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CMST Study Guide for Exam 1

by: Ary Spilkin

CMST Study Guide for Exam 1 Cmst 233

Marketplace > California State University Chico > Cmst 233 > CMST Study Guide for Exam 1
Ary Spilkin
CSU Chico

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About this Document

These notes will cover material through chapter 5
Founding of Interpersonal Communication
Michelle Givertz
Study Guide
communication, Interpersonal, english
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ary Spilkin on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Cmst 233 at California State University Chico taught by Michelle Givertz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 99 views.


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Date Created: 09/22/16
CMST 233- EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Culture is a powerful influence and can affect not only how we express ourselves but also how we interpret and react to interpersonal behaviors of others Gender- also another powerful influence Other aspects such as ethnicity, age and socioeconomic status can influence communication *Culture: the system of learned and shared symbols, languages, values and norms that distinguish one group of people from another -Culture is a property of people as opposed to a property of countries, ethnicity or economic classes -Culture is determined by who we were raised by, where we were raised as well as the symbols, language, values and norms of that area *Society: a group of people who share symbols, language, values, and norms *In-group: a group of people with whom one identifies *Out-group: a group of people with whom one does not identify -Immigrants experience more high stress during their first year in their new homeland -This is referred to as culture shock; the jarring reaction we are in highly unfamiliar situations *Ethnocentrism: systematic preference for characteristics of one’s own culture -Culture is learned- this process if called enculturation *Ethnicity: an individual’s perception of his or her ancestry or heritage *Nationality: an individual’s status as a citizen of a particular country A symbol is something that represents an idea -Words are symbols Ex.) The U.S. flag, a bald eagle and “The Star-Spangled Banner” are symbols Language allows for written and spoken communication and ensures that cultures and cultural ideas can be passed to future generations Values- a culture’s values are the standards for judging how good, desirable or beautiful something can be -Some values in the US include, equal opportunity and material comfort Norms- rules or expectations that guide people’s behavior in a culture -People shake hands and say “Nice to meet you” in North America *Co-cultures- groups of people who share values, customs, and norms related to mutual interests or characteristics beyond their national citizenship -Some co-cultures are based on shared activities or beliefs -Examples include, political activism or even fly fishing -Some co-cultures reflect differences in mental or physical abilities -Can be within your age group, religion, ethnicity, musical taste, sexual orientation, athletic interest or major of study: each group has their own beliefs, values, traditions and customs Social Media- can be a co-culture in which symbols, values, language and norms are in common; hashtags, jargon and memes People with culture differences don’t just communicate different, but can also think differently -Teenagers value independence while older adults may value family and community -They may speak the same language, but may use the language in different ways Communicating effectively with people from different cultures/co-cultures requires awareness of their behaviors and ways of thinking and that they are different to our own *Similarity Assumption: one’s tendency to presume that others think the same way he or she does *Individualistic Culture: a culture that emphasizes individuality and responsibility to oneself -Messages such as, “Be yourself”, and “You’re special” -These messages emphasize the importance of knowing oneself, becoming self-sufficient and being true to what you want in life *Collective Culture: a culture that places greater emphasis on loyalty to the family, workplace, or community that on the needs of the individual -Place a high value on duty and loyalty and do not see themselves as unique or special, but part of a group they belong to *Low-Context Culture: a culture in which verbal communication is expected to be explicit and is often interpreted literally -These cultures value expressing oneself, sharing personal opinions and persuading other to see thing’s a certain way -The US, Canada, Israel and most northern European countries are examples *High-Context Culture: a culture in which verbal communication is often ambiguous, and meaning is drawn from contextual cues, such as facial expressions and tone of voice -Taught to speak much less directly -Maintaining harmony and avoiding offending people is more important than expressing true feelings, and as a result people less in a less direct, more ambiguous manner and convey meaning through subtle actions such as facial expressions and tone of voice -Examples include Korea, the Maori of New Zealand and Native Americans -People raised in high-context cultures are more reluctant to say no, for fear or causing offense *Low-Power-Distance Culture: a culture in which power is not highly concentrated in specific groups of people -Raised to believe that even though some people are born with more advantages (money or fame), no one is inherently better than anyone else -Expect friendships and romantic relationships to be based on love rather than social status *High-Power-Distance Culture: a culture in which much or most of the power is concentrated in a