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What is a self-concept?

What is a self-concept?

Description

School: California State University Chico
Department: Communication Studies
Course: Foundations of Interpersonal Communication
Professor: Michelle givertz
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: communication, Interpersonal, and english
Cost: 50
Name: CMST Study Guide for Exam 1
Description: These notes will cover material through chapter 5
Uploaded: 09/23/2016
18 Pages 194 Views 2 Unlocks
Reviews


CMST 233- EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE


What is a self-concept?



Culture is a powerful influence and can affect not only how we express ourselves but also how  we interpret and react to interpersonal behaviors of others

Gender- also another powerful influence

Other aspects such as ethnicity, age and socioeconomic status can influence  communication

*Culture: the system of learned and shared symbols, languages, values and norms that  distinguish one group of people from another

-Culture is a property of people as opposed to a property of countries, ethnicity or  economic classes

-Culture is determined by who we were raised by, where we were raised as well as the  symbols, language, values and norms of that area

*Society: a group of people who share symbols, language, values, and norms *In-group: a group of people with whom one identifies


How do ethnic minorities maintain their self-esteem if they experience discrimination and social stigma?



*Out-group: a group of people with whom one does not identify

-Immigrants experience more high stress during their first year in their new homeland

-This is referred to as culture shock; the jarring reaction we are in highly unfamiliar  situations Don't forget about the age old question of Why do we need to know chemistry to study biology?

*Ethnocentrism: systematic preference for characteristics of one’s own culture -Culture is learned- this process if called enculturation

*Ethnicity: an individual’s perception of his or her ancestry or heritage

*Nationality: an individual’s status as a citizen of a particular country

A symbol is something that represents an idea


What others know about you, but you don’t recognize in yourself?



-Words are symbols

Ex.) The U.S. flag, a bald eagle and “The Star-Spangled Banner” are symbols

Language allows for written and spoken communication and ensures that cultures and cultural  ideas can be passed to future generations

Values- a culture’s values are the standards for judging how good, desirable or beautiful  something can be

-Some values in the US include, equal opportunity and material comfort

Norms- rules or expectations that guide people’s behavior in a culture

-People shake hands and say “Nice to meet you” in North America If you want to learn more check out Why does hamlet choose to act mad?

*Co-cultures- groups of people who share values, customs, and norms related to mutual  interests or characteristics beyond their national citizenship

-Some co-cultures are based on shared activities or beliefs

-Examples include, political activism or even fly fishing

-Some co-cultures reflect differences in mental or physical abilities

-Can be within your age group, religion, ethnicity, musical taste, sexual orientation,  athletic interest or major of study: each group has their own beliefs, values, traditions and  customs

Social Media- can be a co-culture in which symbols, values, language and norms are in  common; hashtags, jargon and memes We also discuss several other topics like . what are the levels at which we study life?

People with culture differences don’t just communicate different, but can also think differently -Teenagers value independence while older adults may value family and community -They may speak the same language, but may use the language in different ways

Communicating effectively with people from different cultures/co-cultures requires awareness of  their behaviors and ways of thinking and that they are different to our own We also discuss several other topics like How do attitudes change?

*Similarity Assumption: one’s tendency to presume that others think the same way he or she  does

*Individualistic Culture: a culture that emphasizes individuality and responsibility to oneself -Messages such as, “Be yourself”, and “You’re special”

-These messages emphasize the importance of knowing oneself, becoming self-sufficient  and being true to what you want in life

*Collective Culture: a culture that places greater emphasis on loyalty to the family, workplace,  or community that on the needs of the individual  

-Place a high value on duty and loyalty and do not see themselves as unique or special,  but part of a group they belong to

*Low-Context Culture: a culture in which verbal communication is expected to be explicit and  is often interpreted literally

-These cultures value expressing oneself, sharing personal opinions and persuading other  to see thing’s a certain way Don't forget about the age old question of What do you mean by hydrogenation?

