Exam 1 Study Guide
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abbey Schroeder on Thursday September 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 101 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Richard Fey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views.
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Date Created: 09/22/16
Abbey Schroeder Exam 1 Sociology 101 Chapter 1 – The Sociological Perspective and Research ● The difference between Psychology and Sociology is that ○ Psychology is based on studying individuals and how their brains function ○ Sociology is studying culture and society as a whole ● Why Study Sociology? ○ the study of the development, structure, and functioning of human society. ● Macro vs. Micro Analysis ○ Micro small interpersonal dynamics ■ Symbolic interactionism (paradigm) ○ Macro looking at the institution of something ■ 2 big Macro Theory paradigms: ● structural functionalism how all institutions function with each other ● conflict perspective Looks at everything that the haves and haves not do for power ● The Sociological Perspective – Peter Berger ○ General social patterns in the behavior of particular individuals ○ Seeing the strange in the familiar ■ The example of who goes to college and why ● The Sociological Imagination ○ C. Wright Mills wrote: Sociological imagination ■ Society is often responsible for many of our problems ■ To understand ourselves, we must understand society ■ Book talked about how everyone’s individual opinions are shaped by society ■ Social control is beneficial in the larger sense (social structure) ■ Distinction between our personal problems, and public issues ■ We need to learn to separate things that have to do with: ● Personal troubles, or biography ● Social issues, or history ● Basic, Applied and Public Sociology ○ Basic Sociology analyzing some aspect of society with no goal other than gaining knowledge ○ Applied Sociology the use of sociology to solve problems from the micro level to the macro level ○ Public Sociology applying sociology for the public good; especially the use of the sociological perspective to guide politicians and policy makers ■ Sociological perspective how things are related to one another ● What is Theory? ○ Theory: a statement of how and why facts are related ■ Looking at the world through different perspectives ■ Guide us in our research ■ Tries to disprove it before believe it ■ Statement explaining a phenomenon ○ Paradigm: a set of fundamental assumptions that guides thinking ■ Set of theories Abbey Schroeder Exam 1 Sociology 101 ■ Umbrella theory, that has a bunch of other theories associated with it ● Conflict theory Karl Marx ○ Class struggle ■ In each society, a small group controls the means of production and exploits those who aren’t in control ● Ex: in industrialized societies is btwn bourgeoisie (people in power) and proletariat (workers) ● Theoretical Perspectives ○ Symbolic interactionism a theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another ○ Functional analysis a theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of various parts, each with a function that, when fulfilled, contributes to society’s equilibrium (also known as functionalism and structural functionalism) ● Ethics in Sociological Research ○ Can’t falsify the results ○ People should be informed that there is research being done ○ People should never be harmed by the research ○ Much protect the anonymity of people who give information ○ Researchers cannot misrepresent themselves Chapter 2 – Culture ● What culture is and is not ○ IS symbols, languages, values, all material and nonmaterial artifacts of people ○ IS NOT to be confused with Society; Society refers to a group of people, interacting within a given territory, who are guided in their daily lives by their CULTURE ● Material vs. Nonmaterial ○ Material: a table ○ Nonmaterial: a craft table, dining table, kitchen table ● The roles of symbols, language and values in a culture ○ Symbols ■ Anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share culture ■ Basis of culture; Ex: the American culture ■ Reality for humans is found in the meaning things carry with them ○ Language ■ A system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another ○ 35% the literal meaning, English context ○ 65% Paralanguage/ nonverbal implications of how words are said ■ Norms ● Expectations of “right” behavior ■ Sanctions Abbey Schroeder Exam 1 Sociology 101 ● Either expressions of approval given to people for upholding norms (rewards or positive reaction) or expressions of disapproval for violating them (a frown or a fine) ■ CULTURAL TRANSMISSION ● Passing on culture ■ SAPIRWHORF HYPOTHESIS ● We know the world only in terms of our language ● We teach kids to value language ■ NONVERBAL LANGUAGE ● Beware of using gestures ● Middle finger interpreted in different cultures ○ Values ■ Values