles I. France and England have similar cultures England: War of Roses (14211487) J. too many powerful barons; civil war K. Henry Tudor VII and Parliament L. technically has no claim to the throne M. married the York princess N. parliament council that works with the king; made of lords and commoners Early US History O. Henry goes to the house of commons to help him reach the throne, only if they can be the most important house of parliament 4. religious • The Reformation • England: Elizabeth I Henry VIII breaks away from the Catholic church and creates the Church of England • France: 15621598 goal: kill 24 million people results in France being Catholic and divided • Spain militantly Catholic Protestants, Jews, Muslims, etc. get burned at the stake Spain fights Protestants (English, Dutch) spreading Catholicism • How was life fro Native Americans changing through 1500? • In what ways were Native ideas brought about and institutions of society, religion, and politics similar or different to European nations? • Native North America 1450 very diverse Native Americans arrived around 25,00012,000 years ago believed to have first settled in the west • Central Plains Clovis: 10,0008000 BCE • probably hunters (wooly mammoths, bison) • named after specific spearpoints • climate shift occurs and Pleistocene Megafauna begin to die out Folsom people: 85005000 BCE Early US History • very similar to Clovis • more fluting on spearpoints • buffalo jumps run buffalo off cliff as a form of “hunting” • more political and social organization than Clovis Dry period: 50002000 BCE • drought • migrations east to River Valley off the Plains west to front range • small animal hunting • agriculture front range of Rockies • began to take advantage of a series of microclimates • very intune with geography and climate • adapting! • hunting drive lanes • rock walls built to trap animals • Climate change is causing people to change and adapt to the environment. • Climate Change Persists wet period: 8001220 • high point of population on the Plains dry period: 12001500 • people retreat from Plains to the River Valley • Pawnee • Arikaras agriculture • 3 sisters Early US History 1. corn Mexico; arrives in US around 300 BCE; staple 2. beans good source of protein and carbs 3. squash good source of protein and carbs • caused people to hunt less; also caused population increase • friendlier to a more centralized political system • still need hunters and farmers men= hunters women= farmers • responsible for half the food • owns crops and land • VERY different from Europe men own everything in Europe women are treated like property • since they own crops and land, they also have political influence • Continental Trade Goods links Native Americans textiles traded for buffalo meat buffalo meat and robes traded for copper trade brought in disease, technology, and steel • Hohokam: 8001100 Phoenix, Arizona area built canals around Salt River Valley rather sophisticated built big houses and ball courts • proves political and social organization the canals dry out (drought), people try to take other people’s canals, therefore war breaks out • Cahokia: 7001200 largest city in North America (25,000 people) but still relatively small compared to other major cities around the world Early US History drought destroys city • no more farming; fighting over useable farmland trade center • spread of disease • Indians on Arrival rise of peoples • Iroquois Confederation • Creeks, Choctaw, Shawnee • generally the older groups demise and new groups emerge • Iroquois 5 peoples and 5 clans> lead by women mythic leaders • Deganawidah spiritual leader, “medicine man”, created a peace treaty between 5 peoples of the Iroquois • Hiawatha Deganawidah’s little brother very violent • because of violence, created Confederation • Iroquois government is decentralized war chief hunt chief camp chief • VERY different from highly centralized government of Europe • Iroquois government only recommends people do things; no force • Indian religion animistic animals and man have equal spiritual power; land as well; man can control animals and animals can control man balance no good and evil; everything is in balance pragmatic spiritual leaders • European colonization Early US History technology • improved sailing ships Arab: lanteen sail Portuguese: caravel • mapping currents wind Portuguese exploration • pioneers in mapping and ship design • first nation to move out into the Atlantic to look for new trade routes (India, China) • Cape Bojador: 1434 • Cape of Good Hope: 1488 • Sao Tome: 1471 uninhabited sugar will grow laborers (slaves) from West Africa plantation style Europe learns about sugar, slaves, and plantation • Africa old trade routes are inefficient, dangerous, and expensive Africans know their advantages with Europe people that don’t usually trade get the chance to West Africa • gold • slaves • characterized by a bunch of small states that are constantly competing less about controlling land and ore about controlling people (slaves) Early US History slaves serve in armies, work as traders, servants