-The US, Canada, Israel and most northern European countries are examples

*High-Context Culture: a culture in which verbal communication is often ambiguous, and  meaning is drawn from contextual cues, such as facial expressions and tone of voice

-Taught to speak much less directly

-Maintaining harmony and avoiding offending people is more important than expressing  true feelings, and as a result people less in a less direct, more ambiguous manner and  convey meaning through subtle actions such as facial expressions and tone of voice

-Examples include Korea, the Maori of New Zealand and Native Americans

-People raised in high-context cultures are more reluctant to say no, for fear or causing  offense

*Low-Power-Distance Culture: a culture in which power is not highly concentrated in specific  groups of people

-Raised to believe that even though some people are born with more advantages (money  or fame), no one is inherently better than anyone else

-Expect friendships and romantic relationships to be based on love rather than social  status

*High-Power-Distance Culture: a culture in which much or most of the power is concentrated  in a few people, such as royalty or a ruling political party

-Power is distributed less evenly and people are taught that certain people deserve to have  more power than others and that respecting that power is more important than respecting  equality If you want to learn more check out How metabolism relates to enzyme?

-Expected to choose friends or romantic partners based on people within their social class

Masculine Culture- people tend to cherish traditionally masculine values like ambition,  achievement, and acquisition of material goods

-Also prefer sex-specific roles for women and men

Feminine Culture- people tend to value nurturance, quality of life and service to others;  stereotypically feminine qualities

*Monochronic: a concept that treats time as a finite commodity that can be earned, saved, spent, and wasted

-Monochronic cultures think of time as valuable and do not like to waste it *Polychromic: a concept that treats time as an infinite resource rather than a finite commodity -Conceive time as more holistic, fluid and less structure

-Instead of thinking of time as a finite commodity that must be managed and not wasted,  they perceive it more flowing like a never-ending river

*Uncertainty Avoidance: the degree to which people try to avoid situations that are  unstructured, unclear, or unpredictable

-People from these cultures are drawn to situations and people that are more familiar to  them, and avoid risks, for fear of failure

-They are also uncomfortable with differences of opinion and favor rules/laws that  maximize security and reduce ambiguity

*Communication Codes: verbal and nonverbal behaviors, such as idioms and gesture that characterize a culture and distinguish it from other cultures

Idiom- phrase who meaning is purely figurative; we cannot understand the meaning by  interpreting the words literally

Ex.) “Break a leg”, means to have a good performance

Jargon- specific form of idiomatic communication which often separates co-cultures, or  language whose technical meaning is understood by people in that co-culture

Gestures- movements, usually of the hand or arm which expresses ideas

*Gender- influences who we are and how we act. It is the defining feature of our identity,  shapes how we think, look and communicate

-May include influences such as psychological gender roles, biological sex or sexual  orientation

*Gender Roles: a set of expectations for appropriate behavior that a culture typically assigns to  an individual based on his or her biological sex

-Three specific categories: masculinity, femininity, and androgyny

*Masculinity: a gender role, typically assigned to men, that emphasizes strength, dominance,  competition, and logical thinking

-Traditional masculinity also tends to reject weakness, emotional expression and  characteristics or behaviors which resemble women

*Femininity: a gender role, typically assigned to women, that emphasizes expressive, nurturing  behavior

-Typically emphasizes empathy and emotional expressiveness, and an interest in having  and raising children as well as attention to appearance

-In the past, tradition discouraged women from pursuing an education and achieving their  goals

*Androgyny: a gender role distinguished by a combination of masculine and feminine  characteristics

-Androgynous does not mean that the person tries to look, act, or sound like the other sex  and is not always related to sexuality

Biological Sex- refers to being female or male rather than feminine or masculine -Transgender individuals experience this conflict

-Intersex can be caused by delayed physical development or by hormonal problems

*Sexual Orientation: a characteristic determining the sex or sexes to which someone is sexually  attracted

*Heterosexuality: a sexual orientation characterized by sexual interest in members of the other  sex

*Homosexuality: a sexual orientation characterized by sexual interest in members of one’s own  sex

-Some studies focused on the social influences of parents or other role models, whereas  other studies emphasized physiological or genetic differences