few people, such as royalty or a ruling political party -Power is distributed less evenly and people are taught that certain people deserve to have more power than others and that respecting that power is more important than respecting equality -Expected to choose friends or romantic partners based on people within their social class Masculine Culture- people tend to cherish traditionally masculine values like ambition, achievement, and acquisition of material goods -Also prefer sex-specific roles for women and men Feminine Culture- people tend to value nurturance, quality of life and service to others; stereotypically feminine qualities *Monochronic: a concept that treats time as a finite commodity that can be earned, saved, spent, and wasted -Monochronic cultures think of time as valuable and do not like to waste it *Polychromic: a concept that treats time as an infinite resource rather than a finite commodity -Conceive time as more holistic, fluid and less structure -Instead of thinking of time as a finite commodity that must be managed and not wasted, they perceive it more flowing like a never-ending river *Uncertainty Avoidance: the degree to which people try to avoid situations that are unstructured, unclear, or unpredictable -People from these cultures are drawn to situations and people that are more familiar to them, and avoid risks, for fear of failure -They are also uncomfortable with differences of opinion and favor rules/laws that maximize security and reduce ambiguity *Communication Codes: verbal and nonverbal behaviors, such as idioms and gesture that characterize a culture and distinguish it from other cultures Idiom- phrase who meaning is purely figurative; we cannot understand the meaning by interpreting the words literally Ex.) “Break a leg”, means to have a good performance Jargon- specific form of idiomatic communication which often separates co-cultures, or language whose technical meaning is understood by people in that co-culture Gestures- movements, usually of the hand or arm which expresses ideas *Gender- influences who we are and how we act. It is the defining feature of our identity, shapes how we think, look and communicate -May include influences such as psychological gender roles, biological sex or sexual orientation *Gender Roles: a set of expectations for appropriate behavior that a culture typically assigns to an individual based on his or her biological sex -Three specific categories: masculinity, femininity, and androgyny *Masculinity: a gender role, typically assigned to men, that emphasizes strength, dominance, competition, and logical thinking -Traditional masculinity also tends to reject weakness, emotional expression and characteristics or behaviors which resemble women *Femininity: a gender role, typically assigned to women, that emphasizes expressive, nurturing behavior -Typically emphasizes empathy and emotional expressiveness, and an interest in having and raising children as well as attention to appearance -In the past, tradition discouraged women from pursuing an education and achieving their goals *Androgyny: a gender role distinguished by a combination of masculine and feminine characteristics -Androgynous does not mean that the person tries to look, act, or sound like the other sex and is not always related to sexuality Biological Sex- refers to being female or male rather than feminine or masculine -Transgender individuals experience this conflict -Intersex can be caused by delayed physical development or by hormonal problems *Sexual Orientation: a characteristic determining the sex or sexes to which someone is sexually attracted *Heterosexuality: a sexual orientation characterized by sexual interest in members of the other sex *Homosexuality: a sexual orientation characterized by sexual interest in members of one’s own sex -Some studies focused on the social influences of parents or other role models, whereas other studies emphasized physiological or genetic differences *Bisexuality: a sexual orientation characterized by sexual interest in both women and men *Asexuality: a sexual orientation characterized by a general lack of interest in sex -Researchers are not sure whether asexuality is a disorder or if it represents another sexual orientation -Asexuality is different than celibacy, which is abstinence from sex -Some asexual people do have sex Some researchers argue that women and men have different gender cultures which have their own distinctive culture with its own rules and values -Since these rules and values differ, gender clash can occur, or the experience of each sex not understanding one another *Expressive Talk- verbal communication whose purpose is to express emotions and build relationships *Instrumental Talk- verbal communication whose purpose is to solve problems and accomplish tasks A difference between powerful and powerless speech is linguistic violence- language that degrades and dehumanizes a group of people Women use more second and third person pronouns like “we” and “they” and make references to emotions when they talk -Also use more intensive adverbs such as “really” tall -Women speak in longer sentences than men do Men use self-references “I” statements and judgmental adjectives such as “good” or “worthless” -Also use more references to quantity such as informing that “something costs $200” *Nonverbal Communication- carried out without words to communicate Includes gestures, facial expressions and voice tone Touch and Body Movement Expresses warmth and intimacy and power and dominance -Masculine people maintain a greater amount of distance from other than feminine people Emotional Communication Stereotypes have us believe that women are more emotional than men are -Women express more positive emotions than men do -Women use more affiliation behaviors than men which demonstrate feelings of closeness