of the king, and work on plantations • small gap between slave and slave owner • paths for freedom • diverse • Spain centralized by war (monarch) surplus population (soldiers were there after war) religious mission (spread Catholicism) money??? • Conquest of the Indies Columbus: 1492 • 10,000 miles off about the size of the world • goes to Portugal= denied • goes to England= denied • goes to Spain= agrees to fund trip • finds “Indians” on his journey (Tainos) Indians are struck by Columbus’s steel, clothes, etc. Columbus sees a workforce in the Indians • doesn’t find big cities or trade routes like there were supposed to be in India (HE WAS IN THE WRONG PLACE) finds gold • Encomienda labor institution land to leaders right to use Indian labor • protect Tainos have rival/war • convert encomendaros • Black Legend disease Early US History 14921514: population went from millions to hundreds of thousands mass depopulation • Conquest of Mexico Aztec Empire 13th or 14th century • Tenochtitlan central Mexico, capital of Aztec Empire • a lot of cities • very warlike, very commercial • Tlaxcalan only part in center that’s not conquered flowery wars individual combat, winners take losers back for human sacrifice • nonlethal fighting technique and technology • Hernan Cortez: 1519 Spanish moves to Caribbean, ends up in east Mexico Montezuma sends gold to impress the Spanish • has opposite effect • Cortez moves into the Aztec Empire runs into Tlaxcalans and they form and ally move into Tenochtitlan and eventually take over Malinche allies • sold 3 times into slavery • picks up a little Spanish from being a slave • used as translator technology • steel • horses • dogs disease Early US History • small pox devastates population depreciates morale • North America Cabeza de Vaca/Narváez: 15281536 • try to find gold in Florida • unsuccessful DeSoto: 15931542 • tried to find old in MS • unsuccessful • killed many Indians Coronado • no gold • many Indians dead • Pirates choke point • place to steal gold English pirates • best pirates highlight potential of new world • Fishing grounds Newfoundland Catholics can’t eat meat on Friday so they eat fish Europe often fished out fish trade starts the fur trade Indians trade old, worn out furs • useless to them, valuable to Europeans • Review England nation state merchant classes Early US History Protestant demography • England Overseas Mediterranean • cant conquer people • learn language • hide religion • John Smith captured enslaved Ireland • local Irish nobility pledge allegiance to English crown • conquest/war • Catholic • English bring in settlers creates model settlement from southern Scotland and northern England • ScotsIrish Richard Hakluyt • move poor, starving people to the Americas • give them a better life will then buy things they need from England Francis Drake (15781580) • pirate steals Spanish gold • ends up in Panama, meets mixedrace people that hate the Spanish eager to help English • Chesapeake Colonies Roanoke: 1584, 1586, 1587 • Arthur Barlow Early US History Manteo and Wanchese • kidnapped Indians Ralph Lane • military • wants neighboring Indians to help him • 1586 complete failure • 1587 saved by Sir Francis Drake • 1588 Spanish Armada • English embargo White returns and Roanoke has vanished Jamestown • first “successful” English colony • organization funded by selling shares to the public looking for valuables (gold, diamonds, crops, etc.) religion potentially convert Indians patriotic extend British power of the world • settlers people to do all different jobs second sons • noble fathers encourage their 2nd sons to get involved in politics OR spread British power • Indians Powhatan • started a somewhat empire conquest strategic marriage A. his daughter marries a rival power A. loyal to mother’s family prestige trade routes Early US History B. takes over as many as possible Pacquiquieno • kidnapped by Spanish (1570) • once free, tells his people about all different things the Spanish have • attempts trade, fails, kills Spanish • struggles built in swamp • brackish water (salt and fresh water mixed) • sewage in water • cause disease • no food John Smith • basically takes over • meets Indians (friendly; Powhatan) Indians give him food Indians want guns John Smith says no • Pocahontas daughter of Powhatan Potomac Indians kidnap her and sell her to the English • Powhatan doesn't care • Powhatan finally agrees to Pocahontas can marry an Englishman (John Rolfe) • Jamestown (again) reform (1618 1621) • political • economic tobacco (1619) • BOOM Early US History • people can now make money • Indian Wars Openchancanough (1622) • Powhatan’s brother 16441646 • New England Puritans • not being displaced, have land and property, trade and manufacturing • religion vision and social vision begin to overlap covenant theology • covenant of grace God gives grace to those who are saved predestination • covenant of works do good works, you will be rewarded • The National Covenant pledge to honor both covenants covenant is broken, God’s wrath (drought, famine, locusts, etc) Plymouth starts good relations