*Bisexuality: a sexual orientation characterized by sexual interest in both women and men *Asexuality: a sexual orientation characterized by a general lack of interest in sex

-Researchers are not sure whether asexuality is a disorder or if it represents another  sexual orientation

-Asexuality is different than celibacy, which is abstinence from sex

-Some asexual people do have sex

Some researchers argue that women and men have different gender cultures which have their  own distinctive culture with its own rules and values

-Since these rules and values differ, gender clash can occur, or the experience of each sex  not understanding one another

*Expressive Talk- verbal communication whose purpose is to express emotions and build  relationships

*Instrumental Talk- verbal communication whose purpose is to solve problems and accomplish  tasks

A difference between powerful and powerless speech is linguistic violence- language that  degrades and dehumanizes a group of people

Women use more second and third person pronouns like “we” and “they” and make references to  emotions when they talk

-Also use more intensive adverbs such as “really” tall

-Women speak in longer sentences than men do

Men use self-references “I” statements and judgmental adjectives such as “good” or “worthless” -Also use more references to quantity such as informing that “something costs $200” *Nonverbal Communication- carried out without words to communicate Includes gestures, facial expressions and voice tone  

Touch and Body Movement

Expresses warmth and intimacy and power and dominance

-Masculine people maintain a greater amount of distance from other than feminine  people

Emotional Communication

Stereotypes have us believe that women are more emotional than men are -Women express more positive emotions than men do

-Women use more affiliation behaviors than men which demonstrate feelings of  closeness to someone else- includes eye contact, happy facial expressions and head nods

Affectionate Communication- includes behaviors we use to express love and appreciation for  people whom we care for

-There are different theories as to why women are more affectionate than men What is a Self-Concept?

Who am I?

*Self-Concept: the set of stable ideas a person has about who he or she is; also known as identity *Identity: also known as self-concept

3 Fundamental Characteristics of Self-Concept 

1. Self-Concepts are Multifaceted:

We define ourselves in many ways

Ex.) I am a good cook, I am an honest person

What we call ourselves is a collection of smaller selves

*Johari Window: a visual representation of components of the self that are known or unknown to the self  and to others

Open area: characteristics known both to self and to others like you name, sex, hobbies etc.

Hidden area: characteristics that you know but choose not to reveal to others like, your insecurities or  past traumas for example

Blind area: what others know about you, but you don’t recognize in yourself

Unknown: the dimensions of yourself that no one knows

2. Self-Concepts are Partly Subjective:

Some details we know about ourselves are objective (based on fact and not opinion) like, I’m 5 feet tall  or I have brown hair

Subjective means that these aspects are based on our impressions of ourselves rather than objective facts

For instance, you might have unrealistic ideas about your intelligence, talents or understanding about the world or other people

Or, sometimes are judgements of ourselves are unreasonably negative, which is true for people  with low self-esteem

3. Self-Concepts are Enduring but Changeable:

Many factors affect how our self-concept comes together including, biological makeup, how and where  we were raised and the kinds of people we are around

Many people are likely to associate with others who will confirm our self-concept of ourselves

Self-Concept can change due to developmental changes and significant life events such as battling an  illness or losing a job

How a Self-Concept Develops 

Personality and Biology:

*Personality: the pattern of behaviors and ways of thinking that characterize a person Traits are characteristics that describes you in most circumstances

Some aspects of our personality begins early in life before effects of culture or upbringing are  likely to be influence

Culture and Gender Roles

The way we see ourselves is strongly affected by the culture we grew up in and the gender roles  we enact

Collectivistic cultures- think of their identities as embedded within their family and community

Individualistic cultures- see themselves as independent, unique and not as strongly defined by family or  community

Masculinity can be seen with traits such as competition and achievement

Femininity can be seen as having emphasis on having strong, equitable relationships Reflected Appraisal

One of the ways we figure out who we are is by considering who other people think we are These positive or negative messages help us form mental pictures of what others think of us

*Reflected Appraisal: the process whereby a person’s self-concept is influenced by his or her beliefs  concerning what other people think of the person