to someone else- includes eye contact, happy facial expressions and head nods Affectionate Communication- includes behaviors we use to express love and appreciation for people whom we care for -There are different theories as to why women are more affectionate than men What is a Self-Concept? Who am I? *Self-Concept: the set of stable ideas a person has about who he or she is; also known as identity *Identity: also known as self-concept 3 Fundamental Characteristics of Self-Concept 1. Self-Concepts are Multifaceted: We define ourselves in many ways Ex.) I am a good cook, I am an honest person What we call ourselves is a collection of smaller selves *Johari Window: a visual representation of components of the self that are known or unknown to the self and to others Open area: characteristics known both to self and to others like you name, sex, hobbies etc. Hidden area: characteristics that you know but choose not to reveal to others like, your insecurities or past traumas for example Blind area: what others know about you, but you don’t recognize in yourself Unknown: the dimensions of yourself that no one knows 2. Self-Concepts are Partly Subjective: Some details we know about ourselves are objective (based on fact and not opinion) like, I’m 5 feet tall or I have brown hair Subjective means that these aspects are based on our impressions of ourselves rather than objective facts For instance, you might have unrealistic ideas about your intelligence, talents or understanding about the world or other people Or, sometimes are judgements of ourselves are unreasonably negative, which is true for people with low self-esteem 3. Self-Concepts are Enduring but Changeable: Many factors affect how our self-concept comes together including, biological makeup, how and where we were raised and the kinds of people we are around Many people are likely to associate with others who will confirm our self-concept of ourselves Self-Concept can change due to developmental changes and significant life events such as battling an illness or losing a job How a Self-Concept Develops Personality and Biology: *Personality: the pattern of behaviors and ways of thinking that characterize a person Traits are characteristics that describes you in most circumstances Some aspects of our personality begins early in life before effects of culture or upbringing are likely to be influence Culture and Gender Roles The way we see ourselves is strongly affected by the culture we grew up in and the gender roles we enact Collectivistic cultures- think of their identities as embedded within their family and community Individualistic cultures- see themselves as independent, unique and not as strongly defined by family or community Masculinity can be seen with traits such as competition and achievement Femininity can be seen as having emphasis on having strong, equitable relationships Reflected Appraisal One of the ways we figure out who we are is by considering who other people think we are These positive or negative messages help us form mental pictures of what others think of us *Reflected Appraisal: the process whereby a person’s self-concept is influenced by his or her beliefs concerning what other people think of the person If people think positively about you, then you would think positively about yourself Social Comparison We also notice how we compare with the people around us *Social Comparison: the process of comparing oneself with others *Reference Groups: the groups of people with whom one compares oneself in the process of social comparison In most cases our reference groups are our peers Awareness and Management of the Self-Concept Self-Monitoring An individual’s awareness of how he or she looks and sounds and of how that person’s behavior is affecting others High self-monitors- tend to be better at making whatever kind of impression they want to make since they are aware of their behaviors and others’ responses to them Tend to be good at figuring out what others are thinking and feeling, giving an advantage in social settings Sometimes have a hard time relaxing and living in the moment though Low self-monitors- spend less time and energy thinking about their appearance and behavior and are more relaxed in many situations Often more straightforward communicators and may be seen as more genuine or trustworthy But since they have a harder time adjusting behaviors to the demands of the situation, they can appear unsophisticated or socially awkward and can make a poor first impression Self-Fulfilling Prophecy *Self-fulfilling prophecy: an expectation that gives rise to behaviors that cause the expectation to come true Ex.) If everyone likes the new program director, you expect that you will like him too, therefore you communicate in an outgoing and positive way when you see him. As a result, you do like him. In this case, your expectation led you to behave in a certain way and that caused your expectation to be fulfilled. Other people’s expectations cause us to behave in expectancy-confirming ways across a range of situations like management of relationships, our ability to heal from illness and productivity on the job Self-Esteem- Benefits and Drawbacks *Self-Esteem: one’s subjective evaluation of one’s value and worth as a person Self-Esteem and Social Behavior Those with higher self-esteem are generally more outgoing and willing to communicate Lower self-esteem is related to antisocial behavior, especially among teens and young adults and can develop problems such as social anxiety, loneliness and depression Adolescents with higher self-esteem are more prone to be sexually active and engage in risky sexual behaviors Self-Esteem and Performance High self-esteem can make us happier But, in regards to preventing delinquency or improving academic performance, it isn’t a particular benefit Culture, Sex, and