with the Indians • Pilgrims (16191620) go to Holland (too Dutch so they leave) end up on Mayflower and end up in Cape Cod much like Chesapeake, they starve but they quickly become a stable, growing, community Massachusetts Bay (1629) start with good relations with Indians • City on a Hill (Winthrop) • separatists • Indians in New England Wampanoag Early US History Narraganset Pequot Massachusett settlers introduce new European diseases • hits Indians near sea first Squanto is kidnapped • New England climate • cold • helps with spread of disease • hard to grow valuable crops in the cold no tobacco, no sugar, no rice, etc immigrants • middle class government • “democratic” component of Puritanism economy • fishing very dangerous • cutting down trees very dangerous • farming do this instead of fishing and logging • functions by massive waves of immigrants immigrants flee to New England from England because of religious persecution communities • towns have a minister enough people with money enough laborers • church Early US History center of town people MUST go to church • not all people who go to church are church members church members are saved nonchurch members don't vote • families everyone is part of a family • order and hierarchy • New England Town everyone lives in town • town ruled by church and townhouse geographic representation of social order • Problems dissent • Roger Williams founded colony of Rhode Island individual conscience between you and God • Anne Hutchinson middle class saved basically says the Protestants are Catholic has weekly meetings where she preaches to women (and some men) accused of violating secular laws and the scriptures of women preaching sent to Rhode Island Connecticut , New Haven • Pequot War: 16341638 not killed off by disease PequotEnglish trade dispute • Pequot Fort: 1673 Early US History Fort Mystic massacre • New Mexico La Florida • defense against French • protect treasure Spanish Florida • St. Augustine 1565 • missions 15731702 native life in Florida • Spanish missionaries want people there full time • Indians come and go because they follow food and move around because of weather English • show up in 17th century and expand into the 18th century • target people for slave trade Spanish New Mexico • Governor Oñate 1598 looking to settle looking for Indians to work Indians reluctant to leave because of Spanish • feudal estate governor hands out land to prominent families and individuals also Indian labor gives governor a lot of power • also town council elected by citizens • somewhat similar to New England • small population tops out in 1680 at around 2500 people Early US History government is all about certain families • tribute economy Spanish promise not to kill Indians if they produce a tribute each year (hides, corn, labor, etc) • rescates Indian by Indian slave trade Indians trade with unconquered Indians enslave unconquered Indians, convert to Christianity Spanish Missions • most successful • start spreading north • come from Mexico • convert Indians • Spanish are able to put Indians to work in Mexico also corrupt them (alcohol) decreasing power of missionaries missionaries try to find new Indians • find mines (silver) • create a buffer/ frontier so English and French don't take their silver use Indians as missionaries and soldiers in case there was a war • Indian appeal culture • inside chief inside town, spiritual leaders • outside chief outside of town, war/ hunt leaders • Spanish began to kill Indians, missionaries stop them and they become trusted by the Indians • patron/ client relationship based on children apprenticeship Early US History pragmatic • Indians can get things they need from Spanish by using their religion animal magic animals have spiritual powers, animals can choose to be killed or not to be killed disease Spanish know how to “cure” people, once you stop curing disease, you lose this power weather wet season/ dry season. Spanish show up during wet season so Indians believe they bring the wet season with them thus controlling the weather • Indians are always selective. They don't think the Spanish are gods, they believe they have a lot to offer through their religion. crops and tools the Spanish bring these • Friar intends to humiliate medicine man with corporal and sexual punishment Problems • corruption political • Luis de Rosas 16371641 manipulates election of town council gets cut of trade takes Indian labor for his own business angers colonists that feel they have been taken advantage of missionaries and governor • missionaries are very powerful control most Indian labor use it to enrich their own missions only so much labor, none for governor church 1. excommunicate Early US History 2. condemn • governors some Indians don't like the friars governor wants some Indian labor • Don Pedro de Paralta vs. Fray Isidro Ordoñez Pueblo Revolt • crisis 1660s drought no food to give Apaches disease • native religion revival Popé you abandoned your old gods, so they are punishing you 1680: Popé leads rebellion against Spanish; 400 of 2500 die Spanish retreat but return in 