If people think positively about you, then you would think positively about yourself Social Comparison

We also notice how we compare with the people around us

*Social Comparison: the process of comparing oneself with others

*Reference Groups: the groups of people with whom one compares oneself in the process of social  comparison

In most cases our reference groups are our peers

Awareness and Management of the Self-Concept 

Self-Monitoring

An individual’s awareness of how he or she looks and sounds and of how that person’s behavior is  affecting others

High self-monitors- tend to be better at making whatever kind of impression they want to make since  they are aware of their behaviors and others’ responses to them

Tend to be good at figuring out what others are thinking and feeling, giving an advantage in  social settings

Sometimes have a hard time relaxing and living in the moment though

Low self-monitors- spend less time and energy thinking about their appearance and behavior and are  more relaxed in many situations

Often more straightforward communicators and may be seen as more genuine or trustworthy

But since they have a harder time adjusting behaviors to the demands of the situation, they can  appear unsophisticated or socially awkward and can make a poor first impression

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

*Self-fulfilling prophecy: an expectation that gives rise to behaviors that cause the expectation to come  true

Ex.) If everyone likes the new program director, you expect that you will like him too, therefore  you communicate in an outgoing and positive way when you see him. As a result, you do like him. In this  case, your expectation led you to behave in a certain way and that caused your expectation to be fulfilled.

Other people’s expectations cause us to behave in expectancy-confirming ways across a range of  situations like management of relationships, our ability to heal from illness and productivity on the job

Self-Esteem- Benefits and Drawbacks 

*Self-Esteem: one’s subjective evaluation of one’s value and worth as a person

Self-Esteem and Social Behavior

Those with higher self-esteem are generally more outgoing and willing to communicate

Lower self-esteem is related to antisocial behavior, especially among teens and young adults and can  develop problems such as social anxiety, loneliness and depression

Adolescents with higher self-esteem are more prone to be sexually active and engage in risky sexual  behaviors

Self-Esteem and Performance

High self-esteem can make us happier

But, in regards to preventing delinquency or improving academic performance, it isn’t a particular benefit Culture, Sex, and Self-Esteem

Culture and Self-Esteem

How do ethnic minorities maintain their self-esteem if they experience discrimination and social stigma? Value things at which they excel

Attribute their problems to prejudices in society rather than their own behaviors or decisions Compare themselves with others in their own group more than with people from other groups Sex and Self-Esteem

Among ethnic minorities, self-esteem is higher for US females than for US males The Self and Interpersonal Needs 

*Need for control: one’s need to maintain a degree of influence in one’s relationships We are often less satisfied in relationships when we feel we have no control

The higher a person’s self-esteem, the more they feel in control of the events in their life *Need for inclusion: one’s need to belong to a social group and be included in the activities of others Some of us have a strong need for inclusion, for others less

People with higher self-esteem tend to be more outgoing and extroverted than people with low  self-esteem, and therefore are more motivated to seek out relationships that will meet the need  for inclusion; social groups, sport teams etc.

*Need for affection: one’s need to give and receive expressions of love and appreciation

People with higher self-esteem tend to be more expressive of their affectionate feelings than  those with lower self-esteem

Presenting the Self: Image Management 

*Image Management: the process of projecting one’s desired public image

Image Management is Collaborative

Managing your image is an individual process; your image is yours

If other people regard you as confident, they will treat you as though you are

We Manage Multiple Identities

Each of the contexts we are in carry its own distinctive role expectations, so you will enact a somewhat  different identity in each one

Ex.) A mother, a grandchild, a patient, a friend

The challenge is especially pronounced for people with “invisible” medical conditions, that are illnesses  or disorders that are not necessarily apparent  

Sexual orientation is not always evident either

Image Management is Complex

Image management can be complicated and complex

You sometimes have to present requests for favors in a way that preserves your image as a  responsible person

Managing Face Needs

Face and Face Needs

*Face: a person’s desired public image

*Facework: the behaviors one uses to project one’s desired public image to others *Face Needs: components of one’s desired public image