Self-Esteem Culture and Self-Esteem How do ethnic minorities maintain their self-esteem if they experience discrimination and social stigma? Value things at which they excel Attribute their problems to prejudices in society rather than their own behaviors or decisions Compare themselves with others in their own group more than with people from other groups Sex and Self-Esteem Among ethnic minorities, self-esteem is higher for US females than for US males The Self and Interpersonal Needs *Need for control: one’s need to maintain a degree of influence in one’s relationships We are often less satisfied in relationships when we feel we have no control The higher a person’s self-esteem, the more they feel in control of the events in their life *Need for inclusion: one’s need to belong to a social group and be included in the activities of others Some of us have a strong need for inclusion, for others less People with higher self-esteem tend to be more outgoing and extroverted than people with low self-esteem, and therefore are more motivated to seek out relationships that will meet the need for inclusion; social groups, sport teams etc. *Need for affection: one’s need to give and receive expressions of love and appreciation People with higher self-esteem tend to be more expressive of their affectionate feelings than those with lower self-esteem Presenting the Self: Image Management *Image Management: the process of projecting one’s desired public image Image Management is Collaborative Managing your image is an individual process; your image is yours If other people regard you as confident, they will treat you as though you are We Manage Multiple Identities Each of the contexts we are in carry its own distinctive role expectations, so you will enact a somewhat different identity in each one Ex.) A mother, a grandchild, a patient, a friend The challenge is especially pronounced for people with “invisible” medical conditions, that are illnesses or disorders that are not necessarily apparent Sexual orientation is not always evident either Image Management is Complex Image management can be complicated and complex You sometimes have to present requests for favors in a way that preserves your image as a responsible person Managing Face Needs Face and Face Needs *Face: a person’s desired public image *Facework: the behaviors one uses to project one’s desired public image to others *Face Needs: components of one’s desired public image *Fellowship Face: the need to feel liked and accepted by others *Autonomy Face: the need to avoid being imposed upon by others *Competence Face: the need to be respected and viewed as competent and intelligent Face Threats Each of us has a different desired public image and so our face needs vary *Face-threatening act: any behavior that threatens one or more face needs Some responses like “I didn’t really want to be in that society anyway”, (after being rejected) is a defense mechanism that helps minimize the effects of a face-threatening act Communicating the Self: Self-Disclosure *Self-disclosure: the act of giving others information about oneself that one believes they do not already have Principles of Self-Disclosure Self-Disclosure is Intentional and Truthful For an act of communication to qualify as self-disclosure it must meet these conditions: 1. We deliberately share information about ourselves 2. We must believe that information is true Self-Disclosure Varies in Breadth and Depth *Social Penetration Theory: predicts that as relationships develop, communication increases in breadth and depth *Breadth: the range of topics about which one person self-discloses to another With your doctor, you might only disclose information about your health, but with your romantic partner you will talk about different aspects of your life *Depth: the intimacy of the topics about which one person self-discloses to another Self-Disclosure Varies Among Relationships Social Penetration Breadth but No Depth Depth but No Breadth Breadth and Depth Self-Disclosure is a Gradual Process Closeness develops over time as two people get to know each other and reveal more information about themselves Online Self-Disclosure Follows a Different Pattern People are often more disclosive at the start of an online relationship than in a face-to-face one Computer-medicated environments encourages “hyperpersonal” communication, which means it contains more private information that people would typically share face-to-face Self-Disclosure is Usually Reciprocal *Norm of Reciprocity: a social expectation that resources and favors provided to one person in a relationship should be reciprocated by that person When we disclose things to other people, we typically expect them to disclose things to us in return Self-Disclosure Can Serve Many Purposes Ex.) If you get laid off, telling your roommates can signal to them that you could use their support or that you may be late with your share of rent for the month Self-disclosure isn’t appropriate in every case though It is important to maintain professional relationships with colleagues or customers Self-Disclosure is Influenced by Cultural and Gender Roles Many believe than women self-disclose more than men in North America In countries like North America and northern Europe, people are encouraged to express themselves and self-disclose to their friends and family Asian and Middle Eastern cultures value discretion and encourage people to disclose in more limited circumstances Benefits of Self-Disclosure 1. Enhancement of Relationships and Trust- this can help maintain relationships and reinforce the trust we share with people 2. Reciprocity: when we disclose to others, they tend to disclose back to us 3. Emotional Release: feeling like you got something “off your chest”, can reduce stress of holding on to a secret 4. Helping Others: you can