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Psych 205, Exam review

by: Harman Suri

Psych 205, Exam review PSY 205

Marketplace > Syracuse University > Psychology > PSY 205 > Psych 205 Exam review
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These notes cover whats going to be on our next eam.
Psychology : Foundations of Human Behaviour
M. Morton
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Harman Suri on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 205 at Syracuse University taught by M. Morton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Psychology : Foundations of Human Behaviour in Psychology at Syracuse University.


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Date Created: 09/22/16
Psych Exam Review 1­4 Early And current definitions of psych ­Early definition ­ Study of the mind ­Current definition ­ scientific study of human and animal behaviour and mental processes What do psychologists do? Clinical: evaluate and treat psychological disorders Counseling: typically treat less severe problems School: improve curriculum, testing Industrial: run human resource departments Important figures ­ Wundt: founder of psychology, established 1st research lab at University of Leipzig,  Established  1st psychology journal for research publications ­ Hall: Brought psychology to America,  Established 1st US research at john hopkins university,  established APA, elected its first president.  Titchener ­  ( Structuralist) ­ Method of introspection: careful, self­observation of ones own  conscience experience. Sensation, feelings, images etc.  ­ James  ( Functionalist) ­ Applied natural selection to human consciousness, consciousness must  have a purpose ­ Freud ­ attempts to explain personality, motivation a nd mental disorders by focusing on  unconscious determinants of behaviour. Example slips of tongue, dreams. Controversy: he said  people are not in control of their mind. Proposed that behaviour is influenced by how people  cope with sexual urges. ­ Watson ­ fo under of behaviourism, downplayed heredity, behaviour is governed by the  environment  ­ B.F. skinner ­Fundamental principle, organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to +  outcomes and they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative out comes.  Controversy, asserted that free will is an illusion, people are controlled by their environment. ­ Rogers ­ behaviour is governed by one’s self, person centered therapy ­ Maslow ­ hierarchy of needs  Early school of thought Functionalism: psychology  ­ should investigate the function of purpose of consciousness, rather  than its structure ­ Structuralism: task of psychology is to analyse consciousness into its basic tenants and  investigate outhouse elements are related Psychiatry vs Psychology ­ psychiatry s the branch of medicine concerned with psychological disturbances, psychiatrists  have medical degrees Areas of School of thought ­ Behaviourism  ­ scientists should study only observable behaviour, focus on behaviour, not  feelings or internal states ­ Humanis m ­ emphasises unique qualties of humans and personal worth, People are rational  beings, unique from other animals, Humans will fulfil their potential if given the opportunities ­ Cognitive Psych ­ refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowled ge: memory,  language reasoning problem solving,emerged out of response to strict behaviourism, Cognitive  neuroscience: psychological brain states directly correlate with mental states. ­ Social psychology ­ efforts to understand racism, genocide, mass persua sion of people etc. ­ Evolutionary Psychology: examines  behavioural processes in terms of their adaptive value,  natural selection favours behaviours that enhance organisms reproductive success ­ Positive psychology ­ uses scientific understanding and effective  intervention to aid in the  achievement of a satisfactory life Chapter 2 2 great assumptions in science First great assumption ­ Positivism: Truth exists and we can know it Why is it necessary for science?  There is no other standard for judging theories except how true they are. Science is about the accumulation of true facts about the world Corollary of positivism: an orderly universe. Without order there would be nothing Second great assumption  Empiricism: an approach to understanding the world that  ­ involves collecting data or making  observations Science is about empiricism, it assumes we can find the truth in a particular way ­ by looking for it  and testing it in the real world Empirical tests: experiments, surveys, observation Strengths: understand and respond more appropriately to dynamics of situation, help to build upon  what is already known, meet standards of professional research. Limitations: Long time periods, expensive, gaining access to firms isn't always possible. Hypothesis: a prediciton Theory: system of ideas to explain something Variable: something that can be changed, operational definition: the specific way in which it is  measured in that study. Independent Variable: what you are changing Dependent Variable: what gets affected by what you change Extraneous Variables: any variables other than the independent variable that influence the  dependant variable in a study. Ex: age, gender, noise level, bad day Confound Variables: an extraneous variable in a statistical model that correlate with both the  dependent and independent variable Random assignment: all subjects have equal chance of being assigned to any group or condition Expectancy effects: change in the outcome id due to the subjects expectancy that change should  happen. ex: person consumes grapefruit juice that they think contains alcohol and feel intoxicated  Controlling expectancy? Double blind study: neither the experimenter nor participant is aware of  the group.  Non experimental methods Correlational studies: Measure two naturally occurring things and see if they are related.  Positive correlation: 2 varibales vary systematically in the SAME direction. ex: more coffee more  talkative i get Negative correlation: 2 variables vary systematically in opposite direction. ex: more coffee less  sleep Eating donuts result in happiness ­ Directionality Problem  High self confidence Happiness/Eating donuts ­ Third Variable Problem Surveys  Social desirability bias ­ tendency to answer questions in a manner that will be viewed favorably by others. This bias interferes with the interpretation of average tendencies as well as individual  differences.  