*Fellowship Face: the need to feel liked and accepted by others

*Autonomy Face: the need to avoid being imposed upon by others

*Competence Face: the need to be respected and viewed as competent and intelligent Face Threats

Each of us has a different desired public image and so our face needs vary

*Face-threatening act: any behavior that threatens one or more face needs

Some responses like “I didn’t really want to be in that society anyway”, (after being rejected) is a  defense mechanism that helps minimize the effects of a face-threatening act

Communicating the Self: Self-Disclosure 

*Self-disclosure: the act of giving others information about oneself that one believes they do not already  have

Principles of Self-Disclosure

Self-Disclosure is Intentional and Truthful

For an act of communication to qualify as self-disclosure it must meet these conditions: 1. We deliberately share information about ourselves

2. We must believe that information is true

Self-Disclosure Varies in Breadth and Depth

*Social Penetration Theory: predicts that as relationships develop, communication increases in breadth  and depth

*Breadth: the range of topics about which one person self-discloses to another

With your doctor, you might only disclose information about your health, but with your romantic  partner you will talk about different aspects of your life

*Depth: the intimacy of the topics about which one person self-discloses to another Self-Disclosure Varies Among Relationships

Social Penetration

Breadth but No Depth

Depth but No Breadth

Breadth and Depth

Self-Disclosure is a Gradual Process

Closeness develops over time as two people get to know each other and reveal more information about  themselves

Online Self-Disclosure Follows a Different Pattern

People are often more disclosive at the start of an online relationship than in a face-to-face one

Computer-medicated environments encourages “hyperpersonal” communication, which means it contains  more private information that people would typically share face-to-face

Self-Disclosure is Usually Reciprocal

*Norm of Reciprocity: a social expectation that resources and favors provided to one person in a  relationship should be reciprocated by that person

When we disclose things to other people, we typically expect them to disclose things to us in  return

Self-Disclosure Can Serve Many Purposes

Ex.) If you get laid off, telling your roommates can signal to them that you could use their  support or that you may be late with your share of rent for the month

Self-disclosure isn’t appropriate in every case though

It is important to maintain professional relationships with colleagues or customers Self-Disclosure is Influenced by Cultural and Gender Roles

Many believe than women self-disclose more than men in North America

In countries like North America and northern Europe, people are encouraged to express themselves and  self-disclose to their friends and family

Asian and Middle Eastern cultures value discretion and encourage people to disclose in more limited  circumstances

Benefits of Self-Disclosure

1. Enhancement of Relationships and Trust- this can help maintain relationships and reinforce the trust we  share with people

2. Reciprocity: when we disclose to others, they tend to disclose back to us

3. Emotional Release: feeling like you got something “off your chest”, can reduce stress of holding on to  a secret

4. Helping Others: you can self-disclose in ways that help others like when they are going through hard  times

Risks of Self-Disclosure

1. Rejection- we allow others to know information about us that they didn’t know before 2. Chance of obligating others- burden of disclosure

3. Hurt to others- it’s possible to hurt others with disclosures that are too critical or personal

4. Violation of other people’s privacy- inappropriate disclosures can hurt people who aren’t even  participating in the discussion

*Gossip: the sharing of an individual’s personal information with a third party without the individual’s  consent

Challenges and Risks of Disclosing Online

Be careful what you say

Protect your personal information

Think twice before posting photos

Don’t say or show something you wouldn’t want shared  

*Perception: the process of making meaning from the things we experience in the environment

*Interpersonal Perception: the process of making meaning from the people in our environment and our  relationships with them

Three Stages of the Perception Process

1. Selection: the process of attending to a stimulus

Being unusual or unexpected makes a stimulus stand out, repetition makes it stand out and the intensity of  a stimulus affects how much you take notice of it

2. Organization: the process of categorizing information that has been selected for attention

Helps you make sense of the information, your mind applies a perceptual schema or a  mental framework

-Physical Constructs: emphasize people’s appearance, causing us to notice objective characteristics like  height, age, body shape and subjective ones such as attractiveness

-Role Constructs: emphasize people’s social or professional position

-Interaction Constructs: emphasizes people’s behavior

-Psychological Constructs: emphasize people’s thoughts and feelings

3. Interpretation: the process of assigning meaning to information that has been selected for attention and  organized

For example thinking someone is interested in you if they are being friendly  

Physiological states are conditions that are temporary

Physiological traits are conditions that affect us on an ongoing basis- how you react to food or how you  perceive various behaviors

Social roles are a set of behaviors expected of someone in a particular social situation Fundamental Forces in Interpersonal Comm.