1692 • nothing is better with Popé • things change no more corporal punishment not so much military force • Themes founded/flourished after 1660 part of experiments in politics • balance power, Parliament and King • Carolinas chartered in 1662 solve political instability by making a Constitution • Carolina in 1663 fundamental constitutions • landgreaves (commons) and caciques (lords) • leetmen (peasants) and slaves Early US History settlers: colony of a colony • bring settlers from different colonies New England Barbados • English colony in the Caribbean economy • hides, lumber, cattle • rice 1695: before 1731 rice could only be exported to England 1731: rice could be exported anywhere • slaves • Slavery black majority flexible changes • 1717 punish interracial sex • 1721 deny free vote • 1740 restrict emancipation Stono 1739 • group of slaves from Angola begin to rebel • Indians new peoples, old land • Catawba • Yamasee/ Tuscarora trade dependence war • Tuscarora: 1711 • Yamasee: 1715 Early US History • New York: Politics Dutch until 1664 Duke of York: Absolutism • revolts Leisler’s Rebellion 16891691 • New York: Settlement Long Island: New England Hudson Valley: Manors New York • diverse • slaves Albany • Indians: Covenant Chain alliance between the Iroquois and the English: 1677 • peace • land • order mixed • Pennsylvania 1640s by Swedes and then Dutch 1681 granted to William Penn • refuge • orderly differential economy • proprietary land • Quaker economy • servants Indians • population not there Early US History • trade no trade, beavers dead, disease/ alcohol • Covenant Chain • peace testimony • temporary problems • aspirations vs. order • Quakers vs. NonQuakers • British vs. German solutions • prosperity for most • politics for all • Questions What are the causes of the crisis in Virginia and New England? how were they connected to the original vision of each colony? What were the consequences for the colonies and the empire of the crisis of the late 17th century? • Trouble with Tobacco: 16401676 (Virginia) increased life expectancy • 1 in 4 immigrants lived (before 1640) • cider, brandy, beer; solves polluted water problem • seasons bring servants in Spring which means you cross Atlantic during storms servants are sick and die decide to import servants in fall instead • land decrease people stop dying so there’s less land • labor problems what do you do with all the free servants? servitude—> tenancy: they got angry Early US History owners try to extend service time • overproduction makes labor problems worse everyone is growing tobacco • Indians 1644: Indian attack hostility between Indians and colonists is now normal • kleptocracy government of thieves taxation • typically give half what you produce • clergy doesn't pay taxes • upper middle class does pay taxes but they also charge fees to the lower class after English civil war, the crown gives away the northern neck of the settlement which has already been settled • Virginia has a tax to buy back the northern neck • Bacon’s Rebellion: 1676 Indian troubles new immigrants • second sons of nobles begin to immigrate reasonably wealthy and successful but not politically tied Indian war • servants killed by Indians • other servants say, “Hey us too! Declare war!” • Bacon goes to governor; the governor says no, Bacon goes to war anyway insurrection • Bacon dies reform Early US History • council is no longer appointed by governor • salaries are cut dramatically • tax implemented to pay governor's fixed salary old problems • overproduction • Indians • colonists still poor, taxes still too high • Maturity: 16761720 solutions • government run for election • appeal to voters • slave labor slaves • 2nd sons, more money, can afford it • longer life expectancy • cheap • no more indentured servants • 20% labor in 1648 to 48% in 1703 • 421 in 1670s, 1847 in 1690s, 6000 in 17001710 separation • 1662: status follows mother • 1668: tax nonwhites • 1691, 1710, 1723: manumission (release from slavery) restricted • 1705: free slaves are denied civil rights • treatment blacks treated worse social stability • creates middle class Early US History costs • slavery based on racism • Mature New England civil war: 16441660 new economy • fish • lumber problems • more time selling goods, less time serving God • church membership plummets • who’s doing all the fishing and lumbering? import “Strangers” not part of the Puritan community only there to build ships King Philips’s War • Indians arguing with each other • Indians begin raising pigs only pigs with knotted ears can be sold at market Indians cant notch their pigs’ ears Indians’ pigs are stolen • an Indian is killed • consequences devastation • towns wiped out economic recovery • English are broke • begin fishing, lumbering, and shipping and bam!— wealthy again royal intervention • crown is tired of Puritan New England Early US History Indians • End of Puritan New England witches: 1692 royal government • political covenant broken enlightenment covenant •loses political footing with government
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