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Exam 1 study guide

by: Rebecca Bergmann

Exam 1 study guide Psychology 0010

Rebecca Bergmann

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About this Document

A comprehensive study guide from chapters 1-3. I have taken notes from the textbook and from lecture slides, and incorporated only what is necessary and what will be covered on the exam. Hope this ...
Intro to Psychology
Travis Alvarez
Study Guide
Psychology, Intro to Psychology, exam1, chapters1-3, chapter1, chapter2, Chapter3, scientific method, psychiatry, psychologist, Research Methodologies, correlation coefficients, research, research methods, nervous system, neurons, brain, neurotransmitters, neurotransmitter, neuroplasticity, lateralization
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebecca Bergmann on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psychology 0010 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Travis Alvarez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Pittsburgh.


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Date Created: 09/22/16
Exam date: Monday Sep 26th    Chapter 1     Psychology​: the scientific study of behavior and mental processes    Wundt  ● the founder of structuralism  ● structuralism​: breaking down experience into its elemental parts offers the best way to  understand thought and behavior  ○ incorporates introspection  William James  ● the founder of functionalism  ● functionalism​: better to look at why the mind works the way it does than to describe its parts  ○ influenced by Darwin’s theory of natural selection  ○ incorporates introspection  Sigmund Freud  ● the founder of psychodynamics  ● psychodynamics​: unconscious conflict between physiological oppose an societal demands  ○ memories, dreams, thoughts, feeling  Watson/Skinner  ● the founders of behaviorism  ● behaviorism​: psychology can be a true science only if it examines observable behavior, not  ideas, thoughts, or motives  ○ contrasts with psychodynamics    Q​: What’s the difference between structuralism and functionalism?  A​: Structuralism focuses on breaking down thoughts/behaviors to understand them (how), whereas  fun​ tionalism focuses on​ hy the brain works the way it does, ​and not just describ​ ow it works.    7 contemporary approaches to psychology  1) ​Biological​: brain is physical basis of all thoughts and emotions  2) ​Behavioral​: scientific study of observable behavioral responses            i.e. Pavlov’s Dogs  3) ​Humanistic​: focuses on positive human activities, free will  4) ​Cognitive​: information processing             contrasts with behavioral approach  5) ​Psychodynamic:​  psychoanalysis            Freud  6) ​Evolutionary​: explain behavior through adaptation, reproduction, natural selection  7) ​Sociocultural​: explores social and cultural environmental factors    Q​: What’s the difference between the behavioral and biological approaches?  A​: Behavioral focuses on actions that can be observed and studied, whereas the biological approach  is solely based on thought, which cannot be observed.     Psychologist vs Psychiatrist  Psychologist  Psychiatrist  PhD in psychology  MD physician  cannot prescribe medication  medical diagnoses and treatment  recommends patients to psychiatrists  prescribes medication    Chapter 2    Scientific Method  1) Observing some phenomenon  ● Variable:​  anything that an change  ● Theory​: a broad idea or set of closely related ideas that attempts to explain observations and  to make predictions about future observations  2) Formulating hypothesis and predictions  ● Hypothesis​: an educated guess that derives logically from a theory; a prediction that can be  tested  ● A theory may generate a hypothesis  ● When many hypothesis are true for a specific theory, the theory gains more credibility  3) Testing through empirical research  ● Empirical research​: collecting and analyzing data  ● Operational definition​: a definition that provides an objective description of how a variable is  going to be measured and observed in a particular study  ○  this operational definition will eliminate obscurities about the research and research  question  ○ effective opperational definitions = effective research  ● Example theory) self­determination theory  ○ Do people who value extrinsic rewards or intrinsic rewards feel more fulfilled in life?  ○ Extrinsic rewards​: examples include money, material possessions, prestige, physical  appearance  ○ Intrinsic rewards​: examples include relatedness, autonomy, competence  4) Drawing conclusions  ● Do the data support the predictions?  ● Do the findings support the theory behind the study?  5) Evaluating the theory  ● Evaluations happens after the publication of research  ● Replication​: repeating the study and getting the same results  ● Direct replication​: doing the study precisely as it was conducted in its original form  ● Conceptual replication​: doing the study with different methods or different types of samples  ● If the research findings are replicated many times with different researchers and different  specific methods, then the research is considered reliable  ● Meta­analysis​: a method that allows researchers to combine the results of several different  studies on a similar topic in order to establish the strength of an effect  ○  more powerful that the results from just one study    Correlational research​: research that examines the relations between variables with the purpose of  determining whether and how two variables change together  ● Correlational research/co­relations  ● How are variables related?  ● Correlational coefficient (r)​: a statistic that show the strength and the direction of the  relationship between two variables  ○ between ­1.00 and +1.00  ○ if the number is close to +/­ 1.00 then the relationship is strong  ○ if the number is negative (­) as one variable increases, the other decreases  ○ if the number is positive (+) as one variable increases, the other increase as well  ○ a zero (0) correlation means the two variables have no systematic relationship  ● Correlation =/= causation    Research samples and populations  ● population​: the entire group about which the investigator wants to draw conclusions  ● sample​: the subject of the population chosen by the investigator for study  ● random sample​: a sample that gives every member of the population an equal chance of  being selected  ○ in real life, the randomness is approximate  ● Experimental group​: consists of participants in an experiment who are exposed to the  change that the independent variable represents  ● Control group​: a group like the experimental group, but they are not exposed to the change  ● Quasi­experimental design​: do not randomly assign participants to conditions because  assignment is impossible or unethical  ● Random assignments​: researchers assign participants to groups by chance  ○ this works better with larger groups of people    Chapter 3    Nervous System  The Nervous System​: the body’s electrochemical communication circuitry  ● Central Nervous System (CNS)​: brain and spinal cord  ○ 99% of all nerve cells  ● Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)​: networks of nerves that connects the brain and spinal  cord to other parts of the body          Neurons  ● there are two types of cells in the nervous system: neurons and glial cells  ○ neurons handle information­processing function  ■ mirror neurons​: activated when we perform activity, watch others do the  same thing  ■ respond to both doing and seeing, this is different from regular neurons  ○ glial cells (glia)​: provides support, nutritional benefits and other functions to keep  neurons healthy  ● specialized cell structure ­ most neurons are created early in life, but shape, size, and  connections can change  ○ cell body​: part of the neuron that contains the nucleus, which directs the manufacture  of substances that the neuron needs for growth and maintenance  ○ dendrites​: branching fibers that project from a neuron ­ receives info and orients it  towards the cell body  ○ axon​: the part of the neuron that carries information away from the cell body towards  other cells  ○ myelin sheath​: a layer of fat cells that encases and insulates most axons  ■ without this, neurons are not good electrical conductors  ■ MS is a disease that results from problems with myelin  ○ synapses​: tiny spaces between the neurons  ■ the synaptic gap between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another  neuron  ■ before an impulse can cross the gap, it must be converted to a chemical  signal    Neural Impulse/Neurons and Neurotransmitters  ● synapses​: tiny spaces between the neurons  ○ the synaptic gap between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another neuron  ○ before an impulse can cross the gap, it must be converted to a chemical signal  ● axons branch out into fibers, and at the end of the fibers there are tiny synaptic vesicles  (sacs)  ○ within these sacs, there are chemicals called neurotransmitters  ● neurotransmitters​: chemical substances that are stored in very tiny sacs and are involved in  transmitting information across a synaptic gap to the next neuron  ● Neurochemical Messengers  ○ many types of neurotransmitters ­ inhibitory, excitatory, or both  ● action potential​: the brief wave of positive electrical charge that sweeps down the axon  ○ this lasts for 1/1000 of a second  ● all­or­nothing principle​: the principle that once the electrical impulse receives a certain level  of intensity (the threshold) it fires and moves all the way down the axon without losing any  intensity  ○ analogy: a lit fuse        Q:​ What is the difference between an agonist and an antagonist?  A:​ ​Agonists​ mimic neurotransmitters, while​ antagonists​ block receptors on dendrites, which inhibits  neurotransmitters from binding       agonists act as neurotransmitters ­ they will provide the same function as a regular  neurotransmitter       antagonists will inhibit neurotransmitters by binding to to their receptors ­ effectively blocking  them from crossing the synaptic gap    The brain can be divided into 3 main parts: the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain  ● Forebrain​: located at the front of the skull, it contains the “limbic system”, which contains the  thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, cerebrum cortex  ○ occipital:​  vision  ○ f​rontal​: intelligence, voluntary muscles, personality  ○ temporal:​  hearing, language processing, memory  ○ parietal​: spatial location, motor control, attention  ● Hindbrain​: located at the skulls rear. the lowest portion of the brain, consists of medulla,  cerebellum, and pons  ● Midbrain​: located between the hindbrain and forebrain, an area in which many nerves, fiber  systems ascend and descend to connect the higher and lower portions of the brain; in  particular the midbrain relays info between the brain and the eyes and ears     Hemispheric specialization  ● Left hemisphere​: verbal processing, speech, grammar   ● Right hemisphere​: spatial perception, visual recognition, emotion  ● Lateralization of the brain hemispheres  ○ contralateral vs ipsilateral  ○ contra​: left side brain=right side body movement (and vice versa)  ○ ipsi​: left side body ­ left side brain (and vice versa)    Neuroplasticity​: experience­based change   ● adapt new functions  ● recognize existing functions  ● the brain can change the neuro­pathways based on experience  ● neurogenesis:​  new cells  ● aborization​: new dendrites  ● synaptogenesis:​  new synapses         


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