*Stereotypes: generalizations about groups of people that are applied to individual members of those  groups

*Primacy Effect: the tendency to emphasize the first impression over later impressions when forming a  perception

Critical because they set the tone for all future interactions

*Recency Effect: the tendency to emphasize the most recent impression over earlier impressions when  forming a perception

Ex.) Even though you liked someone before, their more recent comments strike you as  unlikeable

*Perceptual set: a predisposition to perceive only what we want or expect to perceive “I’ll see it when I believe it”

Can shape the way we interpret social situations

*Egocentric: unable to take another person’s perspective

Can influence our perceptions of others or assume that other people experience the world the same way  we do

The opposite of egocentric is altercentric- focused on the perspective of another person instead of your  own

*Positively Bias: the tendency to focus heavily on a person’s positive attributes when forming a  perception

When we pay attention to positive information, like only seeing your partner’s positive qualities while  ignoring their faults or shortcomings

*Negativity Bias: the tendency to focus heavily on a person’s negative attributes when forming a  perception

Weighing negative information more heavily than the positive

Explaining what we perceive

*Attribution: an explanation for an observed behavior

3 Dimensions:  

1. Locus: the cause of a behavior is located, whether within ourselves or outside ourselves Some of our behaviors have external causes meaning they’re caused by something outside ourselves Ex.) Why is your boss late? Maybe he’s in traffic, he has a long walk to work etc.

2. Stability: whether the cause of a behavior is stable or unstable, stable cause is one that is permanent or  not easily changed

Ex.) Why is your boss late for lunch? Rush hour traffic would be a stable cause because it’s permanent 3. Controllability: vary in how controllable they are  

Ex.) If your brother is late to pick you up, could he have controlled this or not?

*Self-serving bias: the tendency to attribute one’s successes to internal causes and one’s failure to  external causes

Ex.) If you got an A, it’s because you are smart, but if you got an F you blame it on the test being unfair

Why did your partner remember your birthday? Was it because your partner is a thoughtful person or  because you reminded him/her repeatedly?

*Fundamental attribution error: the tendency to attribute others’ behaviors to internal rather than external  causes

Ex.) That driver cut you off because he/she is a jerk, not because of noisy children or another distraction  that might have motivated that behavior

*Overattribution: the tendency to attribute a range of behaviors to a single characteristic of a person Ex.) That’s typical of an only child

Improving your perceptual abilities

Being Mindful of your perceptions: 

Know yourself  

The Influence of gender and culture

Consider the context

Checking your perceptions: 

Separate interpretations from facts

Generate alternative perceptions

Engage in perception-checking behaviors  

Revise your perceptions as necessary

The Nature of Language

*Language: a structured system of symbols (words) used for communicating meaning  Written messages are also verbal

Language is symbolic, a word simply represents something

Language is arbitrary, words symbolize the particular thing we do

*Onomatopoeia: a word formed by imitating the sound associated with its meaning Phonological Rules: deal with correct pronunciation of a word

Syntactic rules: govern the way we put together words and phrases to create well-formed sentences Semantic rules: govern the meanings of individual words

Pragmatic rules: address how we use social and cultural info to determine the meaning of statements *Denotative meaning: a word’s literal meaning or dictionary definition

*Connotative meaning: a word’s implied or secondary meaning, in addition to its literal meaning

Semantic Triangle: includes symbol (word being communicated), referent (denotative meaning), and  reference (connotative meaning)

*Loaded language: terms that carry strongly positive or strongly negative connotations Obamacare vs. Affordable Care Act

