Human Growth and Development Test 2 Study Guide
Human Growth and Development Test 2 Study Guide EPY 2513
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Greer on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EPY 2513 at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Abernathy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Human Growth and Development Chapter 3 The First Years: Body and Mind • Growth in Infancy body size • average weight birth: 7.5 lbs 24 months: 24 lbs • average length birth: 20 in 24 months: 34 in • Sleep newborns sleep about 1517 hours a day, in 13 hour segments newborns’ sleep is primarily active sleep newborns have a high proportion if REM sleep cosleep or bed share • Brain Basics neuron • one of billions of nerve cells in the central nervous system (CNS) axon • fiber that extends from a neuron and transmits electrochemical impulses from that neuron to the dendrites of other neurons cortex • outer layers of the brain where most thinking, feeling, and sensing occurs prefrontal cortex • area of the cortex at the very front of the brain that specializes in anticipation, planning, and impulse control • Brain Development head sparing • a biological mechanism that protects the brain when malnutrition disrupts body growth Human Growth and Development dendrite receive impulses other neurons synapses intersection between an axon and dendrite neurotransmitter • acetylcholine • serotonin • GABA • Moving and Perceiving: The Senses sensory development • typically preceded intellectual and motor development sensation • response of a sensory system (eyes, ears, skin, tongue, nose) when it detects and stimulus (anything that catches you attention) perception • mental processing of sensory information when the brain interprets a sensation • Hearing and Seeing sense of hearing • develops during the last trimester (week 2638) • most advanced of the newborn’s senses vision • least mature sense at birth • depth perception is usually present by 3 months but understanding depth requires experience • visual cliff experiment to determine depth perception of infant • Tasting and Smelling sense of smell and taste • smell and taste function at birth and rapidly adapt to the social world • Touch and Pain Human Growth and Development tough • sense of touch is acute in infants pain and temperature • pain and temperature are often connected to touch • Reflexes Necessary for Survival maintain oxygen supply • breathing reflex • hiccups and sneezes • thrashing maintain body temperature • crying • shivering • tucking legs close to body • pushing away blankets when hot manage feeding • sucking • rooting sucking AND sensing touch and moving toward it • spitting up • Reflexes Not Necessary for Survival Babinski reflex tickle feet and toes fan out stepping reflex swimming reflex lay baby on stomach and they move as if they’re swimming palmar grasping reflex moro reflex startled, move limbs in and out of body • Gross (large) and Fine (small) Motor Skills every basic motor skill develops over the first two years of life course of development • cephalocaudal develop from head down • proximodistal develop from center out Human Growth and Development • Infant Cognition: Piaget sensorimotor intelligence (24 months) • Piaget’s term for the way infants think— by using their senses and motor skills— during the first period of cognitive development informationprocessing theory • modeled after computer functioning • involves stepbystep description of the mechanisms of thought • Language: The Universal Sequence reflexive communication (crying) cooing babbling look at table to see when first spoken words first two word sentences • Theory 1: Learning Approach infants need to be taught • B.F. Skinner (1957) noticed that spontaneous babbling is usually reinforced • parents are expert teachers and other caregivers help them teach children to speak • Theory 2: Social Interaction Approach social interaction fosters infant language • infants communicate because humans have evolved as social beings • Theory 3: Infant SelfTeaching Approach infants teach themselves • language learning is innate; adults need not teach it, nor is it a byproduct of social interaction Chomsky • language is too complex to be mastered through stepbystep direction Human Growth and Development Chapter 4 The First Two Years: The Social World • about 50% of 1 year olds are in some type of daycare center • At about this time: Developing Emotions birth distress; contentment 6 weeks social smile 3 months laughter; curiosity 4 months full, responsive smiles 48 months anger 914 months fear of social events 12 months fear of unexpected sights and sound 18 months self awareness, pride, shame, embarrassment • Emotional Development smiling and laughing • social smile: evoked by viewing human faces • laughter: aften emerges as curiosity anger • healthy response to frustration sadness • indicates withdrawal and is accomplished by increased production of cortisol (stress hormone) • stressful experience for infants fear • emerges in response to people, things, or situations stranger wariness • infant no longer smiles at any friendly face but cries or looks frightened when an unfamiliar person moves too close separation anxiety • tears, dismay, or anger when a familiar caregiver leaves Human Growth and Development • if it remains strong after age 3, it may be considered an emotional disorder • Toddler’s Emotions anger and fear become less frequent and more focused laughing and crying become louder and more discriminating temper tantrums may appear new emotions • pride • shame (from within) • embarrassment • disgust • guilt (from other people) self awareness • from 1524 months (avg. 18 months) • Growth of Brain: Stress emotions affected by genes, past experiences, and additional hormones and neurotransmitters • excessive fear and stress harm the developing brain • abuse (form of chronic stress) may cause potential longterm effects on a child’s emotional development often creates high levels of stress hormones indicative of emotional impairment and later behavioral difficulties • Brains and Emotions: Temperament three dimensions of temperament • effortful control regulating attention and emotion, selfsoothing • negative mood fearful, angry, unhappy • exuberant active, social, not shy temperamental traits are genetic; personality traits are learned • know the big 5 personality traits Human Growth and Development • Development of Social Bonds synchrony • coordinated, rapid, and smooth exchange of responses between a caregiver and an infant synchrony in first few months • becomes more frequent and elaborate • helps infant react to others emotions attachment • lasting emotional bond that one person has with another • begins to form in early infancy • insecureavoidant attachment (A) • secure attachment (B) • insecureresistant/ ambivalent attachment (C) • disorganized attachment (D) • Theories of Infant Psychosocial Development Psychoanalytic theory • Freud oral and anal stages oral first year anal second year potential conflicts • oral fixation • anal personality psychosocial theory • Erikson trust and autonomy stages trust vs. mistrust Human Growth and Development autonomy vs. shame and doubt early problems • an adult who is suspicious and pessimistic (mistrusting) or who is easily shamed (insufficient autonomy) can be created • proximal and distal parenting
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