Culturally defined standards of desirability, goodness, and beauty, which serve as broad guidelines for social living ● MANY inconsistencies ■ Value clusters values that together form a larger whole ■ Value Contradictions values that contradict one another; to follow the one means to come into conflict with another ● Cultural Diversity Around the World ○ High culture ■ Cultural patterns found within a society’s elite groups; how we are supposed to live ○ Popular culture ■ Patterns that are widespread; things that are seen across the board ○ Subcultures ■ Groups whose cultural patterns set them apart from a wider society ■ Not AGAINST the society, just seeking to be recognized ● Ex: religious cults, innercity teens, cowboys, amish, farmers ○ Countercultures ■ Groups whose cultural patterns are the at great odds with wider society ■ Not always bad; just trying to change the larger society ● Ex: KKK, feminist movement, homeschooling, militia groups ● Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism ○ Ethnocentrism the use of one’s own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies, generally leading to a negative evaluation of their values, norms, and behaviors ■ Positives: ingroup loyalties ■ Negatives: discrimination ○ Cultural Relativism Not judging a culture, just trying to understand it on its own terms ■ Ex: Arizonans embracing Day of the Dead celebration in Phoenix, AZ ● Culture Shock ○ The disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their takenforgranted assumptions about life ■ Ex a foreigner throwing away a peach because it has mold Abbey Schroeder Exam 1 Sociology 101 ● Ideal vs. Real Culture ○ Ideal Culture ■ The way things should be ■ Social patterns mandated by values and norms ● If you go to college, then you will get a good paying job ○ Real Culture ■ The way things ACTUALLY are ■ Social patterns that only approximate cultural expectations ● If you go to college, there is a better chance that you could get a good paying job, but even yet maybe not ● Cultural Lag vs. Cultural “Leveling” ○ Cultural lag William Ogburn’s term for human behavior lagging behind technological innovations ○ Cultural “leveling” the process by which cultures become similar to one another; refers especially to the process by which Western culture is being exported and diffused into other nations ● AAA of Culture ○ Acculturation – when there is a lot of contact and one culture becomes “used to” the other ○ Accommodation – when the larger culture allows the smaller culture to retain its own identity ○ Assimilation – when the smaller culture is absorbed into the larger culture losing its own identity ● Pluralistic Society ○ A society made up of many different group Chapter 3 – Socialization ● Functions of Socialization ○ Self one’s sense of identity and awareness of self, awareness of being human ■ a social product ■ We get a ‘bird’s eye view’ of how things really are, and then we don’t just react we think about what’s happening ○ Selfconcept how you view yourself ■ If we act differently or experience different things, this is going to change ● Ex: Girls walking alone at night knows what it means to be a woman in society ■ Gives us a value structure leading to self esteem ○ Charles Horton Cooley: lookingglass self ● Socialization the process of becoming human ○ Nature (hereditary biological) Ex: M vs. F ○ Nurture (environmental sociological) Ex: Masculinity vs. Femininity ○ Sociobiology (both biological and sociological) Ex: Girl who is a tomboy ○ 3 agents of socialization: parents, peers, school ● Feral, Isolated and Institutionalized Children Abbey Schroeder Exam 1 Sociology 101 ○ Feral children children assumed to have been raised by animals, in the wilderness, isolated from humans (OG wild child) ○ Isolated children have no natural language, can learn if showed to other culture ○ Institutionalized children high intelligence depends on early, close relations with other humans ● Freud’ Psychoanalytic Perspective ○ ID, Ego, & Superego ○ ID selfish, Ego and Superego keep ID in check ● The differences between the “I” and “me” ○ “I” (viewer) ■ Unpredictable, spontaneous, selfcentered, selfawareness, responsive to the “Me” ■ “I” am the one doing the viewing of “me” as a social creature. ○ “me” (object) ■ Socially derived representation of society, predictability, conformity ■ Past “I’s” ● Moving beyond the selfcentered needs of “I” ■ “Me” is the social creature that “I” am viewing ○ EXAMPLE ■ The ME knows the desired path is to go to college. Looks at the status that comes with being a graduate ■ The I is thinking about other options, is college the best decision for me? Is there better options? ○ Language allows an internal conversation between the “I” and the “me” ■ Stimulus + Response = process of self ● Cognitive development in social learning as outlined by Piaget ○ Sensory Motor Period (02) – reflex activity leading to understanding