*Ambiguous language: language having more than one possible meaning

“Right” meaning correct or turn right

Ladder of Abstraction: the top is more concrete terms like “my brother Time” and the bottom is more  abstract like “living being”

*Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: the idea that language influences the ways that members of a culture see and  think about the world

Two Principles:

Linguistic Determinism: suggests that the structure of language determines how we think

Linguistic Relativity: suggests that because language determines our perceptions of reality, people who  speak different languages will see the world differently

Appreciating the Power of Words

A person’s name suggests info about the person’s demographic characteristics, disposition and sense of  self

Persuasion: the process of moving people to think or act in a certain way

*Ethos: a speaker’s respectability, trustworthiness, and moral character

Appeals to level of knowledge and expertise

*Pathos: listeners’ emotions

People’s interpersonal emotional appeals often focus on generating negative emotions *Logos: listeners’ ability to reason

*Reason: make judgements about the world based on evidence rather than emotion or intuition *Credibility: the extent to which others find someone’s words and actions trustworthy Cliches: phrases that were novel at one time but have lost their effect because of overuse Dialects: variations on a language that are shared by people of a certain region or social class Equivocation: strategically vague language that disguises the speaker’s true intentions

Weasel words: terms and phrases that are intended to mislead listeners by implying something that they  don’t actually say

Allness statements: declaration implying that a claim is true without exception Choosing credible language is important to be a trustworthy person

Language expresses affection and intimacy as well as comfort and healing

Language can also be used to comfort ourselves- keeping a diary can help during traumatic events The Use and Abuse of Language

Jokes can be funny, some can be offensive

*Euphemism: a vague, mild expression that symbolizes something more blunt or harsh Instead of saying a woman is pregnant, she might say she is “expecting”

Doublespeak: using euphemisms to distort meaning or to make offensive or upsetting news seem more  acceptable

*Slang: informal, unconventional words that are often understood only by others in a particular group

Slang can serve an important social function by helping people distinguish between those who do and  don’t belong to their social networks

*Defamation: language that harms a person’s reputation or image

*Libel: a defamatory statement made in print or in some other fixed medium

*Slander: a defamatory statement made aloud

*Profanity: a form of language considered vulgar, rude or obscene in the context in which it is used *Hate speech: a form of profanity meant to degrade, intimidate, or dehumanize groups of people Creating a Positive Communication Climate

*Communication climate: the emotional tone of a relationship

Reflects how you feel about the relationships you’re in

*Confirming messages: behaviors that indicate how much we value another person *Disconfirming messages: behaviors that imply a lack of regard for another person From most to least disconfirming:

Impervious Response: ignoring people altogether making people feel neglected and unimportant Verbal abuse: using words to hurt people emotionally and psychologically

Generalized complaining: offering specific complaints often helps by focusing the conversation on  particular problems

Irrelevant response: replying to someone’s message with a completely unrelated statement Impersonal response: reply to someone’s words with a cliché that conveys no real empathy *Defensiveness: excessive concern with guarding oneself against the threat of criticism *Supportiveness: a person’s feeling of assurance that others care about and will protect him or her

Six types of messages that promote defensiveness in interpersonal comm. and six contrasting types of  messages that promote supportiveness

-Evaluation vs. description

-Control vs. problem orientation

-Strategy vs. spontaneity

-Neutrality vs. empathy

-Superiority vs. equality

-Certainty vs. provisionalism

*Non-evaluative feedback: a reply that withholds assessment of what the speaker has said or done Techniques of non-evaluative feedback you could use:  

Probe

Paraphrase

Offer support

*Evaluative feedback: a reply that offers an assessment of what the speaker has said or done Provide praise or criticize constructively

*I-statement: a statement that claims ownership of one’s thoughts or feelings

“I’m having a hard time understanding you”

*You-statement: a statement that shifts responsibility for one’s own thoughts or feelings to the listener “You’re not being clear”

Tips to help contribute to a positive climate in your own communication:

Don’t expect feedback to be immediate

Be careful not to use mediated communication as a shield

Get permission before sharing others’ photos

Pay attention to auto-correct

Reflect instead of reacting

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