Naturalistic observation ­ it is where a subject is observed in its natural habitat without any  manipulation. Participant observation is one type of data collection method typically used in qualitative research. sampling bias ­ some members are more likely to be included in a research than others. Chapter 3 The study of connection between biology and behaviour is Biological Psychology Also known as: Neuropsychology Biopsychology Psychobiology Physiological Psychology What happens if someone throws a candy to you?: Your eyes perceive a stimulus Your brain interprets that stimulus and signals are sent to other parts of your body. Your heart rate increases you become more alert, muscular movements enable you to catch the  candy Conclusion: Behaviour depends on rapid information processing within your nervous system The Nervous system : 2 parts  Central Nervous System: The brain and Spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System: Various nervous systems The biology behind behaviour Nervous system is living tissue composed of cells. Neurons: Nerve cells that receive, integrate and transmit info,  basic building blocks of the nervous system Glia: supports nervous system 50% of brain volume!   Types of neurons: Sensory neurons ­ carry messages from sensory organs to spinal cord or brain Motor neurons ­ carry messages from spinal cord or brain to muscle and glands Inter neurons ­ carry messages from one neuron to another  Mirror neurons ­ brain mirrors the movement it sees mechanism for empathy tie us to others actions & feelings Structure of the dendrites Dendrites: receive information Soma : cell body, contains cell nucleus Axon: transmits info away from the soma to other neurons Myelin Sheath: insulates axons, speed up transmission ­ MultipleScelerosis occurs when myelin layer is destroyed Numbness, weakness and paralysis occurs Terminal Buttons: secrete neurotransmitters  Synapse: junction where info is transmitted from one neuron to another Steps:  Dendrites receive information neuron integrates information, decides to fire neuron electrical impulse downwards neurotransmitters are released  Communication between neurons  Neurotransmitters are chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another Released into the synapse Bind with receptor sites like a lock and key Types of Neurotransmitters Serotonin: sleep, mood, hunger ­ Low: depressing  High:  ­ ocd Endorphins: pleasure, pain relief and response to stress ­ ‘morphine within’ resemble opiate drugs ­ Dopamine: voluntary movement,pleasurable emotions ­ Low: Parkinson ’s High: Schizophrenia ­ Acetylcholine: voluntary movement, attention, arousal, memory ­ Deterioration ofch­producing neurons marks alzheimer’s disease Norepinephrine: mood and arousal ­low: depression, adhd Oxytocin: the ‘love hormone’ that acts like a neurotransmitter in the brain Effect of drugs on neurotransmitters  Antagonist  ­Chemical that blocks the action of neurotransmitters   Agonists ­ Chemical that mimics neurotransmitters  Reuptake Inhibitors ­ Chemical that binds to the terminal repute, thereby causing an excess of that NT Neural communication big picture ­ neurons communic ate with other neurons via the neurotransmitters This communication operates within the nervous system, sending messages to the brain and to the nerves outside the brain. Parts of the brain Frontal Lobe: reasoning, thinking, planning, problem solving, parts of speech etc. Broca’s area: speech population ­ located in left frontal lobe Broca’s Aphasia ­ problems producing speech, attempts to speak, nothing comes out Temporal Lobe: processes auditory information, organises verbal material, important for the  processing of semantics in speech Wernicke’s Area­ comprehension of language, located in left temporal lobe Wernicke’s aphasia­ problems comprehending language, jumbled speech Occipital Lobe: Processes visual information  Damage to the primary visual cortex can cause blindness Parietal Lobe Processes somatosensory information Integrates sensory information from various parts of the body Chapter 4 Psychophysics­ Study of how physical stimuli are translated into psychological experience Sensation: The stimulation of sense organs ­ Physiological Perception: The selection, organisation and interpretation of sensory input ­ Psychological Experiment: The rubber hand describes the study of psychophysics The key point: Humans rely heavily on sight Much of our sensation and subsequent perception starts with visual cues.  Vision stimulus is light Wavelength and Amplitude ­ brightness for us  How the eye processes visual information ­ Cornea: where light first enters the eye pupil: permits light to pass into  ­ the rear chamber of the eye ­ Iriscoloured ring of muscle surrounding the pupil ­ Lens: transparent eye structure that focuses the light rays falling on the retina ­ Retina: neural tissue lining the inside back surface of the eye There have been cases where the brain does not organise inverted retinal images, causing a  person to experience the world upside down. George Stratton ­ wore reversing teescoping glasses for 8 days ­ day 4, his vision was upright ­ Brain was able to adapt to the change and perceive the w orld was normal. Optic Disk­ a hole in the retina where the optic nerve fibres exit the eye.  ­ Bling spot activity  Optic Chiasm: The point at which the optic nerve fibres from each eye cross over to opposite sides  of the brain.  In our retina, we have 2 specialised photo receptors: Rods: Play a key role in Night and peripheral vision, sensitive to dim light Cones: Play a key role in Daylight and colour vision, Visual activity Trichromatic Theory  Explanation for some types f colourblindness  Monochromats­ People who are totally colourblind Dichromats: People who are blind to either red green or yellow blue Opponent process theory Color perception depends on receptors that make antagonistic responses to three pairs of colours 1. Red vs green 2. Yellow vs blue 3. Black vs White After image: Visual image that persists after a stimulus is removed exg: Continual viewing of green weakens the ability to inhibit red.. remove green and you see red Synesthesia ­ An neurological condition which leads to usual sensory experiences ­ Tasting colours ­ Hearing sounds with visual images Perceptional processes  ­ We  havd seen how sensory receptors in the eye transform light into neural impulses that are  sent to the brain. Bottum­up processing ­ Part—Whole ­ A progression from  individual elements to a whole Ex: vision starts with a sense receptors and progresses to brains integration of sensory  ­ information.  Top­down processing  Whole ­ —Part ­ A progression from the whole to elements Perception and Attention ­ Perceptual set: readiness to percieve a stimulus in  particular way ­ Inattentiona blindness: failure to see objects or events because ones attention is focused  elsewhere ­ Change  blindness­Person Swap Experiment  Other senses Vision ­ A candle flame 30 miles away on a dark, clear night Hearing ­ The tick of a watch 20 ft away Taste ­ One ts of sugar in 2 gallons of water etc.


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