self-disclose in ways that help others like when they are going through hard times Risks of Self-Disclosure 1. Rejection- we allow others to know information about us that they didn’t know before 2. Chance of obligating others- burden of disclosure 3. Hurt to others- it’s possible to hurt others with disclosures that are too critical or personal 4. Violation of other people’s privacy- inappropriate disclosures can hurt people who aren’t even participating in the discussion *Gossip: the sharing of an individual’s personal information with a third party without the individual’s consent Challenges and Risks of Disclosing Online Be careful what you say Protect your personal information Think twice before posting photos Don’t say or show something you wouldn’t want shared *Perception: the process of making meaning from the things we experience in the environment *Interpersonal Perception: the process of making meaning from the people in our environment and our relationships with them Three Stages of the Perception Process 1. Selection: the process of attending to a stimulus Being unusual or unexpected makes a stimulus stand out, repetition makes it stand out and the intensity of a stimulus affects how much you take notice of it 2. Organization: the process of categorizing information that has been selected for attention Helps you make sense of the information, your mind applies a perceptual schema or a mental framework -Physical Constructs: emphasize people’s appearance, causing us to notice objective characteristics like height, age, body shape and subjective ones such as attractiveness -Role Constructs: emphasize people’s social or professional position -Interaction Constructs: emphasizes people’s behavior -Psychological Constructs: emphasize people’s thoughts and feelings 3. Interpretation: the process of assigning meaning to information that has been selected for attention and organized For example thinking someone is interested in you if they are being friendly Physiological states are conditions that are temporary Physiological traits are conditions that affect us on an ongoing basis- how you react to food or how you perceive various behaviors Social roles are a set of behaviors expected of someone in a particular social situation Fundamental Forces in Interpersonal Comm. *Stereotypes: generalizations about groups of people that are applied to individual members of those groups *Primacy Effect: the tendency to emphasize the first impression over later impressions when forming a perception Critical because they set the tone for all future interactions *Recency Effect: the tendency to emphasize the most recent impression over earlier impressions when forming a perception Ex.) Even though you liked someone before, their more recent comments strike you as unlikeable *Perceptual set: a predisposition to perceive only what we want or expect to perceive “I’ll see it when I believe it” Can shape the way we interpret social situations *Egocentric: unable to take another person’s perspective Can influence our perceptions of others or assume that other people experience the world the same way we do The opposite of egocentric is altercentric- focused on the perspective of another person instead of your own *Positively Bias: the tendency to focus heavily on a person’s positive attributes when forming a perception When we pay attention to positive information, like only seeing your partner’s positive qualities while ignoring their faults or shortcomings *Negativity Bias: the tendency to focus heavily on a person’s negative attributes when forming a perception Weighing negative information more heavily than the positive Explaining what we perceive *Attribution: an explanation for an observed behavior 3 Dimensions: 1. Locus: the cause of a behavior is located, whether within ourselves or outside ourselves Some of our behaviors have external causes meaning they’re caused by something outside ourselves Ex.) Why is your boss late? Maybe he’s in traffic, he has a long walk to work etc. 2. Stability: whether the cause of a behavior is stable or unstable, stable cause is one that is permanent or not easily changed Ex.) Why is your boss late for lunch? Rush hour traffic would be a stable cause because it’s permanent 3. Controllability: vary in how controllable they are Ex.) If your brother is late to pick you up, could he have controlled this or not? *Self-serving bias: the tendency to attribute one’s successes to internal causes and one’s failure to external causes Ex.) If you got an A, it’s because you are smart, but if you got an F you blame it on the test being unfair Why did your partner remember your birthday? Was it because your partner is a thoughtful person or because you reminded him/her repeatedly? *Fundamental attribution error: the tendency to attribute others’ behaviors to internal rather than external causes Ex.) That driver cut you off because he/she is a jerk, not because of noisy children or another distraction that might have motivated that behavior *Overattribution: the tendency to attribute a range of behaviors to a single characteristic of a person Ex.) That’s typical of an only child Improving your perceptual abilities Being Mindful of your perceptions: Know yourself The Influence of gender and culture Consider the context Checking your perceptions: Separate interpretations from facts Generate alternative perceptions Engage in perception-checking behaviors Revise your perceptions as necessary The Nature of Language *Language: a structured system of symbols (words) used for communicating meaning Written messages are also verbal Language is symbolic, a word simply represents something Language is arbitrary, words symbolize the particular thing we do *Onomatopoeia: a word formed by imitating the sound associated with its meaning Phonological Rules: deal with correct