of intentional responses, object permanence. ■ Object permanence reason why playing peekaboo is so funny ○ Preoperational Period (27) – verbalization representation moves from egoistic to social, language, symbols, imagination. ○ Period of Concrete Operations (711) – evidence for organized, logical thought, understand time, space. ○ Period of Formal Operations (11+) – concrete logical thought moves into the ability for abstract, formal logic (asif / ifthen) ● Gender and Emotional Socialization ○ Gender socialization learning society’s “gender map,” the paths in life set out for us because we are male or female ○ Emotional socialization the cultural norms that are associated with the how to react to the basic emotions (facial expressions, gestures, body language) ■ 6 basic emotions: Anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise ● Mead’s theory on “language” and “role taking” ○ We engage in Role Taking Abbey Schroeder Exam 1 Sociology 101 ■ Because we have language and can think, we carry on silent conversations ● We think something to ourselves and respond internally to it ○ We talk to ourselves and answer ourselves ○ Preplay Stage ■ Child learns to associate certain meanings to certain types of cries ■ Then begin to understand that we are social creatures through interaction ○ Play Stage ■ Increase in mental capacity that facilities learning of language ■ Play one role at time, reflecting that role back on themselves ● Cop OR robber, teacher OR student, mom OR dad ○ Game Stage ■ Good mastery of language with increased thinking ability so multiple roles can be played simultaneously ● Each role has multiple parts ○ Dad is ‘Dad’ but is also a firefighter ○ Generalized Other Stage ■ “an integrated conception of the norms, values, and beliefs of one’s community or society” (Shepard 2002:97). ● understanding multiple roles in multiple structures of society and the world ● We finally understand that other people have their views, social roles, we can see through “their eyes” ● Kohlberg and the Stages of Moral Development ○ Amoral stage where there is no right or wrong, just personal needs to satisfy (birth6) ○ Preconventional stage follow rules to stay out of trouble; viewing right and wrong through what is expected from teachers, parents, friends (710) ○ Conventional stage following norms and values (10+) ○ Postconventional stage individuals reflect on abstract principles of right and wrong and judge people’s behavior according to these principles ● Socialization through the Life Course ○ Life course the stages of our life as we go from birth to death ○ Passing through stages affects behavior and orientations (logic of 7 years old vs. 47) ○ Differs by social location, each location has different norms (class, race/ethnicity, gender) ● Resocialization ○ The process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors ● Total Institutions ○ A place that is almost totally controlled by those who run it ○ in which people are cut off from the rest of society and the society is mostly cut off from them Chapters 4 & 5 – Social Structure, Interaction & Groups ● Components of Social Structure Abbey Schroeder Exam 1 Sociology 101 ○ Social structure takes into account elements of society and culture, including social institutions, formal organizations, and all types of groups in which are found ○ Status, role, group, institution ■ A recognized social position that an individual occupies ■ Status any position in a social structure that determines where a person fits in society and how he or she is expected to act and relate to others ■ Titles and placeholders in society ○ STATUS SET ■ All the statuses held at one time ● Dance partner, Boss, Friend, Harley club member ○ Types of Statuses ■ Ascribed status a social position assigned to a person at birth or at a later stage in life ● Usually occupy since birth ● Ex Gender, disability, nationality, an accident that happens to you through no effort of your own ■ Achieved status a social position that a person attains through personal effort ● Something you have achieved or was through your own means ● Ex parent, employee, student, citizen of a new country ○ Master Status ■ The status that seems to define a person ■ Is usually assumed by others, BUT it is how you define yourself at a given time ■ Master status is your top priority in life and how you view yourself ■ Also, a person’s “MASTER STATUS” can either work in favor, or against a person ● Ex persons who are intellectually challenged, biker persona vs. PhD teacher vs. father ○ ROLES ■ Roles the behavioral expectations attached to statuses occupied by individuals in a given society ■ Everything typically thought of with the status ■ Expectations of how people are “supposed” to behave ● Ex Status of student = roles are study, take exams, party, write papers, trash apartments ○ Roles demand a person’s time and energy ■ ROLE CONFLICT ● Involves