GEO 322 Test 3 Study Guide
GEO 322 Test 3 Study Guide GEOG 322
Popular in Louisiana Geography
Popular in Geography
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by meatwad718 on Friday September 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 322 at Southeastern Louisiana University taught by Molly McGraw in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Louisiana Geography in Geography at Southeastern Louisiana University.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
1. Native Americans-- - crossed Alaskan-Siberian land bridge - South American Natives: human remains date back 10,500 years ago - Carbon-14 - stone implements - pottery shards - ornamental objects - Paleo-Native Americans (ancient): consisted of hunters and gatherers - nomadic, Ice Age hunters - did not raise animals or crops - no metal or pottery - John Pierce site in Caddo Parish - hunted using spears tipped with stone points - 2-6” long - came from Arkansas, Texas - gradual shift from hunter-gatherers to more permanent villages - climate change: Ice Age cause grasslands to be replaced by forests - Meso-Native Americans (middle): consisted of villagers and farmers - still hunted but began to settle - domestication of plants and dogs - “slash and burn” agriculture - complex social structures - pottery, jewelry, religious ceremonies - varied diet: seeds, nuts, roots, fruits, fish, reptiles - use of fishhooks, traps, nets for catching fish and other small animals - spears: shorter with larger stone tips - atlatl: spearthrower - bone needles, awls, fishhooks, beads, hairpins - baskets, stone axes - very complex social structure - first builder of mounds - earliest known in North America -Watson Brake (in Monroe, LA): acted as summer gathering place - Poverty Point (in Bayou Macon, West Carroll Parish) - 1350-1730 - UNESCO World Heritage Site - largest structure in United States before the 20 century - series of semi-circle mounds - indicator of trade between other tribes - 400 acres, 25 ft. high - pole in center represented calendar - Bird Effigy Mound: 70 ft. high, 640 ft. wide - manufacturing site - stone plummets used as weights on bolas or nets - bola: net used to catch game - used clay cooking balls - dried and heated in a fire until hot then placed in roasting pit - different shapes - ornamental objects of stone and clay - figurines, beads, pendants - Neo-Native Americans (new): linguistics developed - introduced agriculture - major developments in pottery - pre-1700s tribes: - Tchefuncte: lived around Lake Pontchartrain in coastal marsh - palmetto, thatch, or grass mixed with mud - middens: mounds of discarded rangia - Marksville: highly ritualized burials (tools, jewelry, pets) - conical mounds - distinctive pottery - Troyville-Cole Creek: developed bow-and-arrow - mound complexes - Caddo: settled in northwestern Louisiana - grew corn, beans, squash - distinctive pottery (delicate and highly ornate) - European contact - post-1700 tribes: Caddo, Tunica (NE LA), Natchez (E LA), Muskhogen (Florida Parishes), Chitimachan (Lafourche Parish), Atakapa (SW LA) - immigrant Indians: migrated to Louisiana after European settlement - loyalty to European nation over another - escaped neighboring tribes - displaced by European and Americans - 1763: Major Migration after Treaty of Paris - France lost most of American land - pre-Treaty of Paris: France transplanted many tribes to Mobile Bay - post-Treaty of Paris: tribes did not want to be English and moved westward to Louisiana - Apalachee, Pascagoula - Lipen Apache: enslaved and forced to move east from Texas - federally recognized tribes: eligible for funding and services from the US Bureau of Indian Affairs - Chitimacha - Coushatta - United Houma Nation (not federally recognized) 2. Age of Exploration— Spain and France were the dominant nations - Spain: th - 15 century: fought Portugal over New World land - Treaty of Torsedillas split land (47° W) - 16 century: Spanish conquistadors explore New World - Ponce de Leon: “Fountain of Youth” - Coronado: “City of Gold” - 1519: Piñeda sailed the Gulf of Coast and noticed Mississippi River - 1528: Navaez located mouth of the Mississippi River - 1541: de Soto crosses through region - looking for gold, found Mississippi River - landed in Florida and travels throughout the southeastern Louisiana - crossed Mississippi River and died of fever (1542) - 1543: remaing crew sailed down Mississippi River in 7 boats and reached Gulf of Mexico 6 weeks later - 1716: Los Adaes - first city around Natchitoches, LA - 1729: capital of province of Texas (New Spain) - no longer occupied - France: - 1682: La Salle names Louisiana in honor of King Louis XIV - d’Iberville sent to colonize Louisiana - 1699: landed in Biloxi and explored “Isle of Orleans” - 1705: ordered a fort to be built 54 miles from mouth of Mississippi River - boundaries: Mississippi River, Amite River, Lake Maurepas. Bayou Manchac, Pass Manchac, Lake Pontchartrain, the Rigolets, Lake Borne, Gulf of Mexico - 1714: earliest city still occupied - discovered by St. Denis - originally Fort St. John Baptiste - oldest permanent settlement - 1718: New Orleans found by Bienville - Pauger: designed French Quarter streetplan - 1722: New Orleans becomes capital 3. Colonial Settlement— - France: - Louisiana was French colony up until 1760s - barely agriculturally sufficient - cane, indigo, rice, cotton, tobacco - some trade with English and Indians - poor leadership - generally financial disaster - New Orleans, Baton Rouge, Rapides, Natchitoches, Natchez, Pointe Coupee, Les Allemandes - little labor and shortage of work animals - 1708: arrival of Africans - 1716: arrival of 500 slaves - needed to offset labor shortage - 1720: arrival of Germans - recruited by French entrepreneurs - German Coast: St. Charles and St. John Parishes - small numbers - Louisiana becomes economic burden - Seven Years War between France and England - 1763: Treaty of Paris signed - England: received land east of Mississippi River and Canada - Spain: received land west of Mississippi River and Isle of Orleans - Treaty of Fontainebleau - Spain: - 1762: traded Florida to England in exchange of Cuba - settled in Terre Aux Boefs, New Iberia, and Bayou Lafourche - 1791: Hispaniola immigrants bring cane expertise - Islenos of Delacroix Island (St. Bernard) still speak Spanish - about 10,000 people - Acadians drove by English out of Canada to France, England, colonies - Treaty of Paris: granted 18-month grace period to return to France - 1764-1788: 2,500-3,000 Acadians arrived in Louisiana - Bayou Teche, Bayou Lafourche, along Mississippi River between New Orleans and Baton Rouge - France: - Napoleon secretly acquires Louisiana from Spain - 1800: Treaty of San Ildefonso - United States territory: - 1803: Louisiana Purchase - doubled the United States (13 states) - made United States world power - Republic of West Florida - Spain had control of Florida Parishes -1810: revolt against Spain rule from Republic of West Florida - 74 days before forced annexed by United States - Free State of Sabine: claimed by Spain and United States - considered neutral territory - 1818: Adam-Onis Treaty established border at Sabine River - 1812: Louisiana becomes 18 state 4. Recent Immigrants— 1880s-early 1900s - Italians: settled in French Quarter, Independence - agricultural - Irish: settled in New Orleans - fleeing from famines - Croatian: settled in Plaquemines, St. Bernard - sailors, oyster men - Vietnamese: settled in New Orleans; Jefferson, St. Bernard, Terrebone, St. Mary Parishes - chose Louisiana due to similar climate - post-Vietnam War - Caribbean: came during colonial period - Hispaniola: one-third White, one-third Slaves, one-third Free People of Color 5. Survey Systems— - French Arpent (Long Lot): colonial French - land granted along rivers and bayous - parallel lines from rivers - 1 arp = 192 ft. - 8 arp wide, 40 arp deep - allowed farmers river frontage, high ground, timberland - caused rivers to change - Spanish Sitio: - developed as the Spanish stockman’s frontier moved eastward into Louisiana’s western fringe - land grant system developed for ranching in Louisiana especially southwestern Louisiana - sitio: land grant - square with either 1.5 or 3 leagues on each side (Spanish law) - 1 league = ~3 miles - English Metes and Bounds: - brought to Florida Parishes by Anglo-Americans - unsurveyed ground: used landmarks to mark boundaries - irregularly shaped land holdings - boundaries tied to ephemeral objects - American Townships and Ranges: - mainly found in northern and western Louisiana - grid-pattern - townships = 36 sq. miles - ranges = 1 sq. mile 6. Housing— - people build type of house they are used to with local material - modules (or units) - French: - contained 2 rooms (sale = living room; chamber = bedroom) - no halls; doors open to outside - central fireplace - steep Norman roof - inspired by Caribbean-French - raised, galleries; centrall hall for ventilation - half-timber (carre) with space between filled with: - bousillage: mud and moss - briquette: brick - Creole Cottage, Acadian Cottage - Backwoods-Upland: early 1800s - Anglo-settlers - pen cabin made of logs - double pen - dog trot: 2 pens separated by open hall - I-house: similar to dog trot but 2-stories - may have galleries - end profile of house resembles “I” - Lowland: shotgun style - Caribbean and African influence - 1 room wide, 3 rooms deep - very common in New Orleans, specifically African-American neighborhoods - double shotguns - camelback: 2-story added to back - National: - wealthy— - Greek Revival: - pedimented gable - symmetrical; wide, plan frieze - heavy cornice - Italianate (1850-1880): - symmetrical layouts - columns; heavy detailing around windows - Queen Anne (1880s-1890s): - turrets, galleries, bay windows - asymmetrical layout - Colonial Revival: (early 1900s) - large and imposing - Greek columns - middle-class— - Arts and Craft Bungalow: (1910-1920s) - gentle roof pitch with overhang - gallery; squats - Ranch: (post-World War II) - Mobile Homes: (1950s)
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