pronunciation of a word Syntactic rules: govern the way we put together words and phrases to create well-formed sentences Semantic rules: govern the meanings of individual words Pragmatic rules: address how we use social and cultural info to determine the meaning of statements *Denotative meaning: a word’s literal meaning or dictionary definition *Connotative meaning: a word’s implied or secondary meaning, in addition to its literal meaning Semantic Triangle: includes symbol (word being communicated), referent (denotative meaning), and reference (connotative meaning) *Loaded language: terms that carry strongly positive or strongly negative connotations Obamacare vs. Affordable Care Act *Ambiguous language: language having more than one possible meaning “Right” meaning correct or turn right Ladder of Abstraction: the top is more concrete terms like “my brother Time” and the bottom is more abstract like “living being” *Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: the idea that language influences the ways that members of a culture see and think about the world Two Principles: Linguistic Determinism: suggests that the structure of language determines how we think Linguistic Relativity: suggests that because language determines our perceptions of reality, people who speak different languages will see the world differently Appreciating the Power of Words A person’s name suggests info about the person’s demographic characteristics, disposition and sense of self Persuasion: the process of moving people to think or act in a certain way *Ethos: a speaker’s respectability, trustworthiness, and moral character Appeals to level of knowledge and expertise *Pathos: listeners’ emotions People’s interpersonal emotional appeals often focus on generating negative emotions *Logos: listeners’ ability to reason *Reason: make judgements about the world based on evidence rather than emotion or intuition *Credibility: the extent to which others find someone’s words and actions trustworthy Cliches: phrases that were novel at one time but have lost their effect because of overuse Dialects: variations on a language that are shared by people of a certain region or social class Equivocation: strategically vague language that disguises the speaker’s true intentions Weasel words: terms and phrases that are intended to mislead listeners by implying something that they don’t actually say Allness statements: declaration implying that a claim is true without exception Choosing credible language is important to be a trustworthy person Language expresses affection and intimacy as well as comfort and healing Language can also be used to comfort ourselves- keeping a diary can help during traumatic events The Use and Abuse of Language Jokes can be funny, some can be offensive *Euphemism: a vague, mild expression that symbolizes something more blunt or harsh Instead of saying a woman is pregnant, she might say she is “expecting” Doublespeak: using euphemisms to distort meaning or to make offensive or upsetting news seem more acceptable *Slang: informal, unconventional words that are often understood only by others in a particular group Slang can serve an important social function by helping people distinguish between those who do and don’t belong to their social networks *Defamation: language that harms a person’s reputation or image *Libel: a defamatory statement made in print or in some other fixed medium *Slander: a defamatory statement made aloud *Profanity: a form of language considered vulgar, rude or obscene in the context in which it is used *Hate speech: a form of profanity meant to degrade, intimidate, or dehumanize groups of people Creating a Positive Communication Climate *Communication climate: the emotional tone of a relationship Reflects how you feel about the relationships you’re in *Confirming messages: behaviors that indicate how much we value another person *Disconfirming messages: behaviors that imply a lack of regard for another person From most to least disconfirming: Impervious Response: ignoring people altogether making people feel neglected and unimportant Verbal abuse: using words to hurt people emotionally and psychologically Generalized complaining: offering specific complaints often helps by focusing the conversation on particular problems Irrelevant response: replying to someone’s message with a completely unrelated statement Impersonal response: reply to someone’s words with a cliché that conveys no real empathy *Defensiveness: excessive concern with guarding oneself against the threat of criticism *Supportiveness: a person’s feeling of assurance that others care about and will protect him or her Six types of messages that promote defensiveness in interpersonal comm. and six contrasting types of messages that promote supportiveness -Evaluation vs. description -Control vs. problem orientation -Strategy vs. spontaneity -Neutrality vs. empathy -Superiority vs. equality -Certainty vs. provisionalism *Non-evaluative feedback: a reply that withholds assessment of what the speaker has said or done Techniques of non-evaluative feedback you could use: Probe Paraphrase Offer support *Evaluative feedback: a reply that offers an assessment of what the speaker has said or done Provide praise or criticize constructively *I-statement: a statement that claims ownership of one’s thoughts or feelings “I’m having a hard time understanding you” *You-statement: a statement that shifts responsibility for one’s own thoughts or feelings to the listener “You’re not being clear” Tips to help contribute to a positive climate in your own communication: Don’t expect feedback to be immediate Be careful not to use mediated communication as a shield Get permission before sharing others’ photos Pay attention to auto-correct Reflect instead of reacting


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