TWO OR MORE STATUSES ○ Ex Conflict between role expectations of a police officer who catches her son using drugs at home mother and police officer ○ Ex A single mother trying to balance being an employee and a mother ■ ROLE STRAIN ● Involves a SINGLE STATUS ○ Ex Manager who tries to balance concern for workers with task requirements office manager ○ Ex Being a single mom trying to balance 2 kids and getting to their different activities ● Ethnomethodology ○ A process through which we “break the rules” in order to see how persons build their realities Abbey Schroeder Exam 1 Sociology 101 ○ Looking around to see where to line up in a new place ○ Harold Garfinkel ■ By observing reactions to situations in which people “Break with expected norms,” one can begin understanding the underlying assumptions and then how “reality is socially constructed” ● Dramaturgical Analysis ○ Examining social interactions in terms of theatrical performances ■ PRESENTATION OF SELF ● Key is impression management or making oneself appear in the best light possible ■ ROLE PERFORMANCE ● State “Regions” ● Use of props ● Scripts ■ EXAMPLE: ● Going to the doctor and playing the sick role as expected ● Groups ○ Primary Groups ■ Charles Horton Cooley introduced the concept of Primary Groups ● Group that consists of intimate, facetoface interaction and long lasting relationships (family and childhood relationships) ● Other ex: inmates, military soliders, street gangs ● Expressive needs ○ Intimacy with others ○ Companionship ○ Emotional support ○ Secondary Group ■ Larger in membership ■ Less intimate ■ Less long lasting ■ Less significant in your emotional lives ● School friends, company workers, people who live in your town ■ Provide instrumental needs (taskoriented) ● Athletic team = fun and entertainment ● Political groups = beliefs and how to influence country ● Corporations = income and status ○ Reference Groups ■ Primary and secondary groups require ‘membership,’ ■ Groups that you may/ not belong to but use standards for values, attitudes, behaviors ■ Essentially groups that are role models ● Sports stars, actors, singers ○ Groupthink ■ Tendency for group members to reach a consensus opinion, even if that decision is stupid ■ I.L. Janis looked at gov policies and decisions ● 2003 and Iraq Abbey Schroeder Exam 1 Sociology 101 ○ In groups vs out groups ■ In group social group which a person psychologically identifies as a member ■ Out group social groups to which individual doesn’t identity ● The Social Construction of Reality ○ The use of background assumptions and life experiences to define what is real ● Social Interaction the degree to which people are tied to their social groups ● Attribution Theory ○ How we make conclusion about others personalities ■ Person’s perceptions are distorted when based on whether that person is an ingroup member or outgroup member ■ We assess a person’s behavior, we have to determine if it is what we observe or what we perceive based on our own biases ○ Attitudes about behavior can be impacted by the in group and out group ■ Business setting: ● Men aggressive is good ● Women aggressive is frowned upon ○ Attribution errors ■ Errors made in attributing causes for people’s behaviors based on membership in a particular group ■ Tend to see people in our ingroup positively and people in our outgroup negatively ● Men saying all women are bad drivers ● Hispanic person assuming all white people are prejudiced ● Mechanical and Organic Solidarity ○ Mechanical solidarity Durkheim’s term for the unity (a shared consciousness) that people feel as a result of performing the same or similar tasks ○ Organic solidarity Durkheim’s term for the interdependence that results from the division of labor; as part of the same unit, we all depend on others to fulfill their jobs ● Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft ○ Ferdinand Tonnies analyzing the fundamental shift in relationships ■ Gemeinschaft intimate community (village life/ small town) ■ Gesellschaft impersonal association (big city/ selfinterest) ● Social network a set of links between individuals, between groups, or between social units ● SelfFulfilling Stereotypes and the “Hidden” Corporate Culture ○ Selffulfilling stereotypes preconceived ideas of what someone is like that lead to the person’s behaving in ways that match the stereotype ○ Hidden corporate culture stereotypes of the traits that make for highperforming and underperforming workers ● Organizations ○ A large secondary group, highly organized to accomplish a complex task or achieve goals efficiently ■ Corporations, the government Abbey Schroeder Exam 1 Sociology 101 ○ Organizational culture are the norms and values that shape the behavior of people in the organization ■ Dress code ■ Sandusky, football player raping children, “can’t talk about it at Penn State” ○ Types: ■ normative service, voluntary; people join these to pursue goals that they consider worthwhile ● No money, but feel personal satisfaction or status ● Achiever a certain purpose or meet a need ○ Ex Rotary club, NAACP ■ Coercive organizations are characterized by membership that is largely involuntary ● Prison, mental hospitals ● Erving Goffman = total institution ○ Individuals are cut off from rest of society ■ Utilitarian organizations companies ● What is a Bureaucracy? ○ As organizations grow, develop a bureaucracy (Max Webber) ■ Higher degree of division of labor and specialization ■ Hierarchy of authority ■ Rules and regulations ■ Impersonal relationships ■ Career ladders ■ Efficiency ○ Problems? ■ Ritualism rigid adherence to the rules, even if following the rules can cause danger to employees or others ■ Alienation when employees have little control over what they do or if they are treated like machines ● Employees are isolated from one another, eliminating any chance of developing group cohesion Chapter 6 – Deviance, Crime & Social Control ● Social control, including; Informal social control (Informal sanctions) & Formal ○ Social control a group’s formal and informal means of enforcing its norms ○ Informal social control/sanctions ○ Control theory the idea that 2 control systemsinner controls and outer controls work against our tendencies to deviate ● What are norms? Folkways, mores and taboos? ○ William Summers ■ Folkways ● Refers to simple everyday norms based on customs, traditions, or etiquette Abbey Schroeder Exam 1 Sociology 101 ○ Please, thank you, standing in line and not cutting ■ Mores ● Norms based on broad social morals whose infraction would generate more serious social condemnation ○ Just adding in mortality, with only social implications ■ Laws ● The strongest social norms supported by codified social sanctions ○ Punishable acts: prison, house arres ● Deviance is Functional for Society? ○ Deviance Contributes to social order by: ■ Deviance clarifies moral boundaries and affirms norms ■ Deviance encourages social unity ■ Deviance promotes social change ● Conformity and Obedience ○ Conformity going along with peers who have no special right to direct our behavior ■ Going along with others, who have no special rights to control our behavior ■ Going along with the status quo ■ Informal sanctions teaches us what to do in a social environment to avoid adversity, but there is no real punishments ○ Obedience compliance with higher authorities in an hierarchical structure ■ Interactions with cops, even when they are just following us for no reason ■ Formal sanctions real implications by others (tickets, fines) ● Deviance violation of widely accepted social norms ○ EXISTS IN EVERY SOCIETY, BUT WHAT IS DEVIANT IS DIFFERENT ● Robert Merton ’s Strain theory ○ When a society socializes large numbers of people to desire a cultural goal, (success) BUT withholds from some the approved means of getting the goal ○ One adaptation is crime, the choice of an innovative means to attain the cultural goal ■ Kinds of deviant paths: ● Innovators people who accept the goals of society but use illegitimate means to reach them ● Ritualism rigorously following rules and eventually becoming discouraged ● Retreatism rejecting both the cultural goals and the institutionalized means of achieving them ● Rebellion convinced society is corrupt, reject society’s goals, but instead seek to give society new goals ● The Medicalization of Deviance ○ To make deviance a medical matter, a symptom of some underlying illness that needs to be treated by physicians ○ Medicalization the transformation of a human condition into a matter to be treated by physicians ● Sutherland’s differential association theory Abbey Schroeder Exam 1 Sociology 101 ○ Edwin Sutherland’s term to indicate that people who associate with some groups learn an “excess of definitions” of deviance, increasing the likelihood that they will become deviant ● Labeling theory the view that the labels people are given affect their own and others’ perceptions of them, thus channeling their behavior into either deviance or conformity ● Families of Criminal Law ○ Common law law develop gradually over time through the accumulation of many cases ○ Civil law is written by a ruling body and imposed upon society ○ Religious law source of law is believed to be divine rather than custom or human ● Crime Index ○ Professional crimes hit man “hollywood” murder ○ Personal crimes homicide, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault ○ Property crimes burglary, larcenytheft, auto theft, arson (89% of crimes) ○ Organized crime (mafia) largescale, highly structured associations or syndicates that use corruption and violence in order to maximize profits ● The overview of the Criminal Justice System The system of police, courts, and prisons set up to deal with